कथक नृत्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(कथक se punarnirdeshit)

kathak (angrezi: Kathak) bharatiy shastriy nrityon ki prasiddh shailiyon men se ek hai. shastriy nrity men kathak ka nrith‍y roop 100 se adhik ghungharu‍on ko pairon men bandh kar talabaddh padachap, vihngam chakh‍kar dvara pahachana jata hai aur hindoo dharmik kathaon ke alava parshiyan aur urdoo kavita se li gee vishay vash‍tuon ka natakiy prash‍tutikaran kiya jata hai. kathak ka janh‍m uttar men hua, kinh‍tu parshiyan aur muslim prabhav se yah mndir ki riti se darabari manornjan tak pahunch gaya.

pradurbhav

kathak ka pradurbhav kab aur kahan hua? yah ek aisa prashn hai jisaka thik-thik uttar n to aj ke kathak kalakaron ke pas hai n hi kathak guruon ke pas. prachin grnthon men nrity ko eeshvar pradatt prakriya mana gaya hai. devataon ko manornjan pradan karane ke sath-sath samany manushy ko vedon ka gyan dene ke uddeshy se bhagavan brahma ne natyakala ki rachana ki, jise panchava ved kaha gaya. is natyashastr men rigved se kavy, yajurved se bhav bhngimaon, samaved se sngit aur atharvaved se saundary tatvon ka samavesh kiya gaya. is natyashastr ke pratham adhyay men hi nrityakala ka varnan hai. kathak ke bare men bharatamuni dvara rachit natyashastr ke alava praman nahin milane ki sthiti men kathak kalakaron v gurujanon ka manana hai ki kathak nrity men pratham sthan radha-krishn par adharit rachanaon ka hota hai, isalie snbhavat: nrityashaili ka pradurbhav radha-krishn ke yug men hua hoga. is sambandh men unaki dalil yah hai ki jis samay krishn braj chhodakar dvaraka ge to braj ke nivasiyon ne radha-krishn par rachanaen rachin, unhen katha ka roop de prachalit kiya gaya.[1]

prachin samay men charan aur bhat dharmik prasngon ko sngit aur nrity ke madhyam se prastut karate the, age chalakar isi sngit nrity ne kathak nrity ki parampara prarnbh ki. prarnbh men kathak men takaniki aur shastriy paksh ka abhav tha lekin vaishnav adhyatm se punarjagaran ke pashchath kathak ko natyashastr par adharit kramabaddh svaroop pradan kiya gaya. prarnbh men katha sirph padhakar sunaee jati thi, kalantar men ise prabhavi banane ke lie isamen gayan shaili ka samavesh kiya gaya aur phir ise parishkrit karate hue isamen ang snchalan ki abhivyakti ko mahatv diya jane laga.

itihas

kathak nrity

kathak ki shaili ka janh‍m brahman pujariyon dvara hinh‍duon ki paramh‍parik pun: ganana men nihit hai, jinh‍hen k‍thik kahate the, jo natakiy andaj men hav bhavon ka upayog karate the. kramash: isamen katha kahane ki shaili aur adhik vikasit huee tatha ek nrith‍y roop ban gaya. is nrity ko 'natavari nrity' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. uttar bharat men mugalon ke ane par is nrith‍y ko shahi darabar men le jaya gaya aur isaka vikas ek parishkrit kalaroop men hua, jise mugal shasakon ka snrakshan praph‍t tha aur kathak ne vartaman sh‍varoop liya. is nrith‍y men ab dharm ki apeksha saundary bodh par adhik bal diya gaya.

'kathak' shabh‍d ka udbhav 'katha' se hua hai, jisaka shabdik arth hai- 'kahani kahana'. purane samay men katha vachak ganon ke roop men ise bolate aur apani katha ko ek naya roop dene ke lie nrith‍y karate. isase katha kalakshepam aur dakshin bharat men hari katha ka roop bana aur yahi uttar bharat men kathak ke roop men jana jata hai. lagabhag 15vin shatabdi men is nrith‍y paramh‍para men mugal nrith‍y aur sngit ke karan bada parivartan aya. 16vin shatabh‍di ke ant tak kase hue choodidar payajame ko kathak nrith‍y ki veshabhoosha man liya gaya.

gharane

is nrith‍y paramh‍para ke do pramukh gharane hain, in donon ko uttar bharat ke shaharon ke nam par nam diya gaya hai aur inamen se donon hi kshetriy rajaon ke snrakshan men vish‍tarit hua-

  1. lakhanoo gharana
  2. jayapur gharana.

vartaman samay ka kathak sidhe pairon se kiya jata hai aur pairon men pahane hue ghungharuon ko niyntrit kiya jata hai. kathak men ek uttejana aur manornjan ki visheshata hai jo isamen shamil pad tal aur teji se chakh‍kar lene ki pratha ke karan hai, jo isamen prabhavi sh‍than rakhati hai tatha is shaili ki sabase adhik mahath‍vapoorn visheshata hai. in nrith‍yon ki veshabhoosha aur vishayavash‍tu mugal laghu tash‍viron ke saman hai. jabaki yah natyashash‍tr ke saman nahin hai. phir bhi kathak ke siddhant anivaryat: isake saman hi hain. yahan hash‍t mudraon ke bharatanatyam men die jane vale bal ki tulana men pad tal par adhik zor diya jata hai.

prishthabhoomi aur vikas

kathak nrityanganaen
kathak karati kalakar

kathak ke prasar ke bare men adhikatar kathak vidvanon ka kahana hai ki jab dvaraka ki samapti huee to vahan ke logon ne jivanayapan ke lie vahan se palayan kiya tatha bhaugolik drishti se rajasthan ke najadik hone ke karan unhonne yahan ke jodhapur aur bikaner kshetr ko apani karmabhoomi banaya. mool svaroop ka pradurbhav jaitaran, bindasar men hua, aisa bhi kee kathak vidvanh manate hain. in vidvanon ki manyata hai ki kathak ka nikas vastav men jaitaran aur bindasar se hi hai, jahan aj bhi anek kathak parivar hain. is kshetr ke bhat, jo ki bahiyan rakhate hain unake pas in kathak parivaron ke poorvajon ka vivaran aj bhi maujood hai. kathak vnshavaliyon ke anusar prarnbh men kathak karane valon ke nam 'adooje-khadooje' hua karate the, jinaka vivaran bhaton ki bahiyon men maujood hai; lekin banaras gharane ke kalakar kathak ka udh‌bhav sthal kashi-banaras ko manate hain. unaka kahana hai ki banaras men maujood asnkhy mndiron ke prangan se kathak ka pradurbhav hua. rajasthan men to tab prachalit hua, jab banaras ke raja ne kuchh kalakaron ko jayapur darabar men kathak ke vikas hetu bheja.[1]

snrakshan

rajasthan men kathak ko sarvadhik ashray mila. jayapur rajagharana kathak ko ashray dene men sabase agrani tha. yahan ke guni-janakhane men kathak nartakon aur gurujanon ko kafi suvidhaen aur samman mila. isilie aj bhi jayapur gharana any kathak gharanon men agrani aur prachin hai. agar yah kaha jae ki jayapur gharane se hi any gharanon ka pradurbhav hua hai to isamen koee atishyokti nahin hogi. kathak ki paramparik shuruat ka shrey jayapur gharane ke pndit bindadin maharaj ko jata hai, unake samakalin pndit hariprasad aur pndit hanuman prasad us samay jayapur darabar ke guni-janakhane men vishesh sthan rakhate the. kaha jata hai ki dev-pari ke jode ke roop men prasidd in donon bhaiyon ka kathak nrity us samay ka shreshthatam kathak tha.

pndit hariprasad ke bare men prachalit tha ki jab vah govindadev ji ke mndir men apane nrity ki prastuti karate the to unake pair zamin ko nahin chhoote the, jisake karan unhen dev roop mana jane laga, doosari or pndit hanuman prasad ko shrringar padon par nrity karane ke karan pari ka nam diya gaya. kathak men shrringarikata ka samavesh isi kal men hua. khasataur se lakhanoo gharane ki kathak shaili par mugal sabhyata ka asar pada, jisase usamen shrringarikata ka prabhav badh gaya jo aj bhi lakhanoo gharane ke kathak nrity men dekhane ko milata hai. pndit bindadin maharaj ke bad kathak ke vikas ki bagador pndit jayalal, pndit narayan prasad, pndit sundar prasad, shnkaralal, pndit lachchhoo maharaj, mohanalal, pndit mahadev, pndit shambhoo maharaj aur pndit achchhan maharaj ne snbhali. is pidhi ne kathak ka kafi vikas kiya. pndit jayalal ki putri jayaknvar ne virasat men mili is nrityakala ko itani bariki se grahan kiya ki jab vah nrity karati thin to unaki nrity gati itani tivr hua karati thi ki dekhane valon ko unaki soorat bhi nazar nahin ati thi. jayaknvar kathak nrityangana ke roop men pahali mahila thin, jinhonne kathak men khyati arjit karane ke sath-sath any mahilaon ko bhi is vidha se judane ke lie prerit kiya, lekin chooroo ke bindavati kshetr men rah rahe kathak parivaron ke vichar isase alag hain.[1]

unaka kahana hai ki bindadin maharaj se pahale yahan ki pratham kathak nrityangana haradvara baee indaur ke darabar men gulal par ganesh tal men ganesh paran ke sath panvon ki thirakan se bhagavan ganapati ka chitr ankit kar deti thin, jinake charche aj bhi in parivaron men hain. doosari pidhi ke roop men sundaralal, pndit gaurishnkar, pndit kundanalal gngani, roshan kumari, pndit birajoo maharaj, krishn kumar maharaj, pndit ramamohan maharaj adi ne kathak ke prachar-prasar ko apane nrity dvara jari rakha. in sabaka yogadan avismaraniy hai, inhonne desh-videsh men kathak ko kafi lokapriy banaya.

kalakaron ki shreshthata ka ahamh tatha nukasan

kathak ki prishthabhoomi aur vikas ke bad vartaman kathak gharanon aur unake kalakaron par dhyan den to pata chalega ki gharanebazi aur kalakaron men shreshthata ke ahn ne kathak ke mool svaroop ko kitana nukasan pahunchaya hai. in gharanon ka uday bhi kalakaron ki hi den hai. kuchh khyatinam kalakaron ne kathak ke mool svaroop men apani suvidhanusar thoda-thoda parivartan karake vibhinn gharanon ki sthapana ki aur phir unaka nrity unake gharanon ka pratik banakar prachalit hota chala gaya, jise aj ke kalakaron ne atmasat karake aur dridhata pradan ki hai tatha lokapriy banane men apana yogadan diya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 kathak ke mool svaroop men parivartan tatha gharanon ki den (hindi) journalistnishant.blogspot.in. abhigaman tithi: 17 disambar, 2016.

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