इलाहाबाद का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ilahabad lekh soochi
ilahabad ka itihas
Kumbh mela.jpg
vivaran ilahabad shahar, dakshini uttar pradesh rajy ke uttari bharat men sthit hai. ilahabad gnga nadi ke kinare basa hua hai.
rajy uttar pradesh
zila ilahabad zila
nirmata akabar
sthapana san 1583 ee.
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 25.45°, poorv- 81.85°
marg sthiti rashtriy rajamarg 2 aur 27 se ilahabad pahuncha ja sakata hai.
kab jaen aktoobar se march
kaise pahunchen viman, rel, bas, taiksi
havaee adda ilahabad vimanakshetr, nazadiki varanasi havaee adda
relave steshan prayag relave steshan, ilahabad siti relave steshan, daragnj relave steshan, ilahabad jnkshan relave steshan, naini jnkshan relave steshan, soobedaragnj relave steshan, bamarauli relave steshan
bas adda lidar rod evn sivil lains se basen upalabdh
yatayat aauto riksha, bas, taimpo, saikil riksha
kya dekhen ilahabad paryatan
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi grah
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr, ilahabad vimanakshetr
adyatan‎

ilahabad uttar pradesh ke pramukh dharmik nagaron men se ek hai. yah nagar, jise prachin samay men 'prayag' nam se jana jata tha, apani sampannata, vaibhav aur dharmik gatividhiyon ke lie jana jata raha hai. bharatiy itihas men is nagar ne yugon ke parivartan dekhe hain. badalate hue itihas ke utthan-patan ko dekha hai. yah nagar rashtr ki samajik v sanskritik garima ka gavah raha hai to rajanitik evn sahityik gatividhiyon ka kendr bhi raha. ilahabad ko 'sngam nagari', 'kumbh nagari' aur 'tirtharaj' bhi kaha gaya hai. 'prayagashatadhyayi' ke anusar kashi, mathura, ayodhya ityadi saptapuriyan tirtharaj prayag ki pataraniyan hain, jinamen kashi ko pradhan patarani ka darza prapt hai.

namakaran

pauranik manyataon ke anusar is nagar ka prachin nam 'prayag' hai. yah mana jata hai ki char vedon ki prapti ke pashchath brahma ne yahin par ygy kiya tha, isilie srishti ki pratham ygy sthali hone ke karan ise prayag kaha gaya. prayag arthath 'ygy'. kalantar men mugal badashah akabar is nagar ki dharmik aur sanskritik aitihasikata se kafi prabhavit hua. usane bhi is nagari ko eeshvar ya allah ka sthan kaha aur isaka namakaran 'ilahavas' kiya arthath "jahan par allah ka vas hai". parantu is sambandh men ek manyata aur bhi hai ki 'ila' namak ek dharmik samrat, jisaki rajadhani pratishthanapur[1] thi, ke vas ke karan is jagah ka nam 'ilavas' pada. kalantar men angrezon ne isaka uchcharan ilahabad kar diya.

ved tatha puranon men ullekh

ilahabad atyant pavitr nagar mana jata raha hai, jisaki pavitrata gnga, yamuna aur adrishy sarasvati nadi ke sngam ke karan hai. ved se lekar puran tak aur snskriti kaviyon se lekar lok sahity ke rachanakaron tak ne is sngam ki mahima ka gan kiya hai. ilahabad ko 'sngam nagari', 'kumbh nagari' aur 'tirtharaj' bhi kaha gaya hai. 'prayagashatadhyayi' ke anusar kashi, mathura, ayodhya ityadi saptapuriyan tirtharaj prayag ki pataraniyan hain, jinamen kashi ko pradhan patarani ka darza prapt hai. tirtharaj prayag ki vishalata v pavitrata ke sambandh men sanatan dharm men manyata hai ki ek bar devataon ne saptadvip, saptasamudr, saptakulaparvat, saptapuriyan, sabhi tirth aur samast nadiyan tarajoo ke ek palade par rakhin, doosari or matr 'tirtharaj prayag' ko rakha, phir bhi prayagaraj hi bhari rahe. vastutah gomukh se ilahabad tak jahan kahin bhi koee nadi gnga se mili hai, us sthan ko prayag kaha gaya hai, jaise- devaprayag, karnaprayag, rudraprayag adi. keval us sthan par jahan gnga, yamuna aur sarasvati ka sngam hai, use 'prayagaraj' kaha gaya. prayagaraj ilahabad ke bare men gosvami tulasidas ne likha hai-

ko kahi sakee prayag prabhaoo, kalush punj kunjar magaraoo.
sakal kam prad tiratharaoo, bed vidit jag pragat prabhaoo..

pragaitihasik itihas

yadi pragaitihasik kal ko dekha jae to ilahabad aur mirjapur ke madhy avasthit belanaghati men purapashan kal ke pashuon ke avashesh prapt hue the. belanaghati men vindhy parvat ke uttari prishthon par lagatar tin avasthayen-purapashan, madhyapashan v navapashan kal ek ke bad ek paee jati hain. bharat men navapashan yug ki shurooat eesa poorv chhathin sahastrabdi ke as-pas huee thi. isi samay se upamahadvip men chaval, gehoon v jau jaisi phasalen ugayi jane lagi thin. ilahabad zile ke navapashan sthalon ki yah visheshata hai ki yahan eesa poorv chhathi sahastrabdi men bhi chaval ka utpadan hota tha. isi prakar vaidik snskriti ka udbhav bhale hi saptasindhu desh (pnjab) men hua ho, par vikas pashchimi gnga ghati men hi hua. gnga-yamuna doab par prabhutv pane hetu tamam shaktiyan sngharsharat rahin aur nadi tat par hone ke karan prayag ka vishesh mahatv raha. aryon dvara ullikhit dvitiy pramukh nadi sarasvati prarambh se hi prayag men pravahaman thi. sindhu sabhyata ke bad bharat men dvitiy nagarikaran gnga ke maidanon men hi hua. yahan tak ki sabhi uttar kalin vaidik grnth lagabhag 1000.600 ee.poo. men uttari gnga maidan men hi rache gaye the. uttar vaidik kal ke pramukh nagaron men se ek kaushambi bhi tha, jo ki vartaman men ilahabad se ek prithakh janapad ban gaya. prachin kathaon ke anusar mahabharat yuddh ke kafi samay bad hastinapur badh men bah gaya aur kuroovnsh men jo jivit rahe, ve ilahabad ke pas kaushambi men akar bas gaye. mahatma gautam buddh ke samay avasthit 16 bade-bade mahajanapadon men se ek vats ki rajadhani kaushambi thi.

mauryakalin itihas

maury kal men pataliputr, ujjayini aur takshashila ke sath kaushambi v prayag bhi choti ke nagaron men the. prayag men maury shasak ashok ke 6 stambh lekh prapt hue hain. sngam-tat par kile men avasthit 10.6 mitar ooncha ashok stambh 232 ee.poo. ka hai, jis par tin shasakon ke lekh khude hue hain. 200 ee. men samudragupt ise kaushambi se prayag laya aur usake darabari kavi harishen dvara rachit prayag-prashasti is par khudavaya gaya. kalantar men 1605 ee. men is stambh par mugal samrat jahangir ke takht par baithane ka vakaya bhi khudavaya gaya. 1800 ee. men kile ki prachir sidhi banane hetu is stambh ko gira diya gaya aur 1838 men angrezon ne ise punah khada kiya.

guptakalin ullekh

prayag gupt kal ke shasakon ki rajadhani raha hai. gupt samrat samudragupt ke darabari kavi harishen dvara rachit 'prayag-prashasti' usi stambh par khuda hai, jis par ashok ka hai. ilahabad men prapt 448 ee. ke ek gupt abhilekh se gyat hota hai ki panchavin sadi men bharat men dashamik paddhati gyat thi. isi prakar ilahabad ke karachhana nagar ke samip avasthit gadhava se ek-ek chandragupt v skandagupt ka aur do abhilekh kumaragupt ke prapt hue hain, jo us kal men prayag ki mahatta darshate hain. 'kamasootr' ke rachayita malng vatsayan ka janm bhi kaushambi men hua tha. bharat ke antim hindoo samrat mane jane vale harshavardhan ke samay men bhi prayag ki mahatta apane charam par thi. chini yatri hvenasang likhata hai ki- "is kal men pataliputr aur vaishali patanavastha men the, isake viparit doab men prayag aur kannauj mahattvapoorn ho chale the. hvenasang ne harsh dvara mahayan bauddh dharm ke prachararth kannauj aur tatpashchath prayag men ayojit mahamoksh parishad ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. is sammelan men harsh apane sharir ke vastron ko chhodakar sarvasv dan kar deta tha. spasht hai ki prayag bauddhon hetu bhi utana hi mahattvapoorn raha hai, jitana ki hinduon hetu. kumbh mele men sngam men snan ka pratham aitihasik abhilekh bhi harsh ke hi kal ka hai.

ghat parampara

prayag men ghaton ki ek aitihasik parampara rahi hai. yahan sthit dashashvamedh ghat par prayag mahatmy ke vishay men markndey rishi dvara anupranit hokar dharmaraj yudhishthir ne das ygy kie aur apane poorvajon ki atma ki shanti hetu prarthana ki. dharmaraj dvara das ygyon ko sampadit karane ke karan hi ise 'dashashvamedh ghat' kaha gaya. ek any prasiddh ghat ramaghat, jhoonsi hai. maharaj ila jo ki bhagavan ram ke poorvaj the, ne yahin par raj kiya tha. unaki sntan v chandravnshiy raja puroorava aur gndharv milakar isi ghat ke kinare agnihotr kiya karate the. dharmik anushthanon aur snanadi hetu prasiddh triveni ghat vah jagah hai, jahan par yamuna poori dridhata ke sath sthir ho jati hain v sakshath tapas bala ki bhanti gnga-yamuna ki or pravahaman hokar sngam ki kalpana ko sakar karati hain. triveni ghat se hi thoda age sngam ghat hai. sngam kshetr ka ek aitihasik ghat kila ghat hai. akabar dvara nirmit aitihasik kile ki prachiron ko jahan yamuna sparsh karati hain, usi ke pas yah kila ghat hai aur yahin par sngam tat tak jane hetu navon ka jamavada laga rahata hai. isi ghat se pashchim ki or thoda badhane par adrishy salila sarasvati nadi ke samikrit sarasvati ghat hai. rasoolabad ghat prayag ka sabase mahattvapoorn ghat hai.

samarik drishti se mahattvapoorn

ilahabad saltanat kal men bhi samarik drishti se mahattvapoorn raha. alauddin khilazi ne ilahabad men kada ke nikat apane chacha v shvasur jalaluddin khilazi ki dhokhe se hatya kar apane samrajy ki sthapana ki thi. mugal kal men bhi ilahabad apani aitihasikata ko banaye raha. akabar ne sngam tat par 1538 ee. men kile ka nirman karaya. aisi bhi manyata hai ki yah kila maury samrat ashok dvara nirmit tha aur akabar ne isaka jirnoddhar matr karavaya. punah 1838 men angrezon ne is kile ka punarnirman karavaya aur vartaman roop diya. is kile men bharatiy aur eerani vastukala ka mel aj bhi kahin-kahin dikhayi deta hai. is kile men 232 ee.poo. ka ashok ka stambh, jodhabaee mahal, patalapuri mndir, sarasvati koop aur akshay vat avasthit hain. aisi manyata hai ki vanavas ke dauran bhagavan ram is vat-vriksh ke niche thahare the aur unhonne use akshay rahane ka varadan diya tha, isilie isaka nam akshayavat pada. kile-prangan men avasthit sarasvati koop men sarasvati nadi ke jal ka darshan kiya ja sakata hai. isi prakar mugalakalin shobha bikherata 'khusaro bag' badashah jahangir ke bade putr khusaro dvara banavaya gaya tha. yahan bag men khusaro, usaki man aur bahan sultanunnisa ki qabren hain. ye maqabare kavy aur kala ke sundar namoone hain. farasi bhasha men jivan ki nashvarata par jo kavita yahan ankit hai, vah man ko bhitar tak sparsh karati hai.

angrezon ka adhikar

baksar ke yuddh, 1764 bad angrezon ne bngal, bihar aur udisa par adhipaty kar liya, par mugal samrat shahalam dvitiy abhi bhi namamatr ka pramukh tha. antatah bngal ke oopar qanooni manyata ke badale eest indiya kampani ne shah alam ko 26 lakh rupaye die evn kada v ilahabad ke zile bhi jitakar diye. samrat ko 6 varshon tak kampani ne ilahabad ke kile men lagabhag bndi banaye rakha. punah 1801 men avadh ke navab ko angrezon ne sahayak sndhi hetu majaboor kar gnga-yamuna ke doab par qabja kar liya. us samay ilahabad prant avadh ke hi antargat tha. is prakar 1801 men ilahabad angrezon ki adhinata men aya aur unhonne ise vartaman nam diya.

svatatrata andolan men bhoomika

bharat ke svatatrata andolan men bhi ilahabad ki ek ahamh bhoomika rahi. rashtriy navajagaran ka uday ilahabad ki bhoomi par hua to gandhi yug men yah nagar prerana kendr bana. 'bharatiy rashtriy kangres' ke sngathan aur unnayan men bhi is nagar ka yogadan raha hai. san 1857 ke vidroh ka netritv yahan par liyaqat ali khan ne kiya tha. kangres parti ke tin adhiveshan yahan par 1888, 1892 aur 1910 men kramashah jarj yool, vyomesh chanh‍dr banarji aur sar viliyam bedarabarn ki adhyakshata men hue. maharani viktoriya ka 1 navambar, 1858 ka prasiddh ghoshana patr yahin avasthit 'minto park'[2] men tatkalin vayasaray laaurd kening dvara padha gaya tha. neharoo parivar ka paitrik avas 'svaraj bhavan' aur 'anand bhavan' yahin par hai. neharoo-gandhi parivar se jude़ hone ke karan ilahabad ne desh ko pratham pradhanamntri bhi diya.

krantikariyon ki sharanasthali

udaravadi v samajavadi netaon ke sath-sath ilahabad krantikariyon ki bhi sharanasthali raha hai. chndrashekhar azad ne yahin par alfred park men 27 faravari, 1931 ko angrezon se loha lete hue british pulis adhyaksh naaut babar aur pulis adhikari visheshvar sinh ko ghayal kar kee pulisajanon ko mar giraya aurn antatah khud ko goli marakar ajivan azad rahane ki kasam poori ki. 1919 ke raulet ekt ko sarakar dvara vapas n lene par joon, 1920 men ilahabad men ek sarvadaliy sammelan hua, jisamen skool, kaaulejon aur adalaton ke bahishkar ke karyakram ki ghoshana huee, is prakar pratham asahayog andolan aur khilafat andolan ki ninv bhi ilahabad men hi rakhi gayi thi.

ilahabad vishvavidyalay

san 1887 men sthapit poorab ka aauksaphord kahe jane vale 'ilahabad vishvavidyalay' ki apani alag hi aitihasikata hai. is snsthan se shiksha prapt kar jagadguru bharat ko nee oonchaeeyan pradan karane valon ki ek lambi soochi hai. isamen uttar pradesh ke pratham mukhyamntri govind vallabh pant, uttarakhand ke pratham mukhyamntri narayan datt tivari, rashtriy manavadhikar ayog ke pratham adhyaksh jastis rnganath mishr, svatntr bharat ke pratham kaibinet sachiv dharmavir, rashtrapati pad ko sushobhit kar chuke daau. shnkar dayal sharma, poorv pradhanamntri vi. pi. sinh v chandrashekhar, rajyasabha ki upasabhapati rahin najama hepatulla, murali manohar joshi, madan lal khurana, arjun sinh, saty prakash malaviy, suprim kort ke poorv mukhy nyayadhish jastis ke.en. sinh, jastis vi.en. khare, jastis je.es. varma ityadi kee mahanh vyaktitv shamil hain. shahid padmadhar ki kurbani ko samete 'ilahabad vishvavidyalay' sadaiv se rashtravad ka kendr bindu banakar samooche bharatavarsh ko spndit karata raha hai.

vidhik vyavasay ki ninv

desh ka chautha sabase purana uchch nyayalay, jo ki 1866 men agara men avasthit hua, ke 1869 men ilahabad sthanantarit hone par agara ke tin vikhyat edavoket pndit nandalal neharoo, pndit ayodhyanath aur munshi hanuman prasad bhi ilahabad aye aur vidhik vyavasay ki ninv dali. motilal neharoo inhin pndit nndalal neharoo ji ke bade bhaee the. kanapur men vakalat arambh karane ke bad 1886 men motilal neharoo vaqalat karane ilahabad chale ae aur tabhi se ilahabad aur neharoo parivar ka ek atoot rishta arambh hua. 'ilahabad uchch nyayalay' se sar sundaralal, madan mohan malaviy, tej bahadur saproo, daau. satishachandr banarji, pi.di. tndan, daau. kailash nath katajoo, pndit kanhaiya lal mishr adi ne itihas men apani amit chhap chhodi. uttar pradesh vidhanamandal ka pratham satr samaroh ilahabad ke tharnahil memoriyal haaul men[3] 8 janavari, 1887 ko ayojit kiya gaya tha.

alfred park

ilahabad men hi avasthit alfred park bhi kee yugantarakari ghatanaon ka gavah raha hai. rajakumar alfred dyook aauf edinabara ke ilahabad agaman ko yadagar banane hetu isaka nirman kiya gaya tha. punah isaka namakaran chandrashekhar azad ki shahid sthali roop men unake nam par kiya gaya. isi park men ashtakoniy baind staind hai, jahan angrezi sena ka baind bajaya jata tha. is baind staind ke italiyan sngamaramar ki bani smarika ke niche pahale maharani viktoriya ki bhavy moorti thi, jise 1957 men hata diya gaya. isi park men uttar pradesh ki sabase purani aur badi jivant gathik shaili men bani pablik laibreri bhi hai, jahan par british yug ke mahattvapoorn snsadiy kagazat rakhe hue hain. park ke andar hi 1931 men ilahabad mahapalika dvara sthapit sngrahalay bhi hai. is sngrahalay ko pndit javaharalal neharoo ne 1948 men apani kafi vastuyen bhent ki thin.

dharmik aitihasikata

ilahabad ki apani ek dharmik aitihasikata bhi rahi hai. chhathaven jain tirthnkar bhagavan padmaprabh ki janmasthali kaushambi rahi hai to bhakti andolan ke pramukh stambh ramanand ka janm prayag men hua. ramayan kal ka charchit shrringaverapur, jahan par kevat ne ram ke charan dhoye the, yahin par hai. yahan gngatat par shrringi rishi ka ashram v samadhi hai. bharadvaj muni ka prasiddh ashram bhi yahin anand bhavan ke pas hai, jahan bhagavan ram shrringaverapur se chitrakoot jate samay muni se ashirvad lene ae the. alopi devi ke mndir ke roop men prasiddh siddhipith yahin par hai to sita-samahit sthal ke roop men prasiddh sitamadhi bhi yahin par hai. gnga tat par avasthit dashashvamedh mndir jahan brahma ne srishti ka pratham ashvamedh ygy kiya tha, bhi prayag men hi avasthit hai. dhaumy rishi ne apane tirthayatra prasng men varnan kiya hai ki prayag men sabhi tirthon, devon aur rishi-muniyon ka sadaiv se nivas raha hai tatha som, varun v prajapati ka janmasthan bhi prayag hi hai.

kisi samay prayag ka ek vishisht ang raha, lekin ab ek prithakh janapad ke roop men avasthit kaushambi ka bhi apana ek alag itihas hai. vibhinn kalon men dharm, sahity, vyapar aur rajaniti ka kendr bindu rahe kaushambi ki sthapana udyin ne ki thi. yahan panchavi sadi ke bauddh stoop aur bhikshugrih hain. vasavadatta ke premi udyan ki yah rajadhani thi. yahan ki khudaee se mahabharat kal ki aitihasikata ka bhi pata lagata hai. ilahabad ki aitihasikata apane ap men anoothi hai. yah ilahabadi amarood ke bina bhi adhoori si lagati hai, tabhi to shayar akabar ilahabadi ne kaha hai ki- "kuchh ilahabad men samn nahin bahabood ke, dhara kya hai siva akabar-o-amarood ke".

kumbh mela

sngam tat par lagane vale kumbh mele ke bina prayag ka itihas adhoora hai. pratyek barah varsh men yahan par mahakumbh mele ka ayojan hota hai, jo ki apane men ek laghu bharat ka darshan karane ke saman hai. isake alava pratyek varsh lagane vale magh snan aur kalpavas ka bhi adhyatmik mahatv hai. mahabharat ke anushasan parv ke anusar magh mas men tin karod das hazar tirth prayag men ekatr hote hain aur vidhi-vidhan se yahan dhyan aur kalpavas karane se manushy svargalok ka adhikari banata hai. 'padmapuran' ke anusar prayag men magh mas ke samay tin din paryant sngam snan karane se prapt phal prithvi par ek hazar ashvamedh ygy karane se bhi nahin prapt hota-

prayage maghamase tu tryahn snanasy yatphalamh.
nashvamedhasastren tatphaln labhate bhuvi..



pichhe jaen
ilahabad ka itihas
age jaen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (ab jhoosi)
  2. ab madan mohan malaviy park
  3. tab avadh v uttar pradesh prant vidhanaparishad

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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