आसवन विधि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(आसवन se punarnirdeshit)

(angrezi:Distillation) drav ko garm karake vashp banana aur phir us vashp ko thnda karake drav ke roop men lane ki vidhi ko asavan kaha jata hai. asavan vidhi dvara mukhyatah dravon ke mishran ko prithakh‌ kiya jata hai. rasayan vigyan men jab do dravon ke kvathanankon men antar adhik hota hai, to usake mishran ko asavan vidhi se prithakh karate hain. avasan vidhi men drav ko vashp men parinat kar kisi doosare sthan men bheja jata hai, jahan use thnda kar punah drav avastha men parivartit kar liya jata hai. asavan ka pratham bhag vashpikaran evn doosara bhag snghanan kahalata hai.

prakar

asavan vidhi ko tin bhagon men banta gaya hai-

  • prabhajit asavan
  • nirvat asavan
  • prabhnjak asavan

asavan ajakal asavan shabd purane ki apeksha adhik vyapak arth men prayukt hota hai. bhabhake men vashpavanh‌ dravy ko udana aur udi huee bhap ko thnda karake phir chua lena, yah sabaki sab prakriya asavan kahalati hai. asavan ka uddeshy kisi vashpavanh‌ ansh ko any avashpavanh‌ anshon se prithakh‌ kie ja sakate hain. purane samay men asavan ki is vidhi ka upayog keval asavon arthath‌ madira ke saman pey taiyar karane men kiya jata tha, par ajakal asavan dvara anek rasayanik dravyon ka shodhan kiya jata hai. asavan ki ek sadharan paribhasha yah hai ki vilayan men se vilayak ko bhap banakar udana aur phir use snghanit kar lena. is paribhasha ke bhitar sadharan asavan aur prabhajit asavan, donon sammilit hain. asavan se milati julati ek vidhi ka nam oordhvapatan hai. oordhvapatan men vashpavanh‌ thos padarth bhabhake men garam karake udaya jata hai aur phir us bhap ko thnda karake thos shuddh padarth prapt kar liya jata hai.

lokasahity men asav shabd sura ya madira ke arth men prayukt hota hai. drakshasav, ushirasav adi asav ayurved grnthon men prasiddh hain. sautramani ke prakaran men asuta sura ka sabase purana ullekh yajurved ke 19ven adhyay men milata hai. suradhani kunbhi vah patr tha jisamen taiyar ki huee sura rakhi jati thi. akunr nikale hue dhan aur jau se sura banane men sonth, punarnava, pippali adi aushadhiyon ka prayog kiya jata tha. lagabhag tin rat ye padarth pani men sadate rahate the aur phir ubal aur chhanakar sura taiyar ki jati thi.

prakriti men asavan ka sabase utkrisht udaharan samudr ke khare pani men se pani ki bhap ka uthana, phir bhap ka vayumndal ke thnde bhag men pahunchakar thnda hona aur shuddh jal ke roop men barasana hai. varsha ka jal ek prakar se shuddh asut jal hai, parntu barasate samay yah sadharan vayumndal se apadravy ka shoshan kar leta hai.

prayogashalaon aur karakhanon men asavan ke nimitt jis upakaran ka prayog kiya jata hai usake mukhyataya tin ang hote hain: (1) bhabhaka, (2) snghanitr aur (3) grahi. bhabhake men vah mishran rakha jata hai jisamen se vashpavanh‌ ansh prithakh‌ karana hota hai. ye bhabhake upayoganusar kach, tanbe, lohe athava mitti ke bane hote hain. sharab banane ke karakhanon men bahudha tanbe ke bane bhabhakon ka prayog hota hain. aur prayogashalaon men kanch ke bhabhakon ka. bhabhake ke niche bhatthi ya garam karane ke nimitt kisi upayogi sadhan ka prayog kiya jata hai. bhabhake men se udi huee bhap snghanitr men pahunchati hai. snghanitr anek prakar ke prachalit hain. sabhi snghanitron ka uddeshy yah hota hai ki bhap shighr se shighr aur bhali bhanti thndi ho jae. yah avashyak hai ki snghanitr men adhik se adhik prishth us hava ya pani ke snpark men ae jisake dvara bhap ko thnda hona hai. tanba garami ka achchha chalak hai. isaki nalikaen (paip) yathesht patali ban sakati hai; at: karakhanon men adhikatar tanbe ke hi snghanitron ka vyavahar kiya jata hai. vastut: snghanitr vah upakaran hai jisamen garam bhap ek sire se doosare sire tak pahunchate-pahunchate thndi ho jae. jin dravyon ke kvathanank bahut oonche hain, unaki bhap hava se thndi ki ja sakati hai. isake lie vayusnghanitr kam men lae jate hain. ailkohal, benzin, eethar adi dravon ki bhapon ko thnda karane ke lie aise snghanitron ka prayog hota hai jinamen pani ke pravah ka prabndh ho. asavan upakaran ka tisara ang grahi hai. yah vah patr hai jisamen bhap ke thnda ho jane par bana hua drav ikathh‌tha kiya ja sake. grahi bhi suvidhanusar anek prakar ke hote hain.

tin prakar ke asavan mahatvapoorn mane jate hain-prabhajit asavan, nirvat asavan aur bhnjak asavan. prabhajit asavan dvara vilayan, arthath‌ mishran, men se un dravon ko prithakh‌ kiya ja sakata hai jinake kvathanank paryapt bhinn hon. dravon ka vashp prabhajit asavan ke snghanitron men is prakar kramash: thndha kiya ja sakata hai ki grahi men pahale ve drav hi chue jo sapekshat: thndha kiya ja sakata hai jo sapekshat: adhik vashpavanh‌ hon. is kam ke lie jin bhabhakon ka upayog kiya jata hai unamen tap dhire dhire badhata hai.

nirvat asavan ke lie aisa prabndh kiya jata hai ki bhabhake aur snghanitr ke bhitar ki vayu pnp dvara bahut kuchh nikal jae. vilayan ke oopar vayu ki dab kam hone par vilayakon ka kvathanank bhi kam ho jata hai aur ve sapekshat: ati nyoon tap par hi asavit kie ja sakate hain. oopar, prayogashala ke lie upayukt snghanitr; madhy men, aisa jo tin char gailan jal prati ghnta asavit kar sakata hai (1. thnda kar nevale jal ki nikasi, 2. srut jal ki nikasi, 3. gais (eedhan) ane ki nali,)4. jal ane ki nali, 5. bhap-dab mapi; niche, prabhajit asavan ke lie upayukt grahi. prabhnjak asavan ek prakar ka shushk asavan hota hai. isaka sabase achchha udaharan koyale ka asavan hai. patthar ke koyale men pani ka ansh to kam hi hota hai, par jab vah adhik tapt kiya jata hai to usake prabhnjan (tootane) dvara anek padarth banate hain jinhen bhap banakar udaya aur phir thnda karake thos ya drav kiya ja sakata hai. prabhnjan men kuchh aisi bhi gaisen ban sakati hain jo thndi hone par drav ya thos to n banen, par gais roop men hi jinaki upayogita ho; udaharanat:, snbhav hai, in gaison ka upayog hava ke sath jalakar prakash athava ushma paida karane men kiya ja sakata ho. patthar ke koyale se prabhnjak asavan se is prakar ki gaison ke atirikt kriyozot, naiphthailin adi padarth prapt kie ja sakate hain. mitti ke tel ka bhi prabhnjak asavan kiya ja sakata hai.[1]

sadharan asavan ka upayog itr taiyar karane men bhi kiya jata hai. (dr. ailkohal) adi shirshak lekh bhi is snbndh men dekhie). itr taiyar karane men bhap, asavan ka prayog kiya jata hai. pani ki bhap ke sath sath itr udae jate hain aur snghanitr men thnda karake pani aur itr ka mishran grahi men prapt kiya jata hai.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 461-63 |
  2. sn.prn.-thaaurp ki dikshanari aauv enplaed kemistri ; intar sanyas ensaiklopidiya, nyooyark, dvara prakashit, ensaiklopidiya aauv kemikal teknaauloji.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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