सिनेमा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sinema, film athava chalachitr men chitron ko is tarah ek ke bad ek pradarshit kiya jata hai jisase gati ka abhas hota hai. filmen aksar vidiyo kaimare se rikard karake banaee jati hain, ya enimeshan vidhiyon ya spaishal iphaikts ka prayog karake banaee jati hain. vartaman yug men sinema manornjan ka mahattvapoorn sadhan hain lekin inaka prayog kala-abhivyakti aur shiksha ke lie bhi hota hai.

bharatiy sinema

film raja harishchndr ka ek drishy

bharat vishv men sabase adhik filmen banane vala desh hai. film udyog ka mukhy kendr mumbee hai, jise 'baaulivud' kaha jata hai. bharatiy filmen videshon men bhi dekhi jati hain. bharatiy sinema ne 20vin shati ke arambhik kal se hi vishv ke sinema jagat par gahara prabhav chhoda hai. bharatiy sinema ke antargat bharat ke vibhinn bhagon aur vibhinn bhashaon men banane vali filmen atin hain. bharatiy filmon ka anukaran poore dakshin eshiya tatha madhy poorv men hua. bharat men sinema ki lokapriyata ka isi se andaja lagaya ja sakata hai ki yahan sabhi bhashaon men milakar prativarsh 1,000 tak filmen bani hain. 20vin shati men haaulivud tatha chini film udyog ke sath bharatiy sinema bhi vaishvik udyog ban gaya tha.

bharatiy sinema ka itihas

7 julaee 1896 ko bnbee ka vatasan thietar men 'lumiyar bradars' namak do phransisi apani filmen lekar bharat aye. primiyar qarib 200 logon ne dekha. tikat dar thi do rupaye prati vyakti. yah un dinon ek badi rakam thi. ek saptah bad inaki ye filmen bakayada 'navelti thietar' men pradarshit ki gayin. bnbee ka yah thietar bad men ekselsiyar sinema ke nam se mashahoor hua. roj in filmon ke do se tin sho kiye jate the, tikat dar thi do ana se lekar do rupaye tak. inamen 12 laghu filmen dikhayi jati thin. inamen ‘araival aph e tren’, ‘d si bath’ tatha ‘le़dij end soljars an hvil’ pramukh thin. lumiyar bndhuon ne jab bharatiyon ko pahali bar sinema se parichit karaya to log bejan chitron ko chalata-phirata dekh hairan rah gaye. halanki un dinon in filmon ke lie jo tikat dar rakhi gayi thi, vah kafi thi lekin phir bhi logon ne is ajoobe ko apar snkhya men dekha. patr-patrikaon ne bhi is nayi chij ki tariphon ke pul bandh diye. ek bar in filmon ko lokapriyata mili, to bharat men bahar se filmen ane aur pradarshit hone lagin.

1904 men mani sethana ne bharat ka pahala sinemaghar banaya, jo vishesh roop se filmon ke pradarshan ke lie hi banaya gaya tha. isamen niyamit filmon ka pradarshan hone laga. usamen sabase pahale videsh se ayi do bhagon me bani film ‘d laiph aph kraist’ pradarshit ki gayi. yahi vah film thi jisane bharatiy sinema ke pitamah dada sahab phalke ko bharat men sinema ki ninv rakhane ko prerit kiya. halanki svargiy dada sahab phalke ko bharatiy sinema ka janak hone aur poori lnbaee ke kathachitr banane ka gaurav hasil hai lekin unase pahale bhi maharashtr men film nirman ke kee prayas hue. lumiyar bndhuon ki filmon ke pradarshan ke ek varsh ke bhitar sakharam bhatavadekar urph save dada ne film banane ki koshish ki. unhonne pundalik aur krishn nahavi ke bich kushti filmayi thi. yah kushti isi uddeshy se vishesh roop se bnbee ke hainging gardan men ayojit ki gayi thi. shooting ke bad film ko prosesing ke lie inglaind bheja gaya. vahan se jab vah film proses hokar ayi to save dada apane kam ka natija dekh kar bahut khush hue. pahali bar yah film rat ke vakt bnbee ke khule maidan men dikhayi gayi. usake bad unhonne apani yah film peri thietar men pradarshit ki. tikat ki dar thi ath ana se lekar tin rupaye tak. aksar har sho men unako 300 rupaye tak mil jate the.[1]

pahali film 'raja harishchndr'

dada saheb phalke dvara 1913 men banaee gee 'raja harishchndr' hindi sinema ki pahali film thi. film kafi jald hi bharat men lokapriy ho gee aur varsh 1930 tak lagabhag 200 filmen prativarsh ban rahi thin.

film alam ara ka postar

pahali savak film 'alam ara'

alam ara bharat ki pahali savak (bolati) film thi jo ardeshir eerani ne san 1931 men banaee. alam ara se pahale sabhi filmen avak (avaz nahin) thin. yah film kafi jyada lokapriy rahi. jald hi sari filmen, bolati filmen thi. ane vale varsho men bharat men svatntrata sngram, desh vibhajan jaisi aitihasik ghatana huee. un daraman bani hindi filmon men isaka prabhav chhaya raha. 1950 ke dashak men hindi filmen shvet-shyam (blaik & vhait) se rngin ho gee. filmen ke vishay mukhyatah prem hota tha, aur sngit filmon ka mukhy ang hota tha. 1960-70 ke dashak ki filmon men hinsa ka prabhav raha. 1980 aur 1990 ke dashak se prem adharit filmen vapas lokapriy hone lagi. 1990-2000 ke dashak me samay ki bani filmen bharat ke bahar bhi kafi lokapriy rahi. pravasi bharatiyo ki badhati snkhya bhi isaka pramukh karan thi. hindi filmon men pravasi bharatiyo ke vishay lokapriy rahe.

hindi sinema

hindi sinema, jise baaulivud ke nam se jana jata hai, hindi bhasha men film banane ka film udyog hai. baaulivud nam angrezi sinema udyog haaulivud ke tarz par rakha gaya. hindi film udyog mukhyatah mumbee shahar men basa hai. ye filmen bharat, pakistan, aur duniya ke kee deshon ke logon ke dilon ki dhadakan hain. har film men kee sngitamay gane hote hain. in filmon men hindi ki "hindustani" shaili ka chalan hai. hindi, khadiboli aur urdoo ke sath sath avadhi, mumbeeya hindi, bhojapuri, rajasthani jaisi boliyan bhi snvad aur ganon me upayukt hote hain. pyar, deshabhakti, parivar, aparadh, bhay, ityadi mukhy vishay hote hain. zyadatar gane urdoo shayari par adharit hote hain.

prasiddh baaulivud filmen
Raja Harishchandra.jpg Alam-Ara-Poster.jpg Kisan-kanya.jpg Pyaasa poster.jpg Devdas.jpg Do-Aankhen-Barah-Haath-2.jpg Do-bigha-zameen.jpg Naya-Daur.jpg Mother-India.jpg Mughal-E-Azam-1.jpg Sholay-Movie.jpg Deevaar.jpg Hunterwali-1935.jpg Garm-Hava.jpg Devdas(1955).jpg satyakam.jpg Andaz (1949 film) poster.jpg Jagte-Raho-1956.jpg Anand (1971).jpg

parasi aur bharatiy sinema

bharatiy sinema ki pragati men desh men base hue parasi samuday ka apratim yogadan hai. hindi rngamnch jis tarah parasi rngamnch ka hi vistar hai, usi tarah sinema ke kshetr men bhi parasi rngamnch evn thiyetar ka mahatvapoorn prabhav hai. parasi nirmataon ne hindi film nirman men abhootapoorn yogadan kiya hai. bharat ke vibhinn pranton men sinema gharon ke nirman aur unake snchalan men bhi is samuday ke dhani aur samriddh logon ki bhagidari sarahaniy hai.

smaraniy tathy

bharatiy sinema jagat se judi dheron dilachasp baten rahin. kuchh nimnalikhit hain-

bharatiy sinema jagat se judi dheron dilachasp baten[2]
pahala bharatiy siriyal aur sensaraship shriram patanakar ne pahale bharatiy siriyal ‘ram vanavas’ (ekjail aauph shriram) ka nirman kiya. yah siriyal char alag-alag bhagon men banaya gaya tha. 1918 men bharat men britani ekt ki tarj par sensaraship lagoo ki gayi. isake dvara filmon ki sensaraship aur laisensing ki vyavastha ki gayi.
samajik hasy film samaj men pashchaty rahan-sahan aur pashchaty moolyon ka poshan karane vale logon par vyngy karane vali film ‘d inglaind ritarn’ ka nirman dhiren ganguli ne kiya. ise pahali samajik upahas film ka darja diya jata hai. film ki kahani videsh se lnbe samay bad laute bharatiy ki kahani thi, jo apane hi desh men khud ko ajanabi mahasoos karata hai.
samaj sudhar vali film marathi filmakar baboorav pentar ki film ‘savakari pash’ men ek lalachi zamindar ek kisan ko usaki jamin se bedakhal kar deta hai. garibi se ladata yah parivar shahar akar mazadoori karake apana jivan yapan karane ki koshish karata hai. is film men mashahoor film nirmata nirdeshak vi. shantaram ne yuva kisan ki bhoomika ki thi.
deshi film knpaniyon aur taauki film ka agaman vi. shantaram ne 1929 men kolhapur men prabhat knpani aur chandoolal shah ne bambee men d rnjit film knpani ki sthapana ki. prabhat film knpani ne apane 27 barason ke saphar men 45 filmon ka nirman kiya. rnjit stoodiyo men sattar ke dashak tak filmon ka nirman hota raha. isi sal haaulivud se ayatit bolati film ‘melodi aauph lav’ ka pradarshan hua.
angrezi men bani chunban drishy vali film himanshu ray ki inglaind men pikcharaij ‘karma’ men himanshu ray aur devika rani mukhy bhoomika men the. rajakumar aur rajakumari ki is premagatha men jabardast chunban aur alingan ke drishy the. himanshu ray aur devika rani ke bich chala char minat lnba chumban aj bhi kirtiman hai. yah chunban vinod khanna aur madhuri dikshit par film ‘dayavan’ men pikcharaij chunban se char guna jyada lnba hai. choonki, tatkalin british shasan men chunban, seks, hinsa adi taiboo nahin the, isalie ise sensar ki rok ka samana to nahin karana pada. isake bavajood ‘karma’ sabase asaphal filmon men shumar ki jati hai.
parshv gayan ki shuruat prarnbh men parade par nayak-nayika apane git khud hi gate the. 1935 men nitin bos ne apani film ‘dhoop chhanv’ men parshv gayan ki takanik se parichay karaya. is takanik ne parade par kabhi najar na ane vale parshv gayakon-gayikaon ko bhi star bana diya. dhvani takanik ke vistar ke sath hi indrasabha aur devi devayani jaise git sngit se bharapoor filmon ka nirman hua.
rngin huee filmen aur mile antararashtriy puraskar filmon ke goonge charitron ko avaj dilane vale ardeshir eerani ne hi ‘kisan kanya’ ke tamam kiradaron men rng bhare. ‘kisan kanya’ bharat men hi proses ki gayi pahali film thi. ek garib kisan aur zamindar ki beti ki is rngin prem kahani ko khas saphalata nahin mili. vastavikata to yah thi ki us daur men rngin chitron ko darshakon ne manyata nahin di. soharab modi ki 1953 men rilij film ‘jhansi ki rani’ teknikalar men banayi gayi pahali film thi. vishnu govind damale aur shekh phattelal ki film ‘snt tukaram’ ne venis film mahotsav men intaraneshanal egjibishan aauph sinemaitographik art ki shreni men chuni gayi tin filmon men sthan paya.
sabase jyada giton vali filmen madan thiyetar dvara nirmit bharat ki doosari savakh film ‘shiri pharahad’ 30 mee 1931 ko rilij huee thi. is film ka nirdeshan je. je. madan ne kiya tha. is film men 18 git the. sabase jyada 69 giton vali film ‘indrasabha’ thi. is film men mastar nisar, jahanara aur kajjan mukhy bhoomika men the.
pahala svapn drishy aur git rajakapoor ki 1951 men pradarshit film ‘avara’ men nargis aur rajakapoor par svapn drishy aur git ‘ghar aya mera paradesi’ filmaya gaya tha. is git ke bad rajakapoor indastri ke shomain man lie gaye.
film men pahala phlaishabaik 1934 men pradarshit film ‘roopalekha’ men pahali bar phlaishabaik takanik ka upayog kiya gaya tha. pisi barua aur jamuna mukhy bhoomika men the. bad men barua ne jamuna se shadi bhi ki thi. vah barua ki ‘devadas’ men paro bhi banin.
pahali mahilaen durga baee aur unaki beti kamalabaee gokhale filmon men kadam rakhane vali pahali mahilaen thin. unhonne dada saheb phalke ki 1913 men rilij doosari film ‘mohini bhasmasur’ men ek sath abhinay kiya tha. savakh filmon ki pahali mahila rani jubaida thin. unhonne ‘alam ara’ se pahale 36 mook filmon men abhinay kiya tha.
pahali sensard film 1920 men rilij film ‘aaurphans aauph d staaurm’ bharat men sensaraship lagoo hone ke bad sensar hone vali pahali film thi. is film men gish bahanen mukhy bhoomika men thin.
sattar emem ki film pachhi ki 1967 men rilij film ‘eraund d rvald’ ko sattar emem yani 70 milimitar men bani pahali film kaha jata hai parantu vastav men is film ko 35 emem men pikcharaij karane ke bad bloap takanik ke jariye 70 emem men badala gaya tha. jaisa ki ajakal 2di filmon ko 3di men kanvart kiya ja raha hai. bharat ki 70 emem phaaumret men bani pahali film ‘shole’ thi, jo 1975 men rilij huee thi tatha ise phor-traik stiriyophonik saund takanik men pradarshit kiya gaya tha.
lagatar tin jubali filmen dene vala abhineta amol palekar bharat ke pahale aise abhineta the jinaki debyoo film ne silvar jubali to manayi hi, usake bad unaki pradarshit donon filmon ne bhi jubaliyan manayin. amol palekar ne 1974 men ‘rajanigndha’ film se debyoo kiya tha. isake bad unaki do filmen 1975 men chhoti si bat aur 1976 men ‘chitachor’ rilij huee thi. in tinon filmon ne munbee men silvar jubali manayi.
pramukh stoodiyo film nirman se lekar ab tak ke kuchh pramukh stoodiyo men baaumbe takij, eviem prodakshans, jaimini stoodiyoj, gurudatt moovij pra. li., minarva thiyetar, maaudarn thiyetars, bien sarakar nyoo thiyetars, prabhat film knpani, prasad stoodiyoj, madan thiyetar, filmistan, phemas stoodiyoj, ar. ke stoodiyoj tatha vartaman men chal rahe vaauy films, yootivi moshan pikchars, ramoji film siti, filmasiti munbee, mahaboob stoodiyo, bi4yoo films, rnjit stoodiyoj adi ullekhaniy hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. tripathi, rajesh. hindi sinema ka itihas (hindi) sinema jagat (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 10 navambar, 2012.
  2. bharatiy sinema ke sau sal: kuchh dilachasp pahaloo (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) samay laiv. abhigaman tithi: 24 disambar, 2012.

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