ट्रेन आई और भगदड़ मच गयी -श्रीकृष्ण पांडेय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif yah lekh svatntr lekhan shreni ka lekh hai. is lekh men prayukt samagri, jaise ki tathy, ankade, vichar, chitr adi ka, snpoorn uttaradayitv is lekh ke lekhak/lekhakon ka hai bharatakosh ka nahin.

28 disambar 1895, peris ke grand kaiphe hotal ke indiana sallon namak kamare men logon ki khachakhach bhid pahali bar parade par chalate phirate bimbon ko dekhane ke lie betab thi. ji han, lumier bndhuon ne apane ne upakaran jisaka nam sinaimaitograph tha, se banaee 10 chhoti-chhoti philmon ka pradarshan karane vale the. yah philmen 20-50 sekend ki thi. in philmon men kuchh dainik ghatanaon ka philmankan kiya gaya tha, jaise-bag ki sinchaee karata mali, bachche ko doodh pilati huee man (botal se), faiktari se bahar nikalate hue log ityadi. inhi philmon men ek philm thi jisake drishy men pletapharm par yatri tren akar rukati hai. jaise hi vishal parade par tren ate dikhi log hal men uthakar idhar udhar bhagane lage. unhen laga ki tren unake oopar chadh na jaye. kahane ka tatpary hai ki unhen vah drishy itana jivnt laga ki vo tren ko sach samajh baithe. to yah tha sinema ka jadoo jise poori duniya ne usake janm ke sath dekh liya. 1895 men janm liya hua sinema 100 se jyada varsh par kar chuka hai. maje ki bat yah hai ki sinema eejad hone ke matr 6 mah bad bharat pahunch gaya. bharat men loomier bndhuon ka pahala pradarshan munbee ke vatsan hotal men 7 julaee 1896 men kiya gaya tha. is pradarshan men bharatiy sinema ke pitamah dada sahab phalke bhi upasthit the. choonki lumier bndhuon ne vyapar ke uddeshy se is takaniki ki khoj ki thi to unaka irada ise jald se jald poore vishv men dikhakar jyada se jyada dhan kamana tha. in sau se adhik varshon men sinema kahan se kahan pahunch gaya hai kahane ki avashyakata nahin. aj halivud se baaulivud tak ek se badhakar ek vishesh takanik ki philmen ban rahi hai. lekin sinema ke janm se judi kuchh dilachasp kahaniyan jo bahut hi adbhut evn romanchak hai shayad hi ap janate hon. to aiye apako sinema ke janm ki ek dastan sunate hain...

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         arnbhik kal se hi manushy ek jigyasu prani raha hai. manavata ke vikas ke kram men aj jo bhi upalabdhiyan hain sab jigyasa ke phalasvaroop hi prapt huee hain.manushy ne jigyasa ke shaman ke kram men jin avishkaro ko paya sinema bhi unhin men se ek khoj hai. sinema nishchit hi manushy ki vaigyanik jigyasa ki den hai lekin ise bhi vibhinn padavon se hokar gujarana pada. kaimare ki takaniki evn photographi ke avishkar ke bina sinema ka janm na hota. isalie sinema ke janm ko samajhane ke lie photographi ko samajhana atynt avashyak hai. kaimare evn photographi ki kahani bhi khasi purani hai- takariban shatabdiyon men phaili huyi. sinema ki tarah hi isaka bhi avishkar ek satat prakriya evn kee vaigyanikon ke prayas ka parinam hai.
         kaimare evn photographi ka janm frans men hua. frans ki sarakar ne 7 janavari 1839 ek sarvajanik ghoshana karake phrench chitrakar luee d’daguera ko photographi ke avishkarak ke roop men manyata di thi. lekin phir bhi yah kisi ka vyaktigat avishkar n hokar ek atynt lnbi prakriya ka parinam tha. isi tarah kaimare ke avishkar ka shrey bhi kee log naisaphor naips ko dete hai. niahsandeh isake dabba kaimare ke madal ko samane rakhakar usamen kramashah aur sudhar tatha takaniki parishkar karate-karate bahut sare vaigyanikon ke mahatvapoorn yogadan ke bad phraink aur hidaik ne milakar do lenso vala pratham adhunik kaimara banaya.
         photographi evn kaimare ke vikas kram jisame kaimara, lens, sthir chitr, sthir chitr ka nigetiv prapt karana, nigetiv se sthayi chitr prapt karane ka bahut lnba itihas hai. phir bhi photographi ke vikas men atynt mahatvapoorn yogadan amerika ke ek padari revarend hannibal villistan gudavil ka bhi raha. isane 1898 men rol philm banaee. jaisa ki isaka istemal aj bhi kaimaron men hota hai lekin bahut nyoon star par. isaka mahatv isalie hai ki rol philm ke bina chalachitr kaimaron ki kalpana hi nahin ki ja sakati jo sinema ke adharabhoot tatvon men se ek hai. kaimara, photographi evn chitron ke sthir drishyankan ke bad chitron men gati paida karane ka prayas jari tha. ye alag bat hai ki badi saphalata der se mili. 16vin sadi men kaimare ki khoj ko lekar kee prayog chal rahe the. jaduee lalaten ka astitv inhi prayogon ka parinam tha.
         shuruati daur men chitron men gatishilata lane ke lie vibhinn tarike prayog men laye jate rahe. prarambhik avastha men kanch ki patti par chitr ankit kar use ek vishesh upakaran ke samane lagakar pichhe se lalaten laga di jati thi, is prakar ek dhundhala chitr parade par dikhaee dene lagata tha. lalaten hi vah adharabhoot upakaran hai jisase vaigyanikon ne philm praaujektar ka vikas kiya. isake bad gatishil dram tatha disk dvara bhi chitron men gatishilata paida karane ki koshish ki gayi jo saphal rahi.

joetrop
praksinoskop
myootoskop
kainetoskop
sinematograph
prarambhik daur ke sinema se snbandhit kuchh pramukh upakaran hai-

joetrop

briten ke vaigyanik viliyam harnar ne joetrop namak adbhut upakaran ki khoj ki. ye ek katorinuma yntr tha jo golaee men ghoom sakata tha. isake divaron par chhote-chhote chhidr bane hote the. isame andar ki satah par ek niyamit doori par chitr ankit hote the. ise ghumane par evn chhidron se dekhane par chitron men gati ka bhram hota tha.

praksinoskop

isaki khoj charls emile ronald dvara frans men ki gee. lekin lumier bndhuon ke photographik philm ane ke bad isaki mang khatm ho gayi.

myootoskop

isame phlaip buk ki tarah 850 ke qarib kards lage hote the in kardon par ankit chitron men ek kramik gatishilata hoti thi. bahar lage ek hndal ke dvara ise chalane par isake kard ek-ek kar lens ke samane se gujarate the jinhen dekhane par chitron men ek saman gati ka abhas hota tha. ye kard qarib ek minat philmon ki tarah chalate the.

uparokt sabhi upakaran vigyan ke ek vishesh niyam ke tahat kari karate the jise persistance ofvision kaha jata hai.is siddhant ke tahat ek chhavi ke ankhon ke samane se hatane ke bad kuchh samay tak usaka bimb ankhon men bana rahata hai isi prakriya men sthir chhaviyon ki ek kramik shrinkhala ko ek nishchit gati dene par chhaviyan gatishil dikhaee dene lagati hai.

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ek adbhut jigyasa

          ye kissa is tarah hai ki ameriki reeson ke bich un dino ye bahas garm thi ki ghoda jab daudata hai to kya kabhi aisi sthiti ati hai ki ghode ke charon pair hava men hote hai? kuchh log kahate the ki han aisa hota hai par kuchh log ise nakar diya karate the. kailiphorniya ke gavarnar lilend stenphord ne 1872 men ye janane ki koshish ki aur inhi ke prayason ke phalasvaroop hi is par prayog shuroo hua. gavarnar ne sainaphransisko ke photographar edavard mebrij ko is kam ki zimmedari saupi. mebrij ne koshish ki lekin vah saphal nahi hua. kyonki shuruat men lie ge chitr itane dhundhale aur aspasht the ki kuchh anuman nahi lagaya ja sakata tha. isi bat par 25 hajar daaular ki shart lag gee aur edavard mebrij is shart ko bhula nahi paya. panch sal ke kade sngharsh ke bad usane ek enjiniyar ki madad se ek naya prayog kiya. enjiniyar ne ek katar men 24 kaimare lagae aur sabako bijali ke tar se jod diya. batan dabane par bijali pravahit hoti thi jisase pratyek kaimare ke shatar usi kram men khulate aur bnd hote the. ab zaroorat is bat ki thi ki ghode dvara daudate hue prabhavit kshetr men pravesh karane tatha kaimaron ko snchalit karane ka pratham kshan saman ho. batan dabate hi ghode ke gati ke sath sath vidyut pravahit hone ke karan sabhi kaimare ek ke bad ek spasht chhayachitr lene men saphal ho sake. isilie kaimare us kshanansh ko pakad sake jab ghode ke charon pair hava men the. aur is sthiti ko manushy ki ankh poori koshish ke bad bhi nahin dekh pati thi. mebrij ne ise apane avishkar ke roop men pnjikrit karavaya.
 
          isi kram men edavard mebrij ne ek lalaten ki khoj ki, jo usaki uparokt khoj jise galloping horse kahate the, ko parade par dikhati thi. mebrij ne ise gatishil vastuon ko chhayankit karane aur darshane ki paddhati ke nam se 1882 men pnjikrit karavaya. isi emile ronald ke upakaran praksinoskop ke madhyam se peris ke ek hal men uparokt chitron ka pradarshan kiya gaya. manav ki jigyasa ke phalasvaroop anajane men hi ek bahut bada avishkar ho gaya. sinema ke udbhav men yah bada kadam sabit huya.

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          isi kram men san 1891 men inglaind ke ek yuva enjiniyar viliyam diksan jo edisan ki knpani men kam karata tha, ek adbhut yntr kainetoskop ka avishkar kiya jise thamas alva edisan ne apane nam se pnjikrit kara liya. kainetoskop ek baksenuma yntr hota tha jisase ankh lagakar dekhane par andar ki ril par sthir chitr gati se chalate the. teji se badalaton tasviron ko dekhakar vastavik gati ka bhram hota tha. darasal 1888 men edavard mebrij ne apane prayog ka khulasa nyoo jarsi shahar men ek sngoshthi men kar diya tha. ab kainetograph evn kainetoskop namak yntron men viliyam diksan ne usake siddhanto ka hi prayog kiya tha. kainetograph ek prakar ka kaimara hota hai. isi upakaran ke madhyam se philm patti par chitr ankit kie jate hain aur kainetosko ke madhyam se usaka pradarshan hota tha. is yntr ke madhyam se ek samay men keval ek vyakti hi philm dekh sakata tha. kyonki isake dvara chitron ka prakshepan parade par snbhav nahin tha. darasal in tamam avishkaron se gujarate huye hi intermitant motion mechanism yani ‘saviram gati ka niyam’ namak siddhant vikasit hua. isaki khoj frans ke lumier bndhuon ke dvara ki gayi thi. is siddhant ke tahat kisi bhi drishy ka age badhane se pahale poori tarah thahar jana avashyak hai. philmankan evn philm prakshepan ke samay pratyek phrem ka age badhane se pahale poori tarah thahar jana avashyak hota hai. tabhi kaimare dvara philmankan snbhav ho pata hai tatha ham parade par prakshepit bimb ko atmasat kar pate hai.
          in sare siddhanton, upakaranon, evn prayogon ko tab mnjil mili jab lumier bndhuon ne uparokt siddhant par adharit apane sinematograph namak yntr ka pnjikaran karavaya. sinemetograph ek adbhut yntr tha. yah ek dabbenuma mashin thi jisake mukhy roop se tin bhag the. kaimara, laib evn praaujektar. ek taraph kaimara hota tha jisase philm patti par drishynkan kiya jata tha phir yah philm patti svachalit tarike se mashin ke nichale hisse men jati thi jahan laib sthit hota tha, vahan se vikasit hokar mashin ke doosare or jakar svatah hi praaujektar men lag jati thi. yahin se ise parade par prakshepit kiya jata tha. yah itana bada avishkar tha ki jhatake se sinema ko ek disha mil gayi. isi ke avishkar ke sath hi sinema dekhana ek samoohik anubhav men badak gaya, isake pahale log edisan ke kainetoskop men akele hi jhank kar philm dekhane ka maza lete the. lumier bndhuon ke sinaimaitograph se ek jan samooh ek sath, ek hi samay tatha ek hi sthan par ekatr hokar philm dekh sakata tha.
sinematograph ka pratham sarvajanik pradarshan 28 disambar 1895 ko grand kaiphe namak hotal men frans men kiya gaya. hotal ka ek kamar jisaka nam indian sallon tha pradarshan se poorv hi khachakhach bhar gaya is pradarshan men lumier bndhuon ne apani 10 chhoti philmon ka pradarshan kiya.

lumier bndhu

lumier bndhuon ki 10 philmen hain-

  1. La Sortie de l'Usine Lumière à Lyon (literally, "the exit from the Lumière factory in Lyon", or, under its more common English title, Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory), 46 seconds
  2. Le Jardinier (l'Arroseur Arrosé) ("The Gardener," or "The Sprinkler Sprinkled"), 49 seconds
  3. Le Débarquement du Congrès de Photographie à Lyon ("the disembarkment of the Congress of Photographers in Lyon"), 48 seconds
  4. La Voltige ("Horse Trick Riders"), 46 seconds
  5. La Pêche aux poissons rouges ("fishing for goldfish"), 42 seconds
  6. Les Forgerons ("Blacksmiths"), 49 seconds
  7. Repas de bébé ("Baby's Breakfast" (lit. "baby's meal")), 41 seconds
  8. Le Saut à la couverture ("Jumping Onto the Blanket"), 41 seconds
  9. La Places des Cordeliers à Lyon ("Cordeliers Square in Lyon"—a street scene), 44 seconds
  10. La Mer (Baignade en mer) ("the sea [bathing in the sea]"), 38 seconds

in pradarshanon ke madhyam se logon ne kisi ghatana ko dobara ghatit hote dekhane ke anubhav liya, kyonki ye sari philmen sachchi ghatanaon ko philmankit karake banaee gayi thi. inamen koee chhed-chhad nahin kiya gaya tha. majedar bat ye hai ki ye sabhi dakyoomentari hi thi. is pradarshan ke bad lumier bndhu isake vyavasayik pradarshan karane lage aur desh-videsh men isaka prachar hone laga. lumier bndhuon ki vistaravadi rananiti ke age edisan ka kaeenetoskop asaphal sabit hua. magar dilachasp bat yah hai ki agar saphal ho jata to sinema ka doosara roop hamare samane hota. tab sinema ek vaiyaktik anubhav banakar rah jata banisvat samoohik anubhav ke.

- shrikrishn pandey
mahatma gandhi antarrashtriy hindi vishvavidyalay
vardha, maharashtr



tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

svatntr lekhan vriksh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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