भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

bharatiy arthavh‍yavash‍tha kray shakti samanata ke adhar par duniya men chauthi sabase badi arthavh‍yavash‍tha hai. yah vishal janashakti adhar, vividh prakritik snsadhanon aur sashakh‍t vrihat arthavh‍yavash‍tha ke moolabhoot tath‍von ke karan vh‍yavasay aur nivesh ke avasaron ke sabase adhik akarshak gntavh‍yon men se ek hai. varsh 1991 men arnbh ki gee arthik sudharon ki prakriya se samh‍poorn arthavh‍yavash‍tha men phaile nitigat dhanche ke udarikaran ke madhh‍yam se ek niveshak anukool parivesh milata raha hai. bharat ko azad hue 72 sal ho chuke hain aur is dauran bharatiy arthavyavastha ki dasha men zabaradast badalav aya hai. audyogik vikas ne arthavyavastha ka roop badal diya hai. aj bharat ki ginati duniya ki sabase tezi se badhati arthavyavasthaon men hoti hai. vishv ki arthavyavastha ko chalane men bharat ki bhoomika badhati ja rahi hai. aeeti saktar men poori duniya bharat ka loha manati hai.

vriddhi aur nishh‍padan

duniya ke bazar men bharatiy arthavh‍yavash‍tha ki vriddhi aur nishh‍padan ko vibhinh‍n arthik pairamitaron ke jarie pradan ki gee sankhyikiy soochana ke sndarbh men bataya gaya hai. udaharan ke lie sakal rashh‍triy uth‍pad (jienapi), sakal ghareloo uth‍pad (jidipi), nival rashh‍triy uth‍pad (enenapi), prativh‍yakti ay, sakal ghareloo poonji nirman (jidisieph) adi arthavh‍yavash‍tha ke rashh‍triy ay kshetr se snbndhit vibhinh‍n soochak hain. ye manavi ichh‍chhaon ki sntushti ke lie isaki uth‍padakata sahit arthavh‍yavash‍tha ka ek vh‍yapak paridrishh‍y pradan karate hain.

vikas dar

bharatiy rizarv baink ne aprail men apani varshik niti par jari bayan men bharat men varsh ki vikas dar 7.5-8.0 phisadi ke bich rahane ki ummid jataee hai. 27 aktoobar 2006 ko khatm hue saptah men videshi mudra bhndar qarib 167.092 arab daaular tak pahunch gaya. sone ka bhndar 6.202 arab dalar tak pahunch gaya hai. kabhi videshi snsthanon se karz lene vale bharat ne varsh 2003 men antararashtriy mudra kosh ko karz dene ki ghoshana ki. varsh men pratyaksh videshi nivesh men 33.8 phisadi ki vriddhi huee. hal hi men snyukt rashtr ne bhi ek riport jari ki hai jisamen kaha gaya hai ki agale do salon tak bharat men ath phisadi ki dar se vikas hota rahega. audyogik kshetr men ath, seva kshetr men 8.5 pratishat ki vikas dar rahegi. bharat ki arthavyavastha men udyog aur seva kshetr men sabase zyada vikas hua hai . varsh men dasavin pnchavarshiy yojana shuroo hone ke bad se in donon kshetron men salana sat phisadi ya usase zyada ki dar se vikas hua hai. bharatiy arthavyavastha ke mazaboot hone ka ek aur praman jani-mani antarrashtriy salahakar snstha praisavatar haus koopars ya pidablyoosi ki ek riport kahati hai ki 2005 se 2050 ke bich chin ki arthavyavastha ka akar doguna ho jaega. sath hi isamen ye bhi kaha gaya hai ki bharat duniya ki sabase tezi se badhati arthavyavastha bana rahega. pi dablyoo si ki riport kahati hai ki tab tak bharat aur brazil japan aur jarmani ko pichhe chhodakar doosare aur tisare nnbar ki arthavyavastha ban jaenge. pichhale kuchh salon men bharatiy arthavyavastha men kafi tezi aee hai. badhati vikas dar ke alava bharatiy arthavyavastha se jude kee sakaratmak pahaloo samane ae hain. in sakaratmak pahalooon men se ek aham pahaloo hai- bharatiy sheyar bazar men jari mazabooti ka daur.

sheyar soochakank

bharat men march men sheyar soochakank 6493 raha jo ki march 2006 men 11,280 par pahunch gaya aur is par pratiphal mila 73.7 pratishat. vartaman me yah 13,000 ke aitihasik star ko par gaya hai. sheyar bazar ne sirf 16 kary divason men hi 11 hazar se 12 hazar tak ki oonchaee prapt kar li. is avadhi ke dauran bharatiy sheyar soochakank ne duniya ke any sheyar soochakankon ke muqabale adhik gati prapt ki hai. ankadon ke hisab se ubharate hue sheyar bazaron men bharat ka bazar sabase zoradar pratiphal vala sabit ho raha hai. bharatiy arthavyavastha men ek aur mahattvapoorn kshetr bainking hai. bharat ke tezi se vikasit hote madhyavarg ke chalate bainking khase munafe ka karobar ho gee hai. kul kharidi gee karon ki assi phisadi karen karz lekar kharidi ja rahi hain. das sal pahale makan malik banane ki ausat ayu 45 sal thi lekin ab ausatan 32 sal ki umr men hi kisi baink se lie ge karz ki badaulat makan malik ban jate hain . tamam nee bainking suvidhaon ka vikas ho raha hai. kul milakar bainking kshetr ke munafe ane vale kuchh salon men teji se badhengen.

vyapar aur vanijy

bharat men arabapatiyon ki snkhya tezi se badh rahi hai jo yah dikhata hai ki vyapar aur vanijy ke kshetr men desh tezi se age badh raha hai. pratishthit phorbs patrika men prakashit ek riport ke anusar arabapatiyo ki snkhya me 15 pratishat ki vridghi huee hai aur ab kul 793 arabapati hai aur eshiya men bharat agrani banakar ubhara hai. vishv arthavyavastha men aee uchhal ke karan bharat men arabapatiyo ki snkhya men alekh men badhottari huee hai. is sarve ke anusar bharat men 23 arabapati hain jinake pas bharatiy sakal ghareloo utpad ka 16 pratishat hissa hai. isaka yah arth nikala ja sakata hai ki bharatiy arthavyavastha ki sehat behatar ho rahi hai. ikaaunaaumik taims ke byooro chif em.ke. venu ka manana hai ki bharat me pahale se kahin zyada avasar upalabdh hain.

krishi kshetr men vikas dar

pichhale kuchh salon men krishi kshetr men vikas dar do se tin pratishat ke bich rahi hai. varsh 2002-03 men krishi kshetr men vikas dar shoony se bhi kam thi. 2003-2004 men isamen zabaradast uchhal aya aur ye 10 phisadi ho gee lekin 2004-2005 men vikas dar phir ludhak gee aur aisi ludhaki ki 0.7 phisadi ho gee. arthik pragati men is visngati ko kendr sarakar bhi svikar karati hai. kendriy vitt rajy mntri pavan kumar bnsal kahate hain, "krishi pichhe hai isamen koee do ray nahin. agar vikas dar ko 10 phisadi karana hai to krishi men bhi char phisadi ki dar se vikas karana hoga." bharat men logon ko rozagar avasar muhaiya karavane, kisanon ki sthiti behatar banane aur niryat badhane men bagavani kshetr ka bada hath hai. varsh 2003-04 men phalon aur sabzion ki paidavar men bharat vishv men doosare nnbar par tha. phalon, phoolon aur sabziyon ki kheti men niryat men bhi kafi snbhanaen hain.

bajat

varsh 2006 ke march mahine men briten ka am bajat pesh kiya gaya. bajat men britani vitt mntri ke bhashan ka ek mukhy ansh kuchh is tarah tha, "bharat aur chin se milane vali kadi pratispardha ka matalab hai ki ham hath par hath dhar kar nahin baithe rah sakate" isase pahale amariki rashtrapati bush ne bhi apane aham rashtriy bhashan men kaha, "ham hath par hath dhar kar nahin baith sakate. duniya ki arthavyavastha men ham bharat aur chin jaise ne pratiyogi dekh rahe hain."

udyogo men nirman, khanan aur bijali kshetr agrani rahe hain. jabaki seva kshetr ki bat karen to isamen mote taur par tin kshetr age hain- bainking, bima aur riyal aistet jinamen 9.5 phisadi ke dar se vikas hua hai. lekin audyogik vikas ke bavajood in 59 salon men ek tathy jo nahin badala hai vo ye hai ki aj bhi bharat ke 65 se 70 phisadi log rozi-roti ke lie krishi aur krishi adharit kamon par nirbhar hain.

videshi nivesh

arthavyavastha men ek or seva kshetr aur videshi nivesh jaise pahaloo jahan mahaul sakaratmak hai. doosari taraf hai madhyam varg ki arthavyavastha jimasen apar snbhavanaen hain lekin kee tarah ki pareshaniyan bhi hain aur tisare star par hai ek aisa varg jisaka oopar ke do vargon se koee lena dena nahin hai, unaki samasyaen shayad vaisi ki vaisi rahane vali hain.

audyogik aur seva kshetr men vikas ki badaulat bharat men vikas ki gadi tezi se daud to rahi hai lekin abhi bhi usake samane kee tarah ki chunautiyan hain. bharat men kee jagahon men ab bhi sadak, bijali, pani aur svasthy jaisi moolabhoot zarooraton ki kami hai aur ye tasvir sirf ganvon ki hi nahin blaki dilli, bngalaur aur mumbee jaise shaharon ki bhi hai. in moolabhoot zarooraton ke abhav men udyog aur seva saktar men jari vikas itani hi gati se barakarar rah paega. ye bhi ek bada saval hai. lihaza pharrate se daud rahe vikas ke ghode ko agar lnbe res ka ghoda banana hai to adharabhoot dhanche, sadak, bijali aur pani jaisi moolabhoot zarooraton ki sahi khurak sahi samay par ise dete rahana hoga.[1]

soochakank

keaudyogik kshetr men audyogik uth‍padan ka soochakank arthavh‍yavash‍tha men audyogik gatividhi ke samanh‍y sh‍tar ko mapane ka ek ala pratinidhi ankada hai. yah audyogik uth‍padan ka param sh‍tar aur pratishat vriddhi mapata hai. desh men moolh‍y ki gati ko thok moolh‍y soochakank (dabh‍lh‍yoopiaee) tatha upabhokh‍ta moolh‍y soochakank (sipiaee) dvara pradarshit kiya jata hai. thok moolh‍y soochakank ko thok bazar men kharidi-bechi gee vash‍tuon ke ausat moolh‍y star men badalav ko mapane men kiya jata hai. jabaki upabhokh‍ta moolh‍y soochakank men upabhokh‍taon ke vibhinh‍n vargon men khudara moolh‍y gati ko vichar men liya jata hai. arthavh‍yavash‍tha men vibhinh‍n samajik arthik samoohon ka shamil karate hue char upabhokh‍ta moolh‍y soochakank hain. ye char moolh‍y soochakank hain: –

  • audyogik kamagaron ke lie upabhokh‍ta moolh‍y soochakank (sipiaee-aeedabh‍lh‍yoo)
  • krishi shramikon ke lie upabhokh‍ta moolh‍y soochakank (sipiaee-eel)
  • gramin shramik ke lie upabhokh‍ta moolh‍y soochakank (sipiaee-arel)
  • shahari akushal karmachariyon ke lie upabhokh‍ta moolh‍y soochakank (sipiaee-yooenemee).

aise sabhi arthik soochakank n keval arthavh‍yavash‍tha vartaman nishh‍padan ka vishh‍leshan karate hain balki bhavi vriddhi snbhavanaon ke anuman aur poorvanuman men bhi sahayata dete hai.

maudrik yog

mudra apoorti ke upayon men se char pramukh maudrik yog, jo maudrik kshetr ki sthiti darshate hain, is prakar hain:-

  1. em1 (snkirn dhan) = janata ke pas maujood mudra + janata ki mang par jama
  2. em2 = janata ke pas maujood mudra + janata ki mang par jama + dakakhane men jama rashi
  3. em3 (sh‍thool dhan) = janata ke pas maujood mudra + janata ki mang par jama + janata dvara bainkon men savadhi jama
  4. em4 = janata ke pas maujood mudra + janata ki mang par jama + janata dvara bainkon men savadhi jama + dakakhane men kul jama.[2]

bharat ke rajyon ki arthavyavastha

bharat ke vibhinn rajyon ki arthavyavastha nimn hai:-

arunachal pradesh ki arthavyavastha

  • san 2004 men arunachal pradesh ka sakal ghareloo utpadan 706 miliyan daaular ke lagabhag tha.
  • arthavyavastha mukhyat: krishi pradhan hai.
  • arunachal pradesh ka lagabhag 61000 varg kilomitar ka bhag ghane jngalon se bhara hai, aur vany utpad rajy ki arthavyavastha ka doosara mahattvapoorn bhag hai.

uttar pradesh ki arthavyavastha

uttar pradesh ki arthavyavastha ke nimn sadhan hain-

  • snsadhan- arthik taur par uttar pradesh desh ke atyadhik alpavikasit rajyon men se ek hai. yah mukhyat: krishi pradhan rajy hai aur yahan ki tin-chauthaee (75 pratishat) se adhik janasnkhya krishi karyon men lagi huee hai. rajy men audyogikikaran ke lie mahattvapoorn khanij evn oorja snsadhanon ki kami hai. yahan par keval silika, choona patthar v koyale jaise khanij padarth hi ullekhaniy matra men pae jate hain. isake alava yahan jipsam, maignetait, faausforait aur baauksait ke alp bhandar bhi pae jate hain.

gujarat ki arthavyavastha

gujarat ki jalavayu snbndhi pratikool paristhiyan, mrida aur jal ki lavanata aur chattani ilaqe aisi bhautik samasyaen hain, jinhonne gujarat ki krishi gatividhiyon ko avaruddh kiya. rajy zyadatar sinchaee par nirbhar hai. bhoojal ki upayogi ko badhane ki avashyakata hai, kyonki bhoomigat jal star lagatar girata ja raha hai. yah avashyak hai ki narmada nahar pranali ka parichalan sinchaee ke lie ho. mukhy khady fasalon men jvar-bajara, chaval aur gehoon shamil hain. gujarat men naqadi fasalon ka utpadan mahattvapoorn hai. gujarat kapas, tnbakoo aur moongaphali ka utpadan karane vale desh ka pramukh rajy hai tatha yah kapada tel aur sabun jaise mahattvapoorn udyogon ke lie kachcha mal upalabdh karata hai.

jammoo aur kashmir ki arthavyavastha

  • jammoo aur kashmir ke adhikansh log jivan nirvah ke lie krishi men lage hain aur chaval, makka, gehoon, jau, dalen, tilahan tatha tambakoo sidhinuma pahadi dhalanon par ugate hain.
  • kashmir ki ghati men bade-bade bagon men seb, nashapati, adoo, shahatoot, akharot aur badam ugae jate hain.
  • kashmir ki ghati bharatiy upamahadvip ke lie ekamatr kesar utpadak hai.
  • goojar aur gaddi khanabadoshon ke dvara bhed, bakari, yaauk v khachcharon ka palan aur ritu pravas kiya jata hai.

bihar ki arthavyavastha

  • arthavyavastha ke anusar bihar ki lagabhag 75 pratishat janasnkhya krishi kary men snlagn hai.
  • 20vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men khanan v vinirman men men ullekhaniy upalabdhi ke babajood bihar prati vyakti ay ke mamale men desh men sabase akhir men hai aur rajy ki lagabhag adhi abadi prashasanik taur par garibi rekha ke niche hai.

tripura ki arthavyavastha

  • tripura ki arthavyavastha prathamik roop se krishi par adharit hai. mukhy fasal chaval hai (krishi utpadan ka 46.16 pratishat).
  • poore rajy men isaki kheti hoti hai. naqadi fasalon me joot (jisaka istemal bori, tat aur sutali banane men hota hai), kapas, chay, ganna, mesta aur phal shamil hain.
  • rajy ki krishi men pashupalan ki sahayak bhoomika hai. vanopaj adharit udyog imarati lakadi eendhan aur lakadi ke koyale ka utpadan karate hai. 1994 men chay ka utpadan 35,55,593 kilogram tha.

tamilanadu ki arthavyavastha

  • tamilanadu ki gramin janasnkhya ke lagabhag tin-chauthaee hisse ke jivan ka adhar krishi hai.
  • arnbhik kal se hi tamil kisanon ne kam matra men hone vale varsha jal ko chhote aur bade sinchaee jalashayon ya talabon men kushalatapoorvak snrakshit kiya hai.
  • sarakari nahar, nalakoop aur kuen bhi sinchaee pranali ka hissa hain. choonki vibhinn nadi ghati pariyojanaen pani ke lie an aniyamit poorvottar manasoon par nirbhar hain, isalie prashasan bhoomigat jal sroton ke adhikatam upayog ka prayas kar raha hai.

pnjab ki arthavyavastha

  • pnjab ki arthavyavastha men utpadan aur vanijyik krishi ki pramukhata hai aur yahan vibhinn laghu v madhyam akar ke udyog hain.
  • bharat ke mukhy rajyon men se pnjab men prati vyakti ay sabase adhik hai.
  • bharat ke kul kshetraphal ke matr 1.6 pratishat bhoo-bhag vala pnjab lagabhag bharat ke kul ann utpadan ka 12 pratishat hissa paida karata hai.
  • yah kendriy bhndar (upayog se adhik ann ki rashtriy bhndaran pranali) ke lagabhag 40 pratishat chaval aur 60 pratishat gehoon ki apoorti karata hai.

nagalaind ki arthavyavastha

  • nagalaind rajy ki lagabhag 90 pratishat janata krishi men lagi hai.
  • yahan ki mukhy fasalen chaval (khariph chaval :701,00 hekteyar: rabi chabal: 58,900 hekteyar), makka (24,900 hekteyar), jvar-bajara (14,00 hekteyar), dalahan (matar aur phaliyan jaisi dalen) tilahan (11,580 hekteyar) reshedar fasalen, ganna, aloo aur tnbakoo hain. lekin nagalaind ko ab bhi padosi rajyon se khady-padarthon ke ayat par nirbhar rahana padata hai.
  • yahan 8,16,212 ekad (3,30,450 hekteyar) bhoomi par krishi hota hai, jabaki 54,400 hekteyar bhoomi sinchit hai.

asam ki arthavyavastha

samagr poorvottar kshetr men asam ki arthavh‍yavash‍tha sabase badi arthavh‍yavash‍tha hai. yah mukhh‍yataya krishi aur snbaddh karyakalapon men lagi huee hai. isaki bharat men brahmaputr ghati ke sath-sath sabase adhik urvar bhoomi phaili huee hai jo ki vanijyik adhar par vividh n‍kadi phasalon aur khady phasalon ki paidavar ke lie upayukh‍t hai. yahan par prakritik snsadhan jaise tel aur prakritik gais, koyala, rabad ith‍yadi, khanij jaise grenait, choona path‍thar ith‍yadi tatha van aur jal snsadhan prachur matra men pae jate hain. yah rajh‍y anh‍y poorvottar rajh‍yon ki tulana men audyogik roop se adhik vikasit hai. yah chay aur tel petroliyam kshetr men apane bade udyogon ke lie jana jata hai. yah rajh‍y kutir udyogon se snbndhit kala aur shilh‍p ke lie prasiddh hai. kutir udyogon men hathakaragha, resham‍kit palan, ken aur bans ki vash‍tuen, badhee giri pital aur bel metal shilh‍p shamil hai. asam men enh‍di, mooga, tasar jaise vibhinh‍n prakar ke resham ka uth‍padan hota hai.[3]

himachal pradesh ki arthavyavastha

himachal pradesh men adhikansh log apani ajivika ke lie krishi, pashu charaee, ritu pravas, bagavani aur vanon par nirbhar hain. rajy ke udyogon men nahan krishi upakaran, tarapin ka tel aur rezin nirman udyog, solan men tivi sets, urvarak, biyar, sharab aur balb nirman udyog, rajaban men siment udyog, paravanoo men prasnskrit phal, traiktar ke purze aur vidyut upakaran udyog, shimala ke nikat vidyut upakaran aur badi tatha barotivala men kagaz aur gatte ka nirman udyog shamil hain. rajy ne apane prachur jalavidyut, khanijon aur van snsadhanon ke adhar par apana vikas shuroo kiya hai. yah apani sadakon aur paryatan snsadhan ka bhi vikas kar raha hai.

hariyana ki arthavyavastha

hariyana ki arthavyavastha poore desh men agrani hai. krishi ki drishti se hariyana ek samriddh rajy hai aur yah kendriy bhndar (atirikt khadyann ki rashtriy sngrahan pranali) men badi matra men gehoon aur chaval deta hai. kapas, raee, sarason, bajara, chana, ganna, jvar, makka aur aloo any pramukh fasalen hain. rajy ki krishi pradhanata ne harit kranti men mahattvapoorn yogadan diya hai, jisake antargat sinchaee urvarak aur uchch gunavatta ke bijon men bade paimane par nivesh shamil hai. hariyana ke kul shram bal ka lagabhag 58 pratishat krishi men snlagn hai. hariyana ne krishi adharit aur nirman udyogon men ullekhaniy pragati ki hai. inamen pramukh hai, kapas aur chini prasnskaran, krishi upakaran, rasayan aur anek prakar ki upabhokta vastuen, jinamen saeekil ullekhaniy hai.

odisha ki arthavyavastha

odisha ki arthavyavastha men krishi ki mahattvapoorn bhoomika hai. odisha ki lagabhag 80pratishat janasnkhya krishi kary men lagi hai, halanki yahan ki adhikansh bhoomi anupajaoo ya ek se adhik varshik fasal ke lie anupayukt hai. odisha men lagabhag 40 lakh khet hain, jinaka ausat akar 1.5 hekteyar hai, lekin prati vyakti krishi kshetr 0.2 hekteyar se bhi kam hai. rajy ke kul kshetraphal ke lagabhag 45 pratishat bhag men khet hai. isake 80 pratishat bhag men chaval ugaya jata hai. any mahattvapoorn fasalen tilahan, dalahan, joot, ganna aur nariyal hai. soory ke prakash ki upalabdhata men kami, madhyam gunavatta vali mitti, urvarakon ka nyoonatam upayog aur manasooni varsha ke samay v matra men vividhata hone ke karan yahan upaj kam hoti hai aur isaki ginati desh ke garib rajyon men hoti hai.

sikkim ki arthavyavastha

sikkim rajy men khanij men tanba, sisa, jasta, koyala, grephait aur choona-patthar pae jate hain. halanki in sabhi ka vyaparik dohan nahin hota hai. yahan ke van snsadhan aur panabijali kshamata adhik ullekhaniy hain. phir bhi sikkim mukhyat: krishi pradhan rajy hai. isaka kul buaee kshetr 63,254 hekteyar hai aur ek bada ilaqa kheti ke lie sulabh nahin hai. ghati ke kinare lage sidhidar kheton men makka, chaval, methi, gehoon aur jau ki upaj hoti hai. yahan par sem, adarak, aloo aur any sabziyan, phal aur chay bhi ugae jate hain. sikkim duniya ke pramukh ilayachi utpadak kshetron men se ek hai.

pashchim bngal ki arthavyavastha

chhote akar ke bavajood pashchim bngal se bharat ke sakal ghareloo utpadan ka lagabhag chhatha hissa ata hai.

  • krishi- bhoo-paridrishy aur arthavyavastha, donon men krishi ki pradhanata hai. rajy ke pratyek char men se tin vyakti pratyaksh ya apratyaksh roop se krishi men snlagn hain, sapekshik krishi yogy bhoomi ke kul kshetr (65 pratishat) ke mamale men pashchim bngal any rajyon se age hai. darjiling ko chhodakar any sabhi zilon men dhan ki, jise vistrit sinchaee ki avashyakata hoti hai. fasal pramukh hai. apane chhote ke bavajood desh ke kul chaval-utpadan kshetr ka 14 pratishat bhag pashchim bngal bota hai aur desh ki kul upaj ka 16 pratishat katata hai.

rajasthan ki arthavyavastha

rajasthan mukhyat: ek krishi v pashupalan pradhan rajy hai aur anaj v sabjiyon ka niryat karata hai. alp v aniyamit varsha ke bavajood, yahan lagabhag sabhi prakar ki fasalen ugaee jati hain; registani kshetr men bajara, kota men jvar v udayapur men mukhyat: makka ugaee jati hain. rajy men gehoon v jau ka vistar achchha-khasa (registani kshetron ko chhodakar) hai, aisa hi dalahan (matar, sem v masoor jaisi khady phaliyan), ganna v tilahan ke sath bhi hai. chaval ki unnat kismon ko laya gaya hai evn chnbal ghati aur indira gandhi nahar pariyojanaon ke kshetron men is fasal ke kul kshetraphal men badhotari huee hai. kapas v tnbakoo mahattvapoorn naqadi fasalen hain. hanlaki yahan ka adhikansh kshetr shushk ya arddh shushk hai, phir bhi rajasthan men badi snkhya men palatoo pashoo hain v rajasthan sarvadhik oon ka utpadan karane vala rajy hai. oonton v shushk ilakon ke pashuon ki vibhinn naslon par rajasthan ka ekadhikar hai.

chhattisagadh ki arthavyavstha

chhattisagadh bharat ke khanij samriddh rajyon men se ek hai. yahan par choona- patthar, lauh ayask, tanba, faausphet, mainganiz, baauksait, koyala, esabestas aur abhrak ke ullekhaniy bhndar hain. chhattisagadh men lagabhag 52.5 karod tan ka dolomait ka bhndar hai, jo poore desh ke kul bhndar ka 24 pratishat hai. yahan baauksait ka anumanit 7.3 karod tan ka samriddh bhndar hai aur tin ayask ka 2,700 karod se bhi zyada ka ullekhaniy bhndar hai. chhattisagadh men hi koyale ka 2,690.8 karod tan ka bhndar hai. svarn bhndar lagabhag 38,05,000 kilo kshamata ka hai. yahan bharat ka sarvottam lauh ayask milata hai, jisaka 19.7 karod tan ka bhndar hai. bailadila, bastar, durg aur jagadalapur men loha milata hai. bhilaee men bharat ke bade ispat snyntron men se ek sthit hai. rajy men 75 se bhi zyada bade aur madhyam ispat udyog hain, jo garm dhatu, kachcha loha, bhurabhura loha (spnj ayaran), rel-patariyon, lohe ki silliyon aur pattiyon ka utpadan karate hain.

madhy pradesh ki arthavyavastha

madhy pradesh ki arthavyavastha ka adhar krishi hai lekin adhe se kam kshetr krishi yogy hai aur bhoo- akriti, varsha v mitti men vividhata hone ke karan isaka vitaran kafi asaman hai. krishi yogy pramukh kshetr chnbal, malava ke pathar aur reva ke pathar men milate hain. nadi dvara bahakar laee gee jalodh mitti se dhaki narmada ghati ek any upajaoo ilaka hai.

  • krishi- madhy pradesh ki krishi ki visheshata kam utpadan aur krishi ki parnparagat paddhati ka upayog hai. choonki krishi yogy bhoomi ka keval 15 pratishat bhag hi sinchit hai, rajy ki krishi varsha par nirbhar karati hai aur aksar ise sookhe v lal- pili mitti men nami ki bahut kam matra ka samana karana padata hai. madhy pradesh men hone vali sinchaee, jo mukhyat: naharon, kuon, ganvon ke talabon aur jhilon se hoti hai, usaki adhikansh yojanaen kendriy sarakar ki ek ke bad ek pnchavarshiy yojanaon ke dauran majhole akar ki ya chhoti pariyojanaon dvara vikasit huee hain.

maharashtr ki arthavyavastha

niji aur sarvajanik udyamon ke madhyam se maharashtr bharat ka ek suvikasit aur samriddh rajy ban gaya hai. vidyut utpadan is disha men sabase mahattvapoorn sahayak karakon men se ek hai. maharashtr men pashchimi ghat sthit jalaprapaton ke zariye panabijali utpadan kiya jata hai. poorvi kshetron men tap- vidyut utpadan ki pradhanata hai. nagapur aur chndrapur men bade tap vidyut grih sthit hain. bharat ka pahala paramanu bijali snyntr munbee se 113 kilomitar uttar men sthit hai. bijali ki badhati huee mang ko poora karane ke lie ne vidyut snyntr lagae ja rahe hain. maharashtr ke khanij snsadhanon men mainganij, koyala, choona- patthar, lauh ayask, tanba, baauksait aur silikayukt ret shamil hai. inamen se adhikansh khanij padarth, bhndara, nagapur aur chndrapur zilon men pae jate hain aur dakshin konkan men bhi kuchh bhndar hain. sahyadri kshetr ke kee hisson men baauksait bhi paya jata hai. baaumbe haee men haidrokarban ka utpadan bhi badh raha hai.

meghalay ki arthavyavastha

bhoomi ki vipul matra men upalabdhata, sajha svamittv aur uttaradhikar ki ekavnshiy pranali ne meghalay ki arthavyavastha ke qabilaee charitr ko banae rakha. meghalay ki bharapoor prakritik snpada men koyala, choona- patthar, keolin, feldaspar, sphatik, abhrak, jipsam aur baauksait jaise khanij pae jate hain, lekin unaka abhi samoochit dohan nahin ho paya hai. yahan ke silimenait ke bhndar (uchch stariy chikani mitti ke srot) duniya men sabase shreshth mane jate hain aur bharat ka lagabhag sara silimenait yahin se prapt kiya jata hai.

manipur ki arthavyavastha

krishi manipur ki arthavh‍yavash‍tha ka mukhh‍y adhar hai. manipur men krishi aur vaniki ay ke pramukh srot hain. yahan ki mukhy fasal chaval 72 pratishat ilake men ugaee jati hai aur yahan ki urvar bhoomi men makka (1.79 pratishat) ganna, sarason, tnbakoo, phal, sabjiyan (aloo 1.7 pratishat) aur daloahan (jaise matar aur sem) ugae jate hain. amataur par pahadiyan par sidhidar khet hote hain, jinhen adivasi kudali se jotate hain. kuchh parvatiy adivasi mans ke lie palatoo pashu palate hain. unaka upayog doodh nikalane ya bojha dhone ke lie nahin kiya jata. sinchaee naharon dvara ki jati hai. nagaon ke bare men kaha jata hai ki ve machhali pakadane ke lie nashile padarthon ka istemal karate hain. salana lagabhag 7,500 tan machhali pakadi jati hai, jinaki kimat lagabhag panch lakh rupaye hoti hai. rajy men adhikrit roop se darj vanakshetr 15,154 varg kilomitar hai, kintu vastav men vanachchhadit kshetr 17,418 varg kilomitar hai jo kul kshetraphal ka 78 pratishat hai. sagaun pramukh vanopaj hain.

karnatak ki arthavyavastha

karnatak ki lagabhag 70 pratishat janata krishi kary men lagi hai. tatiy maidan men saghan kheti hoti hai, jahan pramukh khadyann chaval aur pramukh nakadi ganna hai. any pramukh fasalon men jvar aur ragi shamil hain. any nakadi fasalon men kajoo, ilayachi, supari aur angoor pramukh hain. pashchimi ghat ki thndi dhalanon par kaauphi aur chay ke bagan hain. poorvi kshetr men sinchaee ke karan ganne aur alp matra men rabad kele v sntare jaise phalon ki kheti snbhav ho saki hai. pashchimottar men milane vali kali mitti men kapas, tilahan aur moongaphali ki fasalen ugaee jati hai.

keral ki arthavyavastha

  • bhaugolik aur bhaugarbhik karak keral ki arthavyavastha ko gnbhir roop se prabhavit karate hain.
  • keral ki saghan abadi ke lie upalabdh krishi yogy bhoomi kafi nahin hai.
  • is rajy men jivashm eedhanon aur khanijon ke pramukh bhndaron ki bhi kami hai.
  • keral men sirph ilmenait (taiteniyam ka pramukh ayask), rayootail (taiteniyam aauksaid), monajait (siriyam aur thoriyam phasphet yukt khanij) hain, jo samudr tat ki ret men pae jate hain.
  • keral men jalavidyut ki kafi snbhavanaen hain. idukki kaaumpaleks vishalatam vidyut utpadan snyntr hai.

gova ki arthavyavastha

gova bharat ke ati vikasit rajh‍yon men se ek ke roop men ubhara hai. nivesh vatavaran aur adharabhoot snrachana ke mamalon men bhi gova ne bharat ke shreshh‍thatam rajh‍yon men se ek ka darja hasil kiya hai. yah mahanagaron, vh‍yaparik aur vanijyik kendron ke sath sadak, rel, samudri margon ke alava vayu marg ke dvara bhi bhali prakar juda hua hai. gova ke moramuganv men ek prakritik bndaragah hai aur sath hi kee chhote bndaragah bhi hain, jinamen vh‍yavasayik suvidhaon ke vikas ki apar snbhavanaen vidyaman hain. isake alava isamen poorn vikasit inh‍taranet snyojan aur teliphon ekh‍sachenjon ka vishal netavark bhi hai, jo isake nagarikon ko uchh‍ch gunavath‍ta vale jivan ki suvidha upalabh‍dh karate hain. at: bharatiy arthavh‍yavash‍tha ke vikas men gova agrani rajh‍y hai.

mizoram ki arthavyavastha

mizoram ke pas snsadhanon ki prachurata hai jinaka upayog rajh‍y men kee audyogik ikaiyon ki sh‍thapana ke lie kiya jata hai. bans ki prachurata ke alava bagavani vali kee fasalen niveshakon ke lie kee prakar se labhadayak ho hain. desh ka doosara sarvadhik sakshar rajh‍y hone se mizoram desh ka sarvadhik 'aee.ti.' sakshar rajh‍y banane ja raha hai. isake atirikh‍t yahan ki khoobasoorat prakritik chhata ke sath prachur matra men upalabh‍dh sansh‍kritik virasat ise paryatakon ke lie akarshak sh‍than banata hai. is prakar rajh‍y ke kee kshetron men nivesh ki kee snbhavanaen hain.[4]

jharakhand ki arthavyavastha

krishi aur krishi sambndhit gatividhiyan jharakhand ki arthavyavastha ka mukhy adhar hain. krishi yogy bhoomi ka kshetraphal keval 38 lakh hekteyar hai. jharakhand rajy ke 79,714 varg ki.mi. kshetr men se 18,423 varg kilomitar kshetr men van hain.

  • sinchaee aur bijali- damodar, mayoorakshi, barakar, uttari koyel, dakshini koyel, snkh, suvarnarekha, kharakee aur ajay yahan ki pramukh nadiyan hain aur rajy ke jal ka pramukh srot hai. rajy men kul buvaee ka kshetr 1.57 lakh hekteyar hai jisamen se 8 pratishat kshetr men hi sinchaee ki suvidha upalabdh ho pati hai. jharakhand men sthapit vidyut kshamata 2,590 megavat hai. jisake srot hain- 420 megavat (tenughat tap bijalighar) se, 840 megavat (pataratoo tap panabijalighar) se, 130 (sikkidri bijali pariyojana) se aur 1,200 megavat (damodar ghati nigam tap / panabijali pariyojana)se. tap v panabijali par adharit vibhinn bijaligharon ki kshamata 4,736 megavat ki ja sakati hai jisamen 686 panabijali utpadan shamil hai.

uttarakhand ki arthavyavastha

uttarakhand ki arthavyavastha mukhyatah krishi adharit hai aur rajy ki 10 pratishat janasnkhya krishi karyon men lagi huee hai. uttarakhand khanijon jaise choonapatthar, raauk phaausphet, dolomait, maignesait, kaaupar grephait, sop ston, jipsam ityadi ke mamale men ek dhani rajy hai. 2003 ki audyogik niti ke karan yahan nivesh karane vale niveshakon ko kar rahat di gee hai. yahan poonji nivesh men ullekhaniy vriddhi huee hai.

  • snsadhan- uttarakhand arthik roop se desh ke sabase pichhade hue rajyon men se ek hai. mukhy roop se yah krishi par nirbhar rajy hai aur kamakaji janasnkhya ka 4/5 se bhi adhik krishi kary men snlagn hai. rajy men audyogikikaran ke lie mahattvapoorn khanij aur oorja snsadhanon ki kami hai. khanij ke nam par keval silika aur choona patthar hi ullekhaniy matra men milate hain. yahan jipsam, maignesait, faausforait aur baauksait ke chhote bhndar hain. is pahadi rajy ki barahamasi nadiyan jalavidyut ka mahattvapoorn srot hain. lekin is oorja srot ki apar sambhavanaon ko abhi bahut kam anka gaya hai. jharanon ka upayog karane vale chhote vidyut kendron ke alava tihari bandh (bhagirathi nadi par nirmanadhin) jal shakti ko kam men lane vali sabase badi pariyojanaon men se ek hai. vanon ko bhi arthik snsadhan mana jata hai. jal shakti aur van snsadhanon ke dohan ke prayas ko paryavaranavidon ke virodh ka samana karana pada hai.

samachar

2030 tak bharat hoga tisari vishv arthik shakti

27 pharavari 2012, somavar

bharat 2030 tak duniya ki tisari sabase badi arthavyavastha hoga, lekin usaki urja ki mang ghatakar 4.5 pratishat rah jaegi. urja kshetr ki vaishvik knpani bipi ne yah anuman lagaya hai. bipi ke mukhy arthashastri kristaauph ruhal ne bipi ke urja paridrishy 2030 ko aj jari karate hue kaha ki 2030 tak chin duniya ki sabase badi arthavyavastha hoga aur bharatiy arthavyavastha duniya men tisare sthan par hogi. vaishvik abadi, sakal ghareloo utpad aur urja mang men duniya ki kul abadi men in donon deshon ki hissedari 35 pratishat ki hogi. riport men kaha gaya hai ki bharat men urja ki mang men vishesh izafa nahin hoga. isaki vajah yah hai ki bharat ki audyogik kshetr ki mang ghatakar 4.5 pratishat salana rah jaegi, jo 1999-2010 men 5.5 pratishat thi. aise men urja dakshata men sudhar se audyogikikaran aur buniyadi dhancha vistar ke lie urja ki mang ki bharapaee ho sakegi.

samachar ko nimn srot par padhen

tisara sabase akarshak nivesh sthal hai bharat

6 julaee 2012, shukravar

snyukt rashtr ke vyapar aur vikas sammelan (ankatad) ki jari vishv nivesh riport-2012 ke anusar bahurashtriy knpaniyon ke lie 2012 se 2014 ki avadhi men chin sabase akarshak nivesh sthal raha. usake bad amerika, bharat ka sthan raha. akarshak nivesh sthalon men shirsh panch deshon men indoneshiya aur brajil ka chautha aur panchavan sthan raha. badi knpaniyan aur bade niveshak bharat men nivesh karana pasnd karate hain. bharat niveshakon ke lie chin aur amerika ke bad bharat tisara sabase akarshak nivesh sthal banakar ubhara hai. snyukt rashtr vyapar aur vikas sammelan ki or se jari ki gee ek riport ke anusar bharat ke achchhe pradarshan ki vajah se samooche dakshin eshiya men pichhale sal videshi nivesh 23 phisadi badha.

samachar ko nimn sroton par padhen

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharatiy arthavyavastha (hindi) (ech.ti.em.) himartikals. abhigaman tithi: 11 apral, 2011.
  2. bharatiy arthavyavastha (hindi) vyapar gyan snsadhan. abhigaman tithi: 11 apral, 2011.
  3. nivesh ke avasar (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) vyapar gyan snsadhan. abhigaman tithi: 9 joon, 2011.
  4. nivesh ke avasar (hindi) bharat sarakar. abhigaman tithi: 11 joon, 2011.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh