लिपि  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

व्यवस्थापन (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 16:48, 1 agast 2017 ka avataran (Text replacement - " महान " to " महान् ")

(अंतर) ← पुराना अवतरण | वर्तमान अवतरण (अंतर) | नया अवतरण → (अंतर)

lipi ka shabdik arth hota hai -likhit ya chitrit karana. dhvaniyon ko likhane ke lie jin chihnon ka prayog kiya jata hai, vahi lipi kahalati hai. hindi ki lipi devanagari hai. hindi ke alava -snskrit ,marathi, konkani, nepali adi bhashaen bhi devanagari men likhi jati hai.

itihas

manav ke mahanh avishkaron men lipi ka sthan sarvopari hai. manav samaj jab tamrayug men pahunchata hai, prachin jagat ki nadighati sabhyataon men jab nagaron ki sthapana hone lagati hai, tab ham pahali bar lipiyon ko janm lete dekhate hain. misr, mesopotamiya aur chin ki arnbhik lipiyan mukhyat: bhav-chitratmak thin. sindhu sabhyata ki lipi kis svaroop ki hai, yah abhi tak jana nahin gaya hai. eesa poorv dasavin sadi ke asapas pahali bar varnamalatmak lipiyan janm leti hain. tab se aj tak lipiyon ka vishesh vikas nahin hua. bahut si puralipiyan mar gee hain, unaka gyan lupt ho gaya tha. pichhale qarib do sau varshon men snsar ke anek puralipividon ne pun: un puralipiyon ka udghatan kiya hai. parinam svaroop hamen prachin sabhyataon ke bare men nee nee janakari mili hai. [1]

lipi ka avishkar

sabhy manav ka sabase bada avishkar hai lekhan-kala. aj ham apane chahunor itani adhik likhit samagri dekhate hain ki yah sochana bhool hi jate hain ki pahale-pahal adami ne likhana kaise arnbh kiya hoga aur lekhan ka vikas kaise hua hoga. manav ke vikas men, arthat manav-sabhyata ke vikas men, vani ke bad lekhan ka hi sabase adhik mahatv hai. any pashuon se adami ko isilie shreshth mana jata hai ki vah vani dvara apane manobhavon ko vyakt kar sakata hai. kintu manav ka bahumukhi vikas is vani ko lipibaddh karane ki kala ke karan hi hua. munh se bole ge shabd ya hav-bhavon se vyakt kie ge vichar chirasthayi nahin rahate. do ya adhik vyaktiyon ke bich men huee batachit keval unhin vyaktiyon tak simit rahati hai. bhasha ka adhar dhvani hai. bhasha shravy ya karnagochar hoti hai. abhi unnisavin shatabdi ke antim dashakon tak boli gee bhasha ko sthayi roop dene ke lie use lipibaddh karane ke alava koee doosara tarika nahin tha.

Blockquote-open.gif snsar ki bahut-si luptapray sabhyataon ke bare men aj ham isilie bahut kuchh janate hain ki ve apane bare men bahut-kuchh likha hua chhod gee hain. Blockquote-close.gif

prachin kal ke manav ko apane vicharon ko surakshit rakhane ke lie lipi ka avishkar karana pada tha. isalie ham kah sakate hain ki lipi aise pratik-chihnon ka snyojan hai jinake dvara shravy bhasha ko drishtigochar banaya jata hai. suni ya kahi huee bat keval usi samay aur usi sthan par upayogi hoti hai. kintu lipibaddh kathan ya vichar dikh aur kal ki simaon ko langh sakate hain. lipi ke bare men yahi sabase mahattvapoorn bat hai. snsar ki bahut-si luptapray sabhyataon ke bare men aj ham isilie bahut kuchh janate hain ki ve apane bare men bahut-kuchh likha hua chhod gee hain.

Blockquote-open.gif misr, mesopotamiya aur chin ki arnbhik lipiyan mukhyat: bhav-chitratmak thin. Blockquote-close.gif

aj snsar men lagabhag 400 vibhinn lipiyon ka prayog hota hai. inamen se bahuton ka arnbh evn vikas prachin kal ki kuchh pramukh lipiyon se hua hai. jaise, eshiya ke pashchimi tat par ee. poo. doosari sahastrabdi men semetik (sami) bhasha-parivar ke lie ek akshar malatmak lipi astitv men aee. 1000 ee. poo. ke asapas is lipi ne vynjanatmak ya varnamalatmak roop dharan kiya. us samay ki is lipi ko 'uttari semetik', kanani' ya 'phinishiyan' jaise nam die ge hain. yoonani lipi spashtat: phinishiyan lipi ke adhar par hi bani thi. aur, aj yoorop, amarika aur snsar ke kee any deshon men jin lipiyon ka chalan hai ve sab is yoonani lipi aur isase nirmit laitin ya roman lipi se hi vikasit huee hain. doosari or yoonani poorv ki or is uttari semetik lipi ne arameee, kharoshthi, pahalavi aur arabi jaisi lipiyon ko janm diya. [1]

bharat men lipi ka itihas

Blockquote-open.gif lipi aise pratik-chihnon ka snyojan hai jinake dvara shravy bhasha ko drishtigochar banaya jata hai. suni ya kahi huee bat keval usi samay aur usi sthan par upayogi hoti hai. kintu lipibaddh kathan ya vichar dikh aur kal ki simaon ko langh sakate hain. Blockquote-close.gif

bharat men lagabhag chhathi shatabdi ee.poo. men astitv men aee brahmi lipi ne bhi bahut-si lipiyon ko janm diya hai. bharat ki sari vartaman lipiyan (arabi-pharasi lipi ko chhodakar) brahmi se hi vikasit huee hain. itana hi nahin tibbati, sinhali tatha dakshin-poorv eshiya ke deshon ki bahut-si lipiyan brahmi se hi janmi hain. tatpary yahi ki dharm ki tarah lipiyan bhi deshon aur jatiyon ki simaon ko langhati chali gee. bhashaon ki simaen langhana to lipiyon ke lie bahut hi saral kam raha hai. jo lipi arnbh men ek semetik bhasha ke lie astitv men aee thi, use bad men 'bharopiy bhasha parivar' ki anek bhashaon ke lie apana liya gaya.

prachin kal se hi lekhan-kala ko pavitr mana jata raha hai. pray: sabhi prachin sabhyataon ne apani lipiyon ke avishkartta ke roop men kisi n kisi devata ki kalpana ki hai. bharat men yah manyata thi ki lipi ke nirmata brahma hain, aur shayad isilie hamare desh ki prachin lipi ka nam brahmi pada. prachin misr ke thot ko lekhan ka devata mana jata tha. bebilon men lekhan ka devata nebo tha. prachin yahoodi parnpara ke anusar lipi ke janak paignbar moosa the. islam ki manyata hai ki allah ne hi akshar banae aur adam ko saunpe. kuchh yoonani anushrutiyon men hermes ko yoonani lipi ka janak bataya gaya hai. parntu ee.poo. chhathi shatabdi ka prasiddh itihasakar hirodotas spasht shabdon men likhata hai ki yoonani lipi ka nirman phinishiyan lipi ke adhar par hua.

aj ham janate hain ki lipiyan manav ki hi kritiyan hai; unhen eeshvar ya devata ne nahin banaya. prachin kal men kisi puratan aur kuchh jatil vastu ko rahasyamay banae rakhane ke lie us par eeshvar ya kisi devata ki muhar laga di jati thi; kintu aj ham janate hain ki lekhan-kala kisi 'oopar vale' ki den nahin hai, balki vah manav ki hi bauddhik kriti hai. [1]

bharat ki pramukh lipiyan

Blockquote-open.gif bhasha ka adhar dhvani hai. bhasha shravy ya karnagochar hoti hai. abhi unnisavin shatabdi ke antim dashakon tak boli gee bhasha ko sthayi roop dene ke lie use lipibaddh karane ke alava koee doosara tarika nahin tha. Blockquote-close.gif

devanagari lipi

isamen kul 52 akshar hain, jisamen 14 svar aur 38 vynjan hain. aksharon ki kram vyavastha (vinyas) bhi bahut hi vaigyanik hai. svar-vynjan, komal-kathor, alpapran-mahapran, anunasiky-antasth-ushm ityadi vargikaran bhi vaigyanik hain. ek mat ke anusar devanagar (kashi) men prachalan ke karan isaka nam devanagari pada. bharat tatha eshiya ki anek lipiyon ke snket devanagari se alag hain (urdoo ko chhodakar), par uchcharan v varn-kram adi devanagari ke hi saman hain- kyonki vo sabhi brahmi lipi se utpann huee hain. isalie in lipiyon ko paraspar asani se lipyantarit kiya ja sakata hai. devanagari lekhan ki drishti se saral, saundary ki drishti se sundar aur vachan ki drishti se supathy hai.[2]

brahmi lipi

ashok ki brahmi lipi ke akshar

brahmi lipi ek prachin lipi hai jisase kee eshiyaee lipiyon ka vikas hua hai. prachin brahmi lipi ke utkrisht udaharan samrat ashok (asok) dvara eesa poorv tisari shatabdi men banavaye gaye shilalekhon ke roop men anek sthanon par milate hain. naye anusndhanon ke adhar 6 vin shatabdi eesa poorv ke lekh bhi mile hai. brahmi bhi kharoshthi ki tarah hi poore eshiya men phaili huee thi. ashok ne apane lekhon ki lipi ko 'dhammalipi' ka nam diya hai; usake lekhon men kahin bhi is lipi ke lie 'brahmi' nam nahin milata. lekin bauddhon, jainon tatha brahman-dharm ke grnthon ke anek ullekhon se gyat hota hai ki is lipi ka nam 'brahmi' lipi hi raha hoga. hamare prachin snskrit grnthon men yah bat am taur se paee jati hai ki jis kisi bhi chiz ki utpatti kuchh adhik prachin ya agyey ho usake nirmata ke roop men badi asani se 'brahma' ka nam le liya jata hai. snsar ki any puralipiyon ki utpatti ke bare men bhi yahi dekhane ko milata hai ki pray: unake janak koee n koee daivi purush hi mane ge hen. hamare yahan bhi 'brahma' ko lipi ka janmadata mana jata raha hai, aur isilie hamare desh ki is prachin lipi ka nam brahmi pada hai.

kharoshthi lipi

kharoshthi lipi
ashok ke siddapur (zila chitradurg, karnatak) ke pas ke brahmagiri lekh ki antim pnkti.
isamen baeen or ke shabd hain chapadene likhite (brahmi men) aur daeen or ka shabd hai
lipakiren (kharoshthi lipi men), jo daeen or se baeen or padha jaega.

kharoshthi lipi gandhari lipi ke nam se jani jati hai . jo gandhari aur snskrit bhasha ko lipivaddh prayog karane men ati hai . isaka prayog tisari shatabdi eesa poorv se tisari shatabdi tak pramukh roop se eshiya men hota raha hai . kushan kal men isaka prayog bharat men bahutayat men hua . bauddh ullekhon men kharoshthi lipi prarambh se bhi prayog men ayi . kahin-kahin satavi shatabdi men bhi isaka prayog hua hai. ek prachin bharatiy lipi jo arabi lipi ki tarah danye se banye ko likhi jati thi. chauthi-tisari shatabdi ee.poo. men bharat ke uttar-pashchimi sima pranton men is lipi ka prachalan tha. shesh bhagon men brahmi lipi ka prachalan tha jo banye se danye ko likhi jati thi. is lipi ke prasar ke karan kharoshthi lipi lupt ho gee is lipi men likhe hue kuchh sikke aur ashok ke do shilalekh prapt hue hain.

sharada lipi

eesa ki dasavin shatabdi se uttar-poorvi pnjab aur kashmir men sharada lipi ka vyavahar dekhane ko milata hai. byoohlar ka mat tha ki sharada lipi ki utpatti gupt lipi ki pashchimi shaili se huee hai, aur usake prachinatam lekh 8vin shatabdi se milate hain. byoohlar ne jalndhar (kangada) ke raja jayachndr ki kiragram ke baijanath mandir men lagi prashastiyon ka samay 804 ee. mana tha, aur isi ke anusar inhonne sharada lipi ka arambhakal 800 ee. ke as-pas nishchit kiya tha.

kaling lipi

kaling pradesh men eesa ki 7vin se 12vin shatabdi tak jis lipi ka prayog hua, use kaling lipi ka nam diya gaya hai. is lipi ka prayog adhikatar kalinganagar (mukhalingamh, gnjam zile men parlakimedi se 20 mil door) ke gngavnshi rajaon ke danapatron men dekhane ko milata hai. in rajaon ne ‘gangey snvath’ ka upayog kiya hai. yah snvath thik kis sal se arambh hota hai, yah abhi tak jana nahin ja saka hai.

bangla lipi

bangla lipi bharatavarsh ke poorvi vibhag arthath magadh ki taraph ki lipi se nikali hai aur bihar, bngal, mithila, nepal, asam tatha udisa se milane vale kitane ek shilalekh, danapatr, sikkon ya hastalikhit pustakon men paee jati hai.

telugu evn kannad lipi

vartaman telugu aur kannad lipiyon men kafi samanata hai. donon ka vikas ek hi mool lipi-shaili se hua hai. aj in lipiyon ka prayog karnatak, andhr pradesh tatha tamilanadu ke kuchh zilon men hota hai. is lipi ka ady svaroop arambhik chaluky abhilekhon men dekhane ko milata hai. pashchimi dakkhan (dakshin) men banavasi ke kadnbon ke lekhon men aur badami ke chalukyon ke lekhon men is lipi ka ady roop dekhane ko milata hai. badami ke prasiddh raja pulakeshi pratham (vallabheshvar) ka ek abhilekh 1941 ee. men mila hai. isamen shakabd 465 (543 ee.) ka prayog kiya gaya hai. alfred mastar ke anusar kannad lipi ka prachinatam abhilekh hळebidu shilalekh hai, jise ve panchavin shatabdi ka manate hain.

granth lipi

tamilanadu ke aaurkat, selam, tiruchirapalli, madurai, tirunelveli tatha purane tiruvitankur (travnkor) rajy men 7vin shatabdi se is lipi ka vyavahar hota tha. dakshin ke pandy, pallav tatha chol rajaon ne apane abhilekhon men is lipi ka prayog kiya hai. dakshin bharat ki sthaniy lipiyon ki apoornata ke karan snskrit bhasha ke granth evn abhilekh unamen nahin likhe ja sakate the. snskrit ke granth tatha abhilekh likhane ke lie jis lipi ka dakshin bharat men upayog hota tha, usi ko age chalakar ‘granth lipi’ ka nam diya gaya.

tamil lipi

tamil bhasha ke prachinatam lekh dakshin bharat ki kuchh gufaon men milate hain. ye lekh ee.poo. pahali-doosari shatabdi ke mane ge hain aur inaki lipi brahmi lipi hi hai. lekin isake bad satavin sadi tak tamil lipi ke vikas ka koee sootr hamare hath nahin lagata.

vatteळuttu lipi

vatteळuttu lipi ka vikas, tamil lipi ki tarah, brahmi se hi hua hai. tamil lipi ko tvara se ghasit ke sath likhane ke karan 7vin shatabdi ke as-pas dakshin ke pradeshon men yah lipi astitv men aee thi. pandy shasakon ne apane abhilekhon men isaka upayog kiya hai.

sindhu lipi

sindhu sabhyata ki utkirn mudra

sindhu ghati ki sabhyata se snbndhit chhote-chhote snketon ke samooh ko sindhu lipi kahate hain. ise sindhu-sarasvati lipi aur hadappa lipi bhi kahate hain. sindhu sabhyata ka udaghatan 1920 ee. ke bad hua. yadi hamare puratattvavetta adhik sachet hote to is sabhyata ki khoj unnisavin shatabdi men hi ho gee hoti. mesone ne 1820 men pahali bar hadappa ke tilon ko pahachana tha. 1865 men briten-bndhuon-jaaun aur viliyam ko lahaur se karachi tak ki rel lain banane ka theka mila. viliyam ne multan-lahaur lain ka nirman kiya aur is lain ki gitti ke lie hadappa ki eeton ka andhadhundh istemal kiya. 'aj relagadiyan sau mil tak aisi patariyon par se guzarati hain, jo ee. poo. tisari sahashatabdi ki bani huee eeton par mazabooti se tiki huee hain. eeton ki is loot ke dauran kee prakar ke puravashesh prapt hue. inamen se adhik akarshak puravasheshon ko mazadooron aur injiniyaron ne rakh liya'.[3]

gurumukhi lipi

gurumukhi lipi vah lipi hai, jisamen sikkhon ka dharmagranth 'granth sahab' likha hua hai. guru nanak ke uttaradhikari guru angad ne nanak ke padon ke lie gurumukhi lipi ko svikar kiya, jo brahmi se nikali thi aur pnjab men unake samay men prachalit thi. guruvani isamen likhi gee, isalie isaka nam 'gurumukhi' pad gaya.

hadappa lipi

hadappa lipi ka sarvadhik purana namoona 1853 ee. men mila tha par spashtatah yah lipi 1923 tak prakash men aee. sindhu lipi men lagabhag 64 mool chihn evn 205 se 400 tak akshar hain jo selakhadi ki ayatakar muharon, tanbe ki gutikaon adi par milate hain. yah lipi chitratmak thi. yah lipi abhi tak gadhi nahin ja saki hai. is lipi men prapt sabase bade lekh men qarib 17 chihn hain.

brahmi lipi ashok-kal lipi

sikndar ke 325 ee.poo. men pashchimottar bharat se hi vapas chale jane ke turnt bad chndragupt (324-300 ee.poo.) ne nndavnsh ka takhta ulatakar maury vnsh ki sthapana ki. chndragupt ke bad usaka putr bindusar rajagaddi par baitha, aur bindusar ki mrityu ke bad usaka putr ashok 372 ee. poo. men raja bana. gyat hota hai ki rajagaddi ke lie shuroo men kafi jhagada hua tha; kyonki ashok ka rajyabhishek usake gaddi par baithane ke char sal bad 268 ee. poo. men hua. isake bad usane lagabhag 37 sal tak bharat ke ek vishal bhoo-bhag par rajy kiya. usane kaling ko bhi apane rajy men shamil kar liya tha. bauddh granthon ke ullekhon se pata chalata hai ki arnbh men vah, apani kroorata ke karan, chndashok kahalata tha; parntu bad men usane bauddh dharm ko svikar kiya aur vah dharmik kary karane laga to use dharmashok kaha jane laga.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 muळe, gunakar akshar katha. nee dilli: soochana evn prasaran mntralay, bharat sarakar.
  2. devanagari lipi ka snkshipt parichay (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi sahity. abhigaman tithi: 28 sitnbar, 2010.
  3. stuart pigaaut, 'prihistaaurik indiya', prishth 14

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