ब्रज का आदिम काल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

braj vishay soochi
braj ka adim kal
braj ke vibhinn drishy
vivaran bhagavat men ‘braj’ kshetr vishesh ko ingit karate hue hi prayukt hua hai. vahan ise ek chhote gram ki sngya di gee hai. usamen ‘pur’ se chhota ‘gram’ aur usase bhi chhoti basti ko ‘braj’ kaha gaya hai. 16vin shatabdi men ‘braj’ pradesh ke arth men hokar ‘brajamndal’ ho gaya aur tab usaka akar 84 kos ka mana jane laga tha.
braj kshetr aj jise ham braj kshetr manate hain usaki dishaain, uttar disha men palaval (hariyana), dakshin men gvaliyar (madhy pradesh), pashchim men bharatapur (rajasthan) aur poorv men eta (uttar pradesh) ko chhooti hain.
braj ke kendr mathura evn vrindavan
braj ke van kotavan, kamyavan, kumudavan, kokilavan, khadiravan, talavan, bahulavan, biharavan, belavan, bhadravan, bhandiravan, madhuvan, mahavan, lauhajnghavan evn vrindavan
bhasha hindi aur brajabhasha
pramukh parv evn tyohar holi, krishn janmashtami, yam dvitiya, guru poornima, radhashtami, govardhan pooja, gopashtami, nandotsav evn kns mela
pramukh darshaniy sthal krishn janmabhoomi, dvarikadhish mandir, rajakiy sngrahalay, banke bihari mandir, rng nath ji mandir, govind dev mandir, iskaaun mandir, madan mohan mandir, danaghati mndir, manasi gnga, kusum sarovar, jayagurudev mandir, radha rani mndir, nand ji mndir, vishram ghat , daooji mndir
snbndhit lekh braj ka pauranik itihas, braj chaurasi kos ki yatra, moorti kala mathura
any janakari braj ke van–upavan, kunj–nikunj, shri yamuna v giriraj atyant mohak hain. pakshiyon ka madhur svar ekanki sthali ko madak evn manohar banata hai. moron ki bahutayat tatha unaki pioo–pioo ki avaz se vatavaran gunjayaman rahata hai.

"itihas yane anadi kal se ab tak ka sara jivan. puran yane anadi kal se ab tak tika hua anubhav ka amar ansh." -vinoba

krishn poorv kal

raja kuru ke nam par hi sarasvati nadi ke nikat ka rajy kurukshetr kaha gaya. prachin samay ke rajaon ki vnshavali ka adhyayan karane se pata chalata hai ki pnchal raja sudas ke samay men bhim satvat yadav ka beta andhak bhi raja raha hoga. is andhak ke bare men pata chalata hai ki vah shoorasen rajy ke samakalin rajy ka svami tha. andhak apane pita bhim ke saman vir n tha. is yuddh se gyat hota hai ki vah bhi sudas se har gaya tha.

tirthnkar neminath jain

avaidik dharmon men jain dharm sabase prachin hai, pratham tirthnkar bhagavan rishabhadev mane jate hain. jain dharm ke anusar bhi rishabhadev ka mathura se snbndh tha. jain dharm men prachalit anushruti ke anusar, nabhiray ke putr bhagavan rishabhadev ke adesh se indr ne 52 deshon ki rachana ki thi. shoorasen desh aur usaki rajadhani mathura bhi un deshon men thi.[1] jain 'harivnsh puran' men prachin bharat ke jin 18 maharajyon ka ullekh hua hai, unamen shoorasen aur usaki rajadhani mathura ka nam bhi hai. jain manyata ke anusar pratham tirthnkar rishabhadev ke sau putr hue the.


jain dharm ke sataven tirthnkar suparshvanath ka vihar mathura men hua tha.[2] anek vihar-sthal par kubera devi dvara jo stoop banaya gaya tha, vah jain dharm ke itihas men bada prasiddh raha hai. chaudahaven tirthnkar anntanath ka smarak tirth bhi mathura men yamuna nadi ke tat par tha. 22ven tirthnkar neminath ko jain dharm men shrikrishn ke samakalin aur unaka chachera bhaee mana jata hai. is prakar jain dharm-grnthon ki prachin anushrutiyon men braj ke prachinatam itihas ke anek sootr milate hain. jain grnthon men ullekh hai ki yahan parshvanath mahavir svami ne yatra ki thi. 'pumachariy' men ek katha varnit hai, jisake anusar sat sadhuon dvara sarvapratham mathura men hi shvetanbar jain sampraday ka prachar kiya gaya tha.

prajatantrik braj ke adhar men bauddh anushruti

arnbhik braj vasiyon (shoor senaee) men sarvasammati se neta nirvachit kiya jata tha, jo `mahasammat' kahalata tha. sarvastivadi vinay pitak men kaha gaya hai ki us raja ne mathura ke pas apana sarvapratham rajy sthapit kiya tha. is prakar bauddh anushruti ke anusar bhi mathura is bhootal ka 'adi rajy' siddh hota hai. [3] jis samay bhagavanh buddh mathura aye the, tab unhonne anand se kaha tha ki yah adi rajy hai, jisane apane liye raja (mahasammat) chuna tha.[4] pali sahity ke prachinatam grnth `anguttaranikay' men bhagavan buddh se pahale ke jin 16 mahajanapadon ka namollekh milata hai, unamen pahila nam `shoorasen' janapad ka hai. is prakar bauddh dharm ke sahity men bhi braj ki pragaitihasik parnpara ke ullekh prapt hote hain.

madhupur, madhuvan aur madhupuri

puranon men anek rajaon aur shasakon ke vishay men pray: adhoore varnan avashy milate hain. yatha ushanas ne ek sau ashvamedh ygy kiye. krath-bhim ke bhaee kaushik se yadavon ke chedi vnsh ka prarambh hai. bad men vidarbh ka shasak bhimarath hua, jisaki putri damaynti nishadaraj raja nal ko byahi gee. yadavon men madhu ek pratapi shasak mana jata hai. yah ikshvaku vnshi raja dilip dvitiy ka athava usake uttaradhikari dirghabahu ka samakalin raha hoga madhu ke gujarat se lekar yamuna tat tak ke svami hone ka varnan hai. [5] , pray: madhu ko `asur`, daity, danav adi kaha gaya hai. sath hi yah bhi hai ki madhu bada dharmik evn nyayapriy shasak tha. madhu ki stri ka nam kunbhinasi tha, jisase lavan ka janm hua.

lavan bada hone par logon ko anek prakar se kasht pahunchane laga. lavan ko atyachari raja kaha gaya hai. is par du:khi hokar kuchh rishiyon ne ayodhya jakar shriram se sab baten bataee aur unase prarthana ki ki lavan ke atyacharon se logon ko shighr chhutakara dilaya jay. ant men shriram ne shatrughn ko madhupur jane ki agya di. lavan ko mar kar shatrughn ne usake pradesh par apana adhikar kiya. puranon tatha valmiki ramayan ke anusar madhu ke nam par madhupur ya madhupuri nagar yamuna tat par basaya gaya.[6] isake asapas ka ghana van `madhuvan` kahalata tha. madhu ko lila namak asur ka jyeshth putr likha hai aur use bada dharmatma, buddhiman aur paropakari raja kaha gaya hai. madhu ne shiv ki tapasya kar unase ek amogh trishool prapt kiya. nishchay hi lavan ek shaktishali shasak tha, kintu krishn datt vajapeyi ke matanusar 'chandravnsh' ki 61vin pidhi men hua ukt 'madhu' tatha lavan-pita 'madhu' ek hi the athava nahin, yah vivadaspad hai. puranon adi ki talika men poorvokt madhu ke pita ka nam devan tatha putr ka nam puroovnsh diya hai aur isako ayodhya naresh raghu ke poorvavarti dirghavahu ka samakalin dikhaya gaya hai, n ki ram ya dasharath ka. isase tatha puranon ke haryashch-madhumati upakhyan'[7] se bhasit hota hai ki snbhavat: yaduvnshi madhu tatha lavan-pita madhu ek vyakti n the.'

mathura nagari

lavan ne apane rajy ko vistrit kar liya. is kam men apane bahanoee hriryashv se madad li hogi. lavan ne rajy ki poorvi sima gnga nadi tak badha li aur ram ko kahalavaya ki 'mai tumhare rajy ke nikat ke hi rajy ka raja hoon.' lavan ki chunauti se spsht tha ki lavan ki shakti badh gee thi. lavan ke dvara ravan ki sarahana tatha ram ki ninda is bat ki soochak hai ki ravan ki niti aur kary use pasnd the. isase pata chalata hai ki lavan aur usaka pita madhu snbhavat: kisi anary shakha ke the. prachin sahity men madhu ki nagari madhupuri ke varnanon se gyat hota hai ki us nagari ka sthapaty shreshth koti ka tha. shatrughn bhi us manamohak nagar ko dekh kar arshchayachakit ho gaye. vaidik sahity men anaryon ke vishal tatha dridh durgon ev makanon ke varnan milate hain. snbhavatah lavan-pita madhu ya unake kisi poorvaj ne yamuna ke tatavarti pradesh par adhikar kar liya ho. yah adhikar lavan ke samay se samapt ho gaya. madhuvan aur madhupuri ke nivasiyon ya lavan ke anuyayion ko shatrughn ne samapt kar diya hoga. snbhavat: unhonne madhupuri ko nasht nahin kiya. unhonne jngal ko saf karavaya tatha prachin madhupuri ko ek naye dhng se abad kar use sushobhit kiya. prachin pauranik ullekhon tatha ramayan ke varnan se yahi prakat hota hai. ramayan men devon se var mangate hue shatrughn kahate hain- `he devatagan, mujhe var den ki yah sundar madhupuri ya mathura nagari, jo aisi sushobhit hai manon devataon ne svayn banaee ho, shighr bas jay.` devataon ne `evamastu` kaha aur mathura nagari bas gee. barah varsh men is mathura tatha isake nikatasth pradesh ki kaya hi palat gee.[8]



pichhe jaen
braj ka adim kal
age jaen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jinasenachary krit mahapuran- parv 16, shlok 155
  2. jinaprabh soori krit 'bibidh tirth kalp' ka 'mathura puri kalp' prakaran, prishth 17 v 85
  3. uttar pradesh men bauddh dharm ka vikas, prishth 30
  4. uttar pradesh men bauddh dharm ka vikas, prishth 181
  5. harivnsh puran 1,54,22; vishnu puran 1, 12, 3 adi isaka ek karan yah kaha ja sakata hai ki puranakaron adi ne bhramavash madhukaitabh daity aur yadav raja madhu ko ek samajh liya.
  6. yahi nagar bad men `madhura' ya `mathura' hua. vajapeyi-mathura-parichay (mathura, 1950) prishth 38
  7. madhu ne hriryashv kaha -`tumhara vnsh kalantar men yayati vale yaduvnsh ke sath ghul-mil jayega aur tumhari sntati chndravnsh ki ek shakha ho jayegi`
    yayatamapi vnshaste sameshyati ch yadvamh.
    anuvnsh ch vnshaste somasy bhavita kil.. (hari0 2, 37, 34)isake bad hriryashv ke dvara rajy-vistar tatha unake dvara giri par ek nagar (snbhavat: govardhan) basane ka ullekh hai aur shasan ki prashnsa hain.
  8. iyn madhupuri ramya mathura devanirmita.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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