पंचांग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pnchang
pnchang
vivaran pnchang din ko namnkit karane ki ek pranali hai. pnchang ke chakr ko khagoliy tatvon se joda jata hai.
hindoo vikram snvat
rashtriy rashtriy shake
ismalik hijari snvat
itihas ee. poo. 46 men jooliyas sizar ne ek snshodhit pnchang nirmit kiya tha jisamen prati chauthe varsh 'lip varsh ki vyavastha thi. parantu us pnchang ki gananaen sahi nahin rahin, kyonki sanh 1582 men 'vasantik vishuv' 21 march ko n hokar 10 march ko hua tha.
adhunik pnchang adhunik pnchang men snvat, varsh, mas, din tatha any dharmik evn samajik ruchipoorn baten sammilit hain. chandr mas 29½ din se kuchh adhik tatha ayanavrittiy varsh 365¼ dinon se kuchh kam hota hai.
snbndhit lekh roman kalandar, sidaral mas, snvat, maya kailendar, muslim tithipatr, manvantar, kalp, shak snvat
any janakari gujarat evn uttari bharat (pashchim bngal ko chhodakar) men 'vikram snvat', dakshin bharat men 'shak snvat' aur kashmir men 'laukik snvat' ka prayog hota hai.

pnchang din ko namnkit karane ki ek pranali hai. pnchang ke chakr ko khagoliy tatvon se joda jata hai. barah mas ka ek varsh aur 7 din ka ek saptah rakhane ka prachalan vikram snvat se shuroo hua. mahine ka hisab soory v chndrama ki gati par rakha jata hai. ganana ke adhar par hindoo pnchang ki tin dharaen hain- pahali chndr adharit, doosari nakshatr adharit aur tisari soory adharit kailendar paddhati. bhinn-bhinn roop men yah poore bharat men mana jata hai. ek sal men 12 mahine hote hain. pratyek mahine men 15 din ke do paksh hote hain- shukl aur krishn. pratyek sal men do ayan hote hain. in do ayanon ki rashiyon men 27 nakshatr bhraman karate rahate hain.

arth

  • lok-jivan men dharmik utsavon evn jyotishiy gyan ke hetu, pahale se hi dinon, mason evn varsh ke sambandh men jo vidhipoorvak granth ya sngrah banata hai use "pnchang" ya pnjika ya pnji kahate hain.
  • vraton evn utsavon ke sampadan ke samyak kalon tatha ygy, upanayan, vivah adi dharmik krityon ke lie uchit kalon ke parigyan ke lie hamen pnji ya pnchang ki avashyakata padati hai.

pnchang ke prakar

pnchang
  • bharat men eesaiyon, parasiyon, musalamanon evn hinduon ke dvara sambhavat: tis pnchang vyavahar men lae jate hain.
  • ajakal hinduon dvara kee prakar ke pnchag prayog men laye jate hain. inamen se kuchh pnchang 'soory siddhant' par, kuchh 'ary siddhant' par aur kuchh apekshakrit pashchatkalin granthon par adharit hain.
  • kuchh pnchag 'chaitr shukl pratipada' se, kuchh 'kartik shukl pratipada' se arambh kie jate hain. kuchh aise sthan hain, jaise-
  • halar prant, jahan par varsh ka arambh 'ashadh shukl pratipada' se hota hai. gujarat evn uttari bharat, bngal ko chhodakar, men 'vikram snvat', dakshin bharat men 'shak snvat' aur kashmir men 'laukik snvat' ka prayog hota hai.
  • uttari bharat evn telngana men mas 'poornimant' arthath poornima se samapt hote hain.
  • bngal, maharashtr evn dakshin bharat men 'amant' arthath amavasya se ant hone vale hote hain.

parinamat: kuchh upavas evn utsav, jo bharat men sarvabhaum roop men prachalit hain, jaise - ekadashi evn shivaratri ke upavas evn shri krishn janm sambandhi utsav vibhinn bhagon men vibhinn sampradayon ke dvara do vibhinn dinon men hote hain aur kuchh utsavon ke dinon men to ek mas tak ka antar pad jata hai. jaise - 'poornimant' manyata se koee utsav 'ashvin krishn paksh' men ho to vahi utsav 'bhadrapad krishn paksh' men 'amant' ganana ke anusar ho sakata hai aur vahi utsav ek mas ke uparant manaya ja sakata hai. ajakal to yah vibhramata bahut badh gayi hai. kuchh pnchang, jo navik pnchang par adharit hain, is prakar vyavasthit hai ki grahan jaisi ghatanaen usi prakar ghaten jaisa ki log apani ankhon se dekh lete hain. dakshin bharat men bahut-si pnjikaen hain.

tamilanadu men do prakar ki pnjikaen hain-
  1. ek drikh-ganit par adharit aur
  2. doosari vaky-vidhi[1] par adharit.
  • pudukottaee pnchang, jo vaky vidhi vale hai, usi nam vale rajaon ke dvara prakashit hote hain.
  • shrirngam pnchang, jo vaky prakar vale hain, ramanujiy vaishnavon dvara vyavahar men laye jate hain, kintu madhvon[2] ke lie ek any prakar ka pnchang many hai.
  • smarton dvara kanjanoor pnchang vyavahrit hote hain, jo atyadhik prachalit hai aur vaky pnchang hai. smart shnkarachary ki manyata se prakashit drik-pnchang ko vyavahar men nahin late hain.
  • telugu log ganesh daivgy ke 'grahalaghav', jo sanh 1520 men nirmit hai, par adharit 'siddhant-chandr' pnchang ka prayog karate hain.
  • malavar men 'drikh-pnchang' ka prayog kiya jata hain kintu vah parahit nam vali malavar-paddhati par adharit hai, tamilon dvara prayukt drikh-pnchang par nahin.
  • telugu log 'chandr ganana' karate hain aur 'chaitr shukl' se 'yugadi' namak varsh ka arambh manate hain. isase alag tamil 'saur ganana' ko manate hain aur apane chaitr ka arambh 'mesh vishuv' se karate hain aur unake vrat evn dharmik kary, jo tithiyon par adharit hain, chandrabhan ke anusar manaye jate hain.
  • bngali 'saur mas' evn 'chandr dinon' ka prayog karate hain, jo malamas ke milane se trivarshiy anukoolan ka dyotak hai.

pnchang ke siddhant

pnchang ke mukhyat: tin siddhant prayog men laye jate hain, -

  1. soory siddhant - apani vishuddhata ke karan sare bharat men prayog men laya jata hai.
  2. ary siddhant - travanakor, malavar, karnatak men madhvon dvara, madras ke tamil janapadon men prayog kiya jata hai, evn
  3. brahmasiddhant - gujarat evn rajasthan men prayog kiya jata hai.
vishesh

brahmasiddhant siddhant ab soory siddhant siddhant ke paksh men samapt hota ja raha hai. siddhanton men mahayug se gananaen ki jati hain, jo itani klisht hain ki unake adhar par sidhe dhng se pnchang banana kathin hai. atah siddhanton par adharit 'karan' namak granthon ke adhar par pnchang nirmit kie jate hain, jaise - bngal men makarand, ganesh ka grahalaghav. grahalaghav ki talikaen dakshin, madhy bharat tatha bharat ke kuchh bhagon men hi prayog men layi jati hain.

  • siddhanton men antar ke do mahattvapoorn tattv mahattvapoorn hain -
  1. varsh vistar ke vishay men. varshaman ka antar keval kuchh vipalon ka hai, aur
  2. kalp ya mahayug ya yug men chandr evn grahon ki chakr-gatiyon ki snkhya ke vishay men.
  • yah keval bharat men hi paya gaya hai. ajakal ka yooropiy pnchang bhi asantoshajanak hai.

pnchang ka itihas

ee. poo. 46 men jooliyas sizar ne ek snshodhit pnchang nirmit kiya tha jisamen prati chauthe varsh 'lip varsh ki vyavastha thi. parantu us pnchang ki gananaen sahi nahin rahin, kyonki sanh 1582 men 'vasantik vishuv' 21 march ko n hokar 10 march ko hua tha. pop gregori 13ven ne ghoshana ki thi ki 4 aktoobar ke bad 15 aktoobar hona chahie aur das dinon ko samapt kar diya gaya. usane bataya ki jab tak 400 se bhag n lag jae tab tak shati varshon men 'lip' varsh nahin hona chahie. at: 1700, 1800, 1900 eesvi men atirikt din nahin hoga, keval 2000 ee. men hoga. kintu usamen bhi truti rah hi gayi, 33 shatiyon se adhik varshon ke uparant hi ek din ghataya jaega. adhunik jyotishashastr ki ginati se gregori varsh '26 sekend' adhik hai. sudharavadi protestent inglaind ne sanh 1740 ee. tak pop gregori ke sudhar ko manyata nahin di, jabaki qanoon bhi bana ki 2 sitnbar ko 3 sitnbar n man kar 14 sitnbar mana jae aur 11 din chhod die jaen. phir bhi yooropiy pnchang men dosh rah gaya. yooropiy pnchang men mas men 28 se 31 din hote hain, ek varsh ke bad men 90 se 92 din hote hain; varsh ke donon ardhanshon, janavari se joon aur julaee se disambar men kram se 181 (ya 182) evn 184 din hote hain; mas men karm din 24 se 27 hote hain tatha varsh evn mas vibhinn saptah-dinon se arambh hote hain. vraton ka raja eestar sanh 1751 ke uparant 35 vibhinn saptah dinon men arthath 22 march se 25 aprail tak pada, kyonki eestar 21 march par ya usake uparant padane vali poornima ka pratham ravivar hai.

adhunik pnchang

adhunik pnchang men snvat, varsh, mas, din tatha any dharmik evn samajik ruchipoorn baten sammilit hain. manushy ko yug, varsh, mas ke vistaron ka gyan bahut bad men hua. chandr mas 29½ din se kuchh adhik tatha ayanavrittiy varsh 365¼ dinon se kuchh kam hota hai. ye visham avadhiyan hain. sadharan jivan evn pnchangon ke lie poorn, sam vibhakt dinon ki avashyakata hoti hai aur varsh evn mas ka arambh bhali-bhanti vyakhyayit hona chahie, aur unamen rituon evn kisi snvat ka prayog atyant avashyak hai. ye hi pnchang ki avashyakataen hain.

any pnchang

maya kailendar
Mayan Calendar
  • musalamanon ne ayanavrittiy varsh ke vistar par dhyan nahin diya aur chandr ko kal ka mapak manakar is jatilata ka samadhan kar liya. unaka varsh vishuddh 'chandr varsh' hai. isaka parinam yah hua ki musalamani varsh keval 354 dinon ka ho gaya aur lagabhag 33 varshon men unake sabhi utsav varsh ke sabhi mason men ghoom jate hain.
  • prachin misr men chandr ko kal ke mapak roop men nahin mana aur unake varsh men 365 din the, 30 dinon ke 12 mas evn 5 atirikt din. unake purohit-gan 3000 varshon tak yahi vidhi apanate rahe; unake yahan atirikt varsh ya malamas nahin the.
  • rigved[3] men bhi atirikt mas ka ullekh hai, kintu yah kis prakar vyavasthit tha, vedang jyotish ne panch varshon men do mas jod die hain. prachin kal men mason ki ganana chandr se evn varshon ki soory se hoti thi. log pahale se sahi jan lena chahate the ki vrat evn utsavon ke lie poornima ya pariva (pratipada) kab padegi, kab varsha hogi, sharad kab ayegi aur kab bij dalen jaen aur ann ke paudhe kate jaenge. ygyon ka sampadan vasant ritu men ya any rituon men, pratham tithi ya poornima ko hota tha.
  • chandr varsh ke 354 din saur varsh ke dinon se 11 kam padate the. atah yadi keval chandr varsh ki ganana ho to rituon ko pichhe hatana pad jaega. isilie kee deshon men adhik mas ki yojana nishchit huee.
  • yoonaniyon men 'aauktaeteris'[4] ki yojana thi, jisamen 99 mas the, jinamen tisara, panchavan evn athavan malamas the. isake uparant 19 varshon ka metanik vritt bana, jisamen 7 adhik mas (19×12+7=235) nirdharit hue.
  • olmastid[5] ka kathan hai ki bebilon men malamas-vritt ath varshon ka tha, jise yoonaniyon ne apanaya tha.
  • phadirngham[6] ka kahana hai ki bebiloni malamas – paddhati ee. poo. 528 tak asnyamit thi tatha yoonan men ee. poo. panchavin evn chauthi shatiyon men avyavasthit thi.[7]

bharat men snvat ka prayog

bharat men janm-patrikaon men snvato ka prayog lagabhag 2000 varshon se adhik prachin nahin hai. snvat ka prayog hindoo-sithiyanon dvara, jinhonne adhunik afaganistan evn uttar-pashchimi bharat men lagabhag ee. poo. 100 evn 100 ee. ke bich shasan kiya, unake vrittanton men hua. yah bat keval bharat men hi nahin payi gayi, pratyut misr, bebilon, yoonan evn rom men snvat ka lagatar prayog bahut bad men jakar prarambh hua.

  • jyotirvidabharan men[8] kaliyug ke 6 vyaktiyon ke nam ae hain, jinhonne snvat chalaye the, yatha-
  1. yudhishthar
  2. vikram
  3. shalivahan
  4. vijayabhinandan
  5. nagarjun evn
  6. kalki
  • yah kram se 3044, 135, 18000, 10000, 400000 evn 821 varshon tak chalate rahe. prachin deshon men snvat ka lagatar prayog nahin tha, keval shasan-varsh hi prayukt hote the.

vikram snvat

vikram snvat ke udbhav evn prayog ke vishay men kuchh kahana mushkil hai. yahi bat shak snvat ke vishay men bhi hai. kisi vikramadity raja ke vishay men, jo ee. poo. 57 men tha, sandeh prakat kie ge hain. is snvat ka arambh gujarat men kartik shukl pratipada se (navambar, ee. poo. 58) hai aur uttari bharat men chaitr krishn pratipada (aprail, ee. poo. 58) se. bita hua vikram varsh eesvi sanh+57 ke barabar hai. kuchh arambhik shilalekhon men ye varsh krit ke nam se aye hain[9].

shak snvat

500 ee. ke uparant snskrit men likhit sabhi jyotiahshastriy granth shak snvat ka prayog karane lage. is snvat ka yah nam kyon pada, is vishay men vibhinn ek mat hain. ise kushan raja kanishk ne chalaya ya kisi any ne, is vishay men antim roop se kuchh nahin kaha ja saka hai. yah ek katin samasya hai jo bharatiy itihas aur kal nirnay ki atyant kathin samasyaon men mani jati hai.

kal ki avadhiyan

maya ank
Mayan Numbers

sabhi deshon men kal ki maulik avadhiyan saman hi hain, jaise - din, mas, varsh, jisamen rituen bhi hain. varsh 'yug athava kal' ke ansh ya bhag hote hain jo kal-kramon evn itihas ke lie bade hi mahattvapoorn hain. halanki kal ki avadhiyan saman hain phir bhi mason evn varshon ki vyavastha men dinon ke kram men antar paya jata hai. dinon ki avadhiyan, din ke arambh-kal, rituon evn mason men varshon ka vibhajan, pratyek mas evn varsh men dinon ki snkhya aur vibhinn prakar ke mason men antar paya jata hai. kal ke bade mapak hain soory evn chandr. saman dhuri par prithvi ke ghoomane se din ka nirman hota hain. mas pramukhatah chandr ganana par adharit hai aur varsh soory ki pratyaksh gati hai kintu vastut: yah soory ke chaturdik prithvi ka bhraman hai. 'ayanavrittiy varsh' soory ke 'vasantik vishuv' se agrim vishuv tak ka samay hai. ayanavrittiy (tropical) varsh, nakshatriy varsh[10] arthath saidariyal varsh se apekshakrit chhota hota hai aur yah kami 20 minaton ki hai, kyonki vasantik vishuv ka bindu prati varsh 50 sekend pashchim ki or ghoom jata hai.[11]

kal ya yug

  • vaidik grnthon men varsh ke kee nam the, jaise - snvatsar, sama, varsh.
  • naradasnhita[12] men kaha gaya hai ki kal ke nau prakar ke man the, -
  1. brahm - brahma ka,
  2. daiv - devon ka,
  3. manush - manav,
  4. pitry -pitaron ka,
  5. saur,
  6. savan,
  7. chandr,
  8. nakshatr evn
  9. barhaspaty, kintu samany bhautik karyon men inamen keval panch hi prayukt hote hain.[13]
  • vedang-jyotish ne char prakar die hain, kyonki usamen aya hai ki ek yug (panch varshon ke) men 61 savan mas, 62 chandr mas, 67 nakshatr mas hote hain.
  • hemadri[14] ne keval tin varsh-man bataye hain, yatha chandr, saur evn savan.
  • madhav[15] ne do aur likhe hain, yatha nakshatr evn barhaspaty.
  • vishnudharmottar ne char ka ullekh kiya hai. (barhaspaty chhod diya hai.)
  • hemadri dvara varnit tin adhikatar dharmik evn laukik karyon men prayukt hote rahe hain.

chandr varsh

ek amavasya se doosari amavasya tak ki avadhi ko chandr mas kahate hain. aise 12 mason se 354 dinon vala ek chandr varsh banata hai. ise ek chandroday se doosare chandroday tak ki avadhi 'lyooneshan' bhi kahate hain. chandr mas ki avadhi 29.246 se 29.817 dinon tak ki hoti hai, kyonki chandrakaksha ke thode jhukav (vipathagamita) evn any karanon se kuchh-n-kuchh antar pad jata hai, kintu madhyam lambaee hai 29.53059 din.

saur varsh

saur mas us avadhi ka soochak hai jo soory dvara ek rashi ko par karane se banati hai.

savan varsh

savan varsh 30 dinon ke 12 mason ka hota hai aur din ki ganana ek sooryoday se doosare sooryoday tak hoti hai.

nakshatr varsh

nakshatr mas vah hai jisamen 27 nakshatron men chandr ke gaman ki avadhi poori hoti hai.

barhaspaty varsh

barhaspaty varsh vah hai jo ek rashi men brihaspati ke bhraman se banata hai (lagabhag 361 din ka varsh). ajakal ki ganana ke anusar brihaspati soory ke charon or 11.86 varshon men chakkar laga leta hai. ye char ya panch kal-vibhag prarambhik granthon men nahin varnit hain. yahan tak ki pashchatkalin ganana men char vibhagon ka upayog nahin hua hai, yadyapi jyotiahshastriy granthon men unaka ullekh avashy hua hai.

  • kautily[16] ne vyakhya di hai ki shramikon ka mas 30 ahoratr (din-ratr) ka hota hai, saur mas 1 din bada hota hai (ek mas men 30½ din), chandr mas men 1 din kam (29½ din), nakshatr mas men 27 din, malamas men 32 din (ya 32ven mas men yah ghatit hota hai). jo log ghodon ko charate hain (ya rakhavali karate hain) unake mas men (parishramik ke lie) 35 din tatha hastivahakon (pilavanon) ke mas men (parishramik ke lie) 40 din hote hain.[17]

saur ganana

  • brahmasphatasiddhant[18] men aya hai ki saur ganana se yug, varsh, vishuv, ayan, rituon, din evn ratri ki vriddhi ka gyan hota hai.

chandr ganana

chandr ganana se tithiyon, karanon, malamas, mas ya kshayamas, ratri ke krityon ka gyan hota hai.

savan ganana

savan ganana se ygyon, savanon (tin som ygyon), grah-gatiyon, upavason, janan-maran-ashauchon, chikitsa, prayashchitton tatha any dharmik krityon ka gyan milata hai.[19]

adhunik kal men varsh ganana

  • adhunik kal men varsh ka arambh bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men kartik ya chaitr mas men hota hai. prachin kalon men vibhinn deshon men vibhinn upayogon ke lie vibhinn mason men varsh ka arambh hota tha. kuchh vaidik vachanon se prakat hota hai ki ganana poornimant thi aur varsh phalgun poornima ke uparant arambh hota tha aur basant varsh ki pratham ritu tha[20]
  • kalanirnay[21] men madhav ne kaha hai ki ved poornimant mas par aroodh hain.
  • smritichandrika[22] ka kathan hai ki dakshinapath men amant evn uttarapath (uttar bharat) men poornimant ganana hoti hai.
  • vedangajyotish[23] ke mat se yug (panch varsh) ka pratham varsh magh shukl (makar snkranti ya uttarayan) se arambh hota hai.
  • albarooni[24] ka ullekh hai ki chaitr, bhadrapad, kartik, margashirsh se bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men varsh ka arambh hota hai.
  • kautily[25] ne kaha hai ki prashasan ke ay-vyay-nirikshan-karyalay men karm snvatsar chandr tha jo ashadh ki poornima ko samapt hota tha.
  • mahabharat, vanaparv[26] men varsh ke chaitrarambh ka ullekh hai. yah sambhav he ki varsh margashirsh se arambh hota tha, kyonki anushasan,[27] ne margashirsh se kartik tak ke ek bhakt vrat ke phalon ka varnan kiya hai.
  • krityaratnakar[28] ne brahm puran ko uddhrit kar likha hai ki kritayug men margashirsh ki pratipada se varsh arambh hota tha.

barhaspaty man

  • vishnudharmottar[29] ka kathan hai ki shashtyabd ka prabhav namak pratham varsh magh shukl se arambh hua, jab soory evn chandr dhanishtha nakshatr men the aur brihaspati se unaka yog tha.
  • brihaspati snhita[30] men shashtyabd ke vibhav se 60ven kshay tak ke phalon ka ullekh hai.[31]. shashtyabd ke pratyek varsh ke sath 'snvatsar' shabd juda hua hai. dakshin men pratyek varsh ke arambh men barhaspaty nam sada parivartit raha hai; kintu uttar bharat men 'prabhav' ke sthan par 'vijay' shabd raha hai. barhaspaty varsh ka vistar 361. 9267 dinon ka hai aur yah nakshatr varsh se 4.23 din kam hain. isaka parinam yah hai ki 85 nakshatr varshon men 86 barhaspaty varsh hain aur 85 varshon ke uparant ek varsh ka kshay ho jata hai.

mas

mason ka vishay atyant jatil hai. bharatiyon ne adi kal se hi chandr saur pnchang ka prayog kiya hai aur yahi bat bebilon, chaldiya ke logon, yahoodiyon evn chiniyon ke bich payi gayi hai. atah sabhi ne malamas ka sahara liya hai. kintu bharatiyon men kshay mas bahut viral tha, jisaka any deshon men abhav tha. yah antar soory evn chandr ki gatiyon evn sthanon ki ganana ke vibhinn dhngon ke karan upasthit hua. adhik mas ki anivaryata par kuchh shabd yahan par die jate hain. saur varsh chandr varsh se 11 dinon se thoda adhik bada hota hai. yah adhikata lagabhag 32 mason men se ek chandr mas ki hoti hai. bebiloniyon ke 19 varshon ke ek vritt 7 malamas arthath sab milakar 235 chandr mas the. isi vritt ko yoonan men 'atheniyanivasi metan' ke nam par 'metanik saikil' (vritt) kaha gaya. isi ke adhar par yahoodi evn eesaee pnchang bane, visheshatah eestar se sambandhit.

  • vedang-jyotish se prakat hai ki ek yug (panch varshon ke vritt) men do malamas hote the, ek tha dhaee sau varshon ke uparant, doosara ashadh aur doosara yug ke ant men doosara paush. yahi bat kautily ne kahi hai.
  • puranon men malamas ki vividh avadhiyon ka ullekh hai.
  • ek apekshakrit adhik nishchit niyam yah hai ki vah chandr mas, jisamen snkranti nahin hoti, adhik kahalata hai aur age ke mas ke nam se, jo shuddh ya nij ya prakrit kahalata hai, dyotit hota hai.
  • yadi ek saur mas men do amavasya padati ho tab malamas hota hai.
  • chandr mas men jab do snkrantiyan hoti hain to do mas ho jate hain, jinamen pratham svikrit hota hai aur doosara chhod diya jata hai. yah doosara kshayamas kahalata hai. isaka tatpary yah hai ki jab ek mas men do snkrantiyan hoti hain to kshayamas hota hai. vah chandr mas jisamen soory mesh rashi men pravisht hota hai, chaitr tatha jisamen vah vrishabh rashi men pravesh karata hai vah vaishakh kahalata hai.
  • adhik evn kshay mas phalgun se ashvin tak ke sat mas keval adhik ho sakate hain, kshay nahin.
  • kartik evn margashirsh adhik evn kshay donon ho sakate hain, kintu aisa bahut kam hota hai. mas adhik ho sakata hai, kintu yah adhik ya kshay kabhi nahin hua hai.[32], kintu shuddhikaumudi[33] men aya hai ki shak snvat 1397 men 'magh mas ka kshay' hua tha.
  • malamasatattv[34] men uddharan aya hai ki magh malamas ho sakata hai, kintu paush nahin.
  • ketakar[35] ke mat se paush ke adhik mas hone ki sambhavana nahin hai kintu vah margashirsh ki apeksha kshay mas hone ki adhik sambhavana rakhata hai. kshay mas samanyatah adhik mas ke poorv ya uparant (turant uparant nahin) hota hai, atah jab kuchh varshon men kshay mas hota hai to do adhik mas paye jate hain.[36]
  • mahabharat, shantiparv[37] ne snvatsaron, mason, pakshon evn divason ke kshay ka ullekh kiya hai. jab kshayamas hota hai to isake poorv ka adhik mas any sadharan mason ke saman pavitr rahata hai, arthath usamen dharmik krity karana mana nahin hai, tatha vah adhik mas jo kshayamas ke uparant ata hai, dharmik krityon ke lie varjit ghoshit kiya gaya hai.

udaharan - yadi chaitr amavasya ko mesh snkranti hai, aur amavasya se age ki tithi se doosari amavasya (jo vaishakh hai) tak koee snkranti nahin hai, aur tab usake uparant pratham tithi men vrishabh snkranti hai, to aisi sthiti men vah mas jisamen snkranti nahin hain adhik vaishakh kaha jaega., aur vah mas jisamen vrishabh snkranti padati hai, shuddh vaishakh hoga.

kshayamas ka udaharan len - yadi bhadrapad amavasya ko kanya snkranti hai, usake uparant adhik ashvin ke bad shuddh ashvin ata hai, jisaki pratham tithi par tula snkranti hai, isake uparant kartik shukl pratipada ko vrishchik snkranti hai, aur margashirsh shukl pratipada ko dhanu snkranti hai aur usi mas ki amavasya ko makar snkranti padati hai. aisi sthiti men do snkrantiyon (dhanu evn makar) vala mas kshayamas hoga aur tab paush (margashirsh evn paush se bane) ka ek mas hoga. jab magh amavasya ko kumbh snkranti hai to phalgun adhik mas hoga aur shuddh phalgun shukl pratipada ko min snkranti hogi. is prakar us varsh men, jisamen kshayamas hota hai, ab bhi 13 mas hote hain aur usake din 390 se thode kam hote hain.

  • krityaratnakar men aya hai[38], dharmashastr men nakshatr mas ki avashyakata nahin padati, yah keval jyotish shastr men hi chalata hai. pnchang samanyatah pratyek varsh ke lie banate hain. unamen 12 (ya 13, jab malamas hota hai) ke do pakshon ke prithakh prishth hote hain.
  • bharatiy pnchang ke panch mahattvapoorn bhag hain -
  1. tithi
  2. saptah
  3. din
  4. nakshatr
  5. yog evn karan.
  • muhoortadarshan[39] ke mat se isamen rashiyon ke samavesh se chhah tatha grahon ki sthitiyon ke ullekh se sat bhag hote hain. ek sooryoday se doosare sooryoday tak ek var (din) hota hai.
  • barah mahinon evn unake do-do gathit 6 rituon ka ullekh bahut prachin hai.[40].
  • mason ke vaidik nam hain-
  1. madhu
  2. madhav
  3. shukr
  4. shuchi
  5. nabhash
  6. nabhasy
  7. ish
  8. oorj
  9. sahash
  10. sahasy
  11. tapash evn
  12. tapasy.
  • brahmanon men nakshatron se gyapit chandr mason ka ullekh hai. isi se kuchh log saur evn chandr rituon ka bhi ullekh karate hain. saur mas min rashi ya mesh rashi se arambh hote hain tatha chaitr adi (ya shesh vale) kahalate hain.
  • panini ne mason ki vyutpatti ki hai, yatha chitrayukt paurnamasi se chaitr, aur spasht roop se[41] agrahayani, phalguni, shravan, kartiki evn chaitri[42] ke nam die hain. 'paurnamasi' poornamas se vyutpann hai[43]. pushy nakshatr vali paurnamasi tithi 'paushi' kahi gee hai[44].
  • is prakar vikas ke tin star hai -
  1. 27 nakshatron ke roop prakat hue aur unake nam vaidik snhitaon men hi prachalit ho ge;
  2. isake uparant paurnamasi chaitri paurnamasi kahi gee adi, kyonki is tithi par chandr chitra nakshatr men tha, adi;
  3. isake uparant mason ke nam yon pade - chaitr, vaishakh adi, kyonki unamen chaitri ya vaishakhi paurnamasi thi. yah sab panini ke bahut pahale prachalit hua. age chalakar saur mas madhu, madhav adi chaitr, vaishakh adi chandr mason se dyotit hone lage aur samanarthi ho ge. yah kab hua, kahana kathin hai. kintu eesa ke bahut pahale aisa hua. paurnamasi ke din chandr bhale hi chitra ya shravan nakshatr men ya usake pas n ho kintu mas tab bhi chaitr ya shravan kahalata hai.
  • prachin brahman kalon men mas poornimant (poornima se ant hone vale) the. yahan tak ki kanishk evn huvishk jaise uttar bharat ke videshi shasakon ke vrittanton men poornimant mason ka prayog paya jata hai, kintu kahin-kahin maisidoni nam bhi ae hain.
  • eesa poorv ke shilalekhon men mason[45] ke nam bahut kam ae hain. prachalit dhng tha ritu, taduparant ritu men namarahit mas tatha divas ka ullekh. kahin-kahin keval ritu, pakshon ki snkhya evn din ke nam ae hain. kabhi-kabhi mas ka nam aya hai, kintu paksh ya dinon ke nam lagatar (1 se 30 tak) nahin ae hain. yah sthiti, arthath pakshon evn dinon ki varnan rahitata, 9vin shati tak chali gee. ajakal log sudi, vadi ya vady ka prayog karate hain, unamen pratham (arthath sudi) shukl din (ya divas) ya shuddh din ka chhota roop hai tatha doosara (vadi) bahul din ya divas (v ya b parivartit hote rahate hain) ka chhota roop hai. vady ka arth spasht nahin ho pata. yah nahin samajh men ata ki eesa ke poorv evn uparant ke bahut-se shilalekhon men 'paksh' shabd ka ullekh kyon nahin hua hai, jabaki brahmanon evn upanishad jaise prachin granthon men usaka ullekh hua hai.
  • dakshin bharat men mason ke nam rashiyon par adharit hain, yatha - min-mas, mesh-mas adi. yahi prayog panday desh men bhi prachalit tha.

adhik mas

  • adhik mas kee namon se vikhyat hai - adhimas, malamas, malimluch, snsarp, anhaspati ya anhasaspati, purushottamamas. inaki vyakhya avashyak hai. yah drashtavy hai ki bahut prachin kal se adhik mas nindy thaharaye ge hain.
  • aitarey brahman[46] men aya haiah 'devon ne som ki lata 13ven mas men kharidi, jo vyakti ise bechata hai vah patit hai, 13van mas phaladayak nahin hota.'
  • taitariy snhita men 13van mas 'snsarp' evn 'anhaspati'[47] kaha gaya hai.
  • rigved men 'anhash' ka tatpary pap se hai. yah atirikt mas hai, atah adhimas ya adhik mas nam pad gaya hai. ise malamas isalie kaha jata hai ki manon yah kal ka mal hai.
  • atharvaved[48] men 'malimluch' aya hai, kintu isaka arth spasht nahin hai.
  • kathasnhita[49] men bhi isaka ullekh hai.
  • pashchatkalin sahity men 'malimluch' ka arth hai 'chor'.[50].
  • malamasatattv[51] men yah vyutpatti haiah 'mali sanh mlochati gachchhatiti malimluchah' arthath 'malin (gnda) hone par yah age badh jata hai'. 'snsarp' evn 'anhasaspati' shabd vajasaneyi snhita[52] men tatha 'anhasaspatiy vajasaneyi snhita[53] men ae hain.[54].
  • 'anhasaspati' ka shabdik arth hai 'pap ka svami'. pashchatkalin lekhakon ne 'snsarp' evn 'anhasaspati' men antar vyakt kiya hai. jab ek varsh men do adhimas hon aur ek kshay mas ho to donon adhimason men pratham 'snsarp' kaha jata hai aur yah vivah ko chhodakar any dharmik krityon ke lie nindy mana jata hai. anhasaspati kshay mas tak simit hai. kuchh puranon men[55] adhimas purushottam mas (vishnu ko purushottam kaha jata hai) kaha gaya hai aur sambhav hai, adhimas ki nindyata ko kam karane ke lie aisa nam diya gaya hai.
  • dharmashastriy granthon men adhimas ke vishay par bahut kuchh likha hua hai-
  • agni puran[56] men aya hai - vaidik agniyon ko prajvalit karana, moorti-pratishtha, ygy, dan, vrat, snkalp ke sath ved-path, sand chhodana (vrishotsarg), choodakaran, upanayan, namakaran, abhishek adhimas men nahin karana chahie.
  • hemadri[57] ne varjit evn many krityon ki lambi-lambi soochiyan di hain.[58].
  • samany niyam yah hai ki malamas men nity karmon evn naimittik karmon (kuchh vishisht avasaron par kie jane vale karmon) ko karate rahana hi chahie, yatha sandhya, pooja, pnchamahaygy (brahmaygy, vaishvadev adi), agni men havi dalana (agnihotr ke roop men), grahan-snan (yadyapi yah naimittik hai), antyeshti karm (naimittik). yadi shastr kahata hai ki yah krity (yatha som ygy) nahin karana chahie to use adhimas men sthagit kar dena chahie. yah bhi samany niyam hai ki kamy (nity nahin, vah jise kisi phal ki prapti ke lie kiya jata hai) karm nahin karana chahie. kuchh apavad bhi hain, yatha kuchh karm, jo adhimas ke poorv hi arambh ho ge hon (yatha 12 dinon vala prajapaty prayashchit, ek mas vala chandrayan vrat), adhimas tak bhi chalae ja sakate hain. yadi dubhiksh ho, varsha n ho rahi ho to usake lie 'kariri ishti' adhimas men bhi karana mana nahin hai, kyonki aisa n karane se hani ho jane ki sambhavana rahati hai. ye baten kalanirnay-karikaon (21-24) men varnit hain.[59]
  • kuchh baten malamas ke lie hi vyavasthit hain, yatha pratidin ya kam se kam ek din brahmanon ko 33 apoopon (pooon) ka dan karana chahie.
  • kuchh aise karm hain jo shuddh mason men hi karaniy hain, yatha vapi evn tadag (bavali evn talab) khudavana, koop banavana, ygy karm, mahadan evn vrat.
  • kuchh aise karm hain jo adhimas evn shuddh mas, donon men kie ja sakate hain, yatha garbh ka krity (punsavan jaise snskar), byaj lena, parishramik dena, mas-shraddh (amavasya par), ahnik dan, antyeshti kriya, nav-shraddh, magha nakshatr ki trayodashi par shraddh, solah shraddh, chandr evn saur grahanon par snan, nity evn naimittik krity[60].
  • jis prakar hamare yahan 13ven mas (malamas) men dharmik krity varjit hain, pashchim deshon men 13vin snkhya abhagyasoochak mani jati hai, visheshatah mej par 13 chizon ki snkhya.

saur din

donon sooryodayon ke bich ki kalavadhi atyant mahattvapoorn avadhi mani jati hai. yah saur din hai aur lok-din bhi. kintu tithi to kal ka chandr vibhag hai jisaka saur din ke vibhinn digh-vibhagon men ant hota hai. 'din' shabd ke do arth hai-

  1. sooryoday se sooryast tak,
  2. sooryoday se sooryoday tak.
  • rigved[61] men 'ahah' shabd ka din ke 'krishn' bhag (ratri) evn 'arjun' (chamakadar ya shvet) bhag ki or snket hai[62]. rigved men ratri shabd ka prayog utana nahin hua hai jitana ki 'ahanh' ka, kintu 'din' ka samasik prayog adhik hua hai, yatha - sudinatv', 'sudin', madhyandin.'

saptah

  • bharatiy pnchangon ke panch angon men ek saptah-din bhi hai. atah dinon evn saptah-dinon par snkshep men likhana avashyak hai.
  • saptah keval manav nirmit vyavastha hai. isake pichhe koee jyotiahshastriy ya prakritik yojana nahin hai.
  • spen akraman ke poorv meksiko men panch dinon ki yojana thi.
  • sat dinon ki yojana yahoodiyon, bebiloniyon evn dakshin amerika ke inka logon men thi.
  • lokatantrik yug men romanon men ath dinon ki vyavastha thi, misriyon evn prachin atheniyanon men das dinon ki yojana thi.
  • old testament men aya hai ki eeshvar ne chhah dinon tak srishti ki aur sataven din vishram karake use ashish dekar pavitr banaya. - jenesira[63], eksodas[64] evn deuteronami[65] men eeshvar ne yahoodiyon ko chhah dinon tak kam karane ka adesh diya hai aur ek din (sataven din) aram karane ko kaha hai aur use eeshvar ke saibbath (vishramavasar) ke roop men pavitr manane ki agya di hai.
  • yahoodiyon ne saibbath (jo ki saptah ka antim din hai) ko chhodakar kisi din ko nam nahin diya hai; use ve ravivar n kahakar shanivar manate hain.
  • old testament men saptah-dinon ke nam (vyaktivachak) nahin milate. aisa pratit hota hai ki nyoo testament men bhi saptah-din keval snkhya se hi dyotit hain[66]. saptah men koee n koee din katipay deshon evn dharmik sampradayon dvara saibbath (vishramadin) ya pavitr mana gaya hai, yatha - somavar yoonani saibbath din, mngal parasiyon ka, budh asiriyon ka, brihaspati misriyon ka, shukr musalamanon ka, shanivar yahoodiyon ka evn ravivar eesaeeyon ka pavitr vishramadin hai.
  • taaulmi ne apane 'tetrabillas' men saptah ka jyotishiy-prayog nahin diya hai. aj ke dinon ke nam grahon par adharit hain, jaise-
  1. soory
  2. chandr
  3. mngal
  4. budh
  5. brihaspati
  6. shukr evn
  7. shani namak sat grahon par adharit hain. kee karanon se ravivar saptah ka pratham din hai; ek karan yah hai ki usi din srishti ka arambh hua. jis prakar dinon ka kram hai, usamen grahon ki doori, unake gurutv, prakash evn mahatta ka koee samavesh nahin hai.
  • yagyvalky smriti[67] ne grahon ka kram is prakar diya hai-
  1. soory
  2. chandr
  3. mngal
  4. budh
  5. brihaspati
  6. shukr
  7. shani
  8. rahu evn
  9. ketu.

sndarbh pustaken

  • jo log bharatiy jyotishashastr (aistranomi) ke vishay men janakari prapt karana chahate hain ve nimn granthon evn lekhon ko padh sakate hain—
  1. varen ka kal snkalit; sooryasiddhant (hvitani dvara anoodit);
  2. varahamihir ki panjasiddhantika (thibo evn sudhakar dvivedi dvara anudit);
  3. je. bi. javis krit 'indien metraloji';
  4. shnkar balakrishn dikshit ka indien kailendar (1896 ee.);
  5. sevel krit 'indien konographi' (1912 ee.);
  6. sevel krit 'siddhantaz end indien kailendar;
  7. lokamany tilak krit 'vedik kronojoji end vedangajyotish' (1925);
  8. divan bahadur svamakinnoo pillee krit 'indien ephimeris' (sat jildon men);
  9. vi. bi. ketakar krit 'jyatirganitamh, ketaki, vaijayanti, grahaganit, evn endien end pharen kronolozi;
  10. jaikovi ke lekh (epigraifiya indika, jild 1, pri. 403-460; jild 2, pri. 487-498; jild 12, pri. 47, vahi, pri. 158);
  11. sevel ke lekh (e. i., jild 14, pri. 1, 24; jild 15, pri. 159; jild 16, pri. 100-221; jild 17, pri. 17, 173, 205;
  12. indien histaaurikal kvartarali, jild 4, pri. 483-511, jild 10, pri. 332-336);
  13. natikal elmainek (1935);
  14. pro. senagupt krit 'ainshyent indiyan kronolaauji' 1947, kalakatta vishvavidyalay;
  15. daau. ke el. daftari krit 'karan-kalpalata', snskrit men;
  16. 'bharatiy jyoshi-shastr nirikshan', marathi men;
  17. daau. meghanath saha ka lekh 'ripharm aauph di indiyan kailendar', sains end kalchar, kalakatta, 1952, pri. 57-68, 109-123);
  18. riport aauph d kailendar riphaaurm kamiti, bharat sarakar dvara prakashit, 1955, yah bahut labhadayak granth hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aryabhat, par adharit madhyakal ki gananaen, jo apekshakrit kam thik phal prakat karati hain
  2. vaishnavon ke ek sampraday ke logon
  3. rigved - 1.25.8
  4. ath varshon ke vritt
  5. amerikan jarnal aauph semetik laingvejez, jild 55, 1938, pri. 116
  6. jarnal aauph helenistik stadiz, jild 39, pri. 179
  7. kailendar riphaaurm kamiti ki riport, pri. 175-176.
  8. yah pashchatkalin rachana hai, jisamen yah aya hai ki yah gatakali 3068 arthath eesa snvath se 33 varsh poorv men nirmit hua
  9. nand-yoop shilalekh men 282 krit varsh; tin yoopon ke maukhari shilalekhon men 295 krit varsh; vijayagadh stambh-abhilekh men 428; mandasaur men 461 tatha gadadhar men 480
  10. ek hi achal tare par soory ki lagatar ek ke uparant ek do bar pahunch ke bich ka samay
  11. prithvi ki do gatiyon (apani dhuri par isaki pratidin ki gati ya chakkar aur soory ke chaturdikh isake varshik chakkar) ke atirikt ek tisari gati bhi hai jise log bhali-bhanti nahin janate hain. prithvi poornatah golak nahin hai, isaka nirakshiy arthath bhoomadhy rekhiy vyas isake dhruviy vyas se bada hai. jisaka phal yah hota hai ki bhoomadhy rekha par padarth-samooh ubhara hua hai, jo us sthiti se adhik hai jab ki prithvi poornaroopen gol hoti. prithvi ki dhuri par ek halki soochyakar chakkar men ghoomane vali gati hai, jo lattoo ke saman hai aur vah 25,8000 varshon men ek chakkar laga pati hai. yah varshik hatana 50".2 sekend ka hai, jo soory evn chandr ke nirakshiy ubhar par khinchav ke karan hota hai. isi se sthir tare, yahan tak ki dhruv tara bhi ek shati ke uparant doosari shati ya doosare kal men apane sthanon se parivartit drishtigochar hote hain. - naaurman laaukar evn hikki
  12. naradasnhita 3|1-2
  13. brahmn daivn manushn ch pitryn saurn ch savanamh.
    chandramarksh gurormanamiti manani vai nav..
    eshan tu navamanan vyavaharoatr panchabhiah.
    teshan prithakh-prithakh kary vakshyate vyavaharatah.. narad-snhita (3|1-2).
    kalp brahma ka din hai (sooryasiddhant 1|20)!;
    ek manav-varsh devon ke ek din ke barabar hai (ekn va etadh devanamaho yatsnvatsarah. taittiriy brahman, 3|9|22|1);
    ek manav-mas pitaron ka ahoratr hai (manu 1|66).
    manushaman (manav man) vimishr (mishrit) hai kyonki log vibhinn upayogon ke lie char man prayukt karate hain, jaisa ki si0 shi0 (1|30-31) men ullikhit hai -
    gyeyn vimishrn tu manushyamann manaishcharbhirvyavaharavritteah..
    varshayanartuyugapoorvakamatr sauranh masastatha ch tithayastuhinanshumanath.
    yatkrichchhrasootak chikitsivasaradyn tatsavanachch ghatikadakimarkshamanath..) kintu usane age kaha hai (1|32) ki grahon ke man manav man se kie jate hain (grahastu sadhya manujaiah svamanath)

  14. kal, pri. 9
  15. kalanirnayakarika 11-12
  16. arthashastr, 2|120, pri. 108
  17. trinshadahoratrah prakarmabhasah.
    sardhasaurah (sardhah saurah).
    ardhanyoonashchandramasah.
    saptarvishatirnakshatramasah.
    dvartrishadh malamasah.
    panchartrishadashvavahayaah.
    chatvarrishaddhastivahayaah. arthashastr (2|20, pri. 108).
    mahabhashy (panini 4|2|21 ke vartik 2 par) le bhritakamas (vetan vali naukari ke mas) ka ullekh kiya hai jo prakarmamas ka parichayak-sa hai.

  18. brihatsnhita 2|4, pri. 40 par utpal dvara udadhrit
  19. vishnudharmottar (1|72|26-27).
  20. taittiriy brahman 1|1|2|13; kaushitaki brahman 5|1; shankhayan brahman 19|3; tandy brahman 5|9|7-12 adi).
  21. kalanirnay pri. 61
  22. smritichandrika shraddh, pri. 377
  23. vedangajyotish 1|5
  24. sachau 2, pri. 8-9
  25. kautily, arthashastr 2|6, pri. 63
  26. mahabharat, vanaparv130|14-16
  27. mahabharat. anushasan, 106|17-30
  28. krityaratnakar pri. 452
  29. vishnudharmottar (1|82|8)
  30. brihaspati snhita 4|27|-52
  31. vishnudharmottar (1|82|9), agni puran (adhyay 139) evn bhavishy puran (jyotistattv, pri. 692-697 men uddhrit
  32. ketakar ka granth, indiyan end pharen kronolaji, pri. 40
  33. shuddhikaumudi pri. 272
  34. malamasatattv pri. 774
  35. ketakar ka granth, indiyan end phaauren kronolaji pri. 40
  36. kailendar riphaaurm kamiti riport, pri. 246-252.
  37. mahabharat, shantiparv 301|46-47
  38. krityaratnakar pri. 80
  39. muhoortadarshan 1|44
  40. taittiriy snhita (4|2|31), vajasaneyi snhita (13|25
  41. panini, ashtadhyayi 4|2|22
  42. panini, ashtadhyayi 4|2|23
  43. vartik 2, pa0 4|3|35
  44. panini, ashtadhyayi 4|2|2 evn 4|2|31
  45. ee0 poorv doosari shati ke menendar ke kharoshthi abhilekh men kartik chaturdashi ka ullekh hai
  46. aitarey brahman 3|1
  47. taitariy snhita 1|4|4|1 evn 6|5|3|4
  48. atharvaved 8|6|2
  49. kathasnhita 38|14
  50. rigved 10|136|2, vajasaneyi snhita (22|30), shankhayan shrautasootr (6|12|15
  51. malamasatattv pri. 768
  52. vajasaneyi snhita 22|30 evn 31
  53. vajasaneyi snhita 7|31
  54. taitariy snhita (1|4|14|1 evn 6|5|3|4
  55. padm puran, 6|64
  56. agni puran 175|29-30
  57. hemadri, kal, pri. 36-63
  58. nirnayasindhu (pri. 10-15) evn dharmasindhu (pri. 5-7
  59. kamyarambhn tatsamaptin vivarjayeth.
    arabdhn malamasath prakh krichchhrn chandradikn tu yath.
    tatsamapyn savanasy manasyanatilnghanath..
    arambhasy samapteshch madhye syachchenmalimluchah.
    pravrittamakhiln kamyn tadanushtheyamev tu..
    kariryadi tu yatkamyn tasyarambhasamapane karyakalavilambasy pratikshaya asambhavath..
    ananyagatikn nityamagnihotradi n tyajeth.
    gatyantarayutn nityn somayagadi varjayeth.. - kalanirnay-karika (21-24).

  60. hemadri, kal, pri. 52; samay prakash, pri. 145
  61. rigved 6|9|1
  62. ahashch krishnamahararjunn ch vi vartete rajasi vedyabhiah
  63. jenesira 2|1-3
  64. eksodas 20|8-11,23|12-14
  65. deuteronami 5|12-15
  66. maithyoo, 28|1; mark, 16|9; lyook, 24|1
  67. yagyvalky smriti 1|293
  68. vishnupuran 1|12|92

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