कांसा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(कांस्य se punarnirdeshit)

kansa ek mishr dhatu hai, jo tanbe aur jaste athava tanbe aur tin ke yog se banaee jati hai. kansa, tanbe ki apeksha adhik kada hota hai aur kam tap par pighalata hai. isalie kansa suvidhapoorvak dhala ja sakata hai. amataur par sadharan bolachal men kabhi-kabhi pital ko bhi kansa kah diya jata hai, jo tanbe tatha jaste ki mishr dhatu hai aur pile rng ka hota hai. tanbe aur range ki mishr dhatu ko 'phool' bhi kahate hain. vartaman men abhooshan adi banane ke hetu ek prakar ke kanse ka vyavahar kiya jata hai, jisaka rng sunahara hota hai. is dhatu ko ailyuminiyam tatha tanba vividh bhag men milakar nirmit kiya jata hai. khudaee adi ka kary is par bada sundar banata hai.

nam tatha arth

purakalin vastuon men kansa se nirmit vastuen kafi mahattvapoorn thin. isilie us yug ko "kansy yug" ka nam diya gaya tha. kanse ko angrezi men 'bronz' kahate hain. yah farasi bhasha ka mool shabd hai, jisaka arth hota hai- 'pital'. kansa, jise snskrit men 'kansy' kaha jata hai, snskrit koshon ke anusar shvet tanbe athava ghnta banane ki dhatu ko kahate hain. vishuddh tanba lal rng ka hota hai; usamen ranga milane se safed sa rng a jata hai. isalie tanbe aur range ki mishr dhatu ko 'kansa' ya 'kansy' kaha jata hai.

itihas

manav ne kanse ka nirman kis prakar sikha, kah pana kathin hai. sambhavat: tanba galane ke samay usake sath mili huee ashuddhi ke gal jane ke karan yah achanak ban gaya, kyonki kanse ki vastuen to chin, misr, eeran, sumer, bharat ke pragaitihasik kal ke sabhi sthanon se prapt huee hain, parntu in sabhi sthanon ke us prachin yug ke kanse ki mool vividh dhatuon ke pariman men antar hai. bharat ke ek prakar ke kanse men tanba 93.05 bhag, jasta 20.14, nikal 4 tatha arsenik 80 bhag mila hai. doosare prakar ke kanse men tin sumer, eeran ityadi sthanon ki bhanti prapt hua hai. is mili huee dhatu se karigar ko vastuon ko dhalane men badi saralata huee tatha is mishrit dhatu ki bani kulhadi sirf tanbe ki bani kulhadi se kahin adhik dharadar tatha majaboot bani. anuman kiya jata hai ki is dhatu ke karigaron ka apana ek jattha pragaitihasik kal men ban gaya, jo ek sthan se doosare sthan par jakar apane dhndhe ka prachar karata tha. pashan ki bani huee kulhadiyan in kanse ki kulhadiyon ke samaksh phiki pad gayin. inhonne isi dhatu se pragaitihasik pashu akritiyan bhi banaeen. in karigaron ne kulhadi ka nirman karate-karate chamakate hue abhooshan bhi banane prarnbh kie, jinake sabase utkrisht yug ke namoone joode ke kanto ke roop men hadappa, mohanajodado, hisar, soosa, chhagar, luristan ityadi sthanon se prapt hue hain. isi prakar kanse ke bane kade hadappa, mohanajodadon, hisar, soosa, siyalk, chin tatha misr adi sthanon se prapt hue hain.

vibhinn vastuon ka nirman

dhatu se nirmit sundar angoothiyan bhi mili hain. pragaitihasik kal men kanse ke karigaron ne chhoti gadiyan bhi banaeen, jo khilaunon ki bhanti prayog men ati thin. is prakar ki ek badi sundar gadi, jis par usaka chalane vala bhi baitha hai, hadappa se prapt huee hai. kanse ke baratan bhi is kal men bane. aise baratan eeran, sumer, misr tatha bharat ke mohanajodado, hadappa tatha lothal se prapt hue hain. ye bhi pray: dhal kar ya patthar ko pit kar banaye jate the. ane vale samay men chal kar in par ubhadadar kam bhi dikhaee dene laga, jo kadachit mitti par kam bana kar us par patthar rakhakar aur pit kar banaya jata tha. kalantar men mishr dhatu se vibhinn prakar ki anek vastuen banaee geen. bharat men bhi takshashila se katori ke akar ke masih patr prapt hue hain, jin par dhakkan laga hua hai tatha jisamen kalam se syahi lene ke hetu chhed bana hai. is prakar ki dhatu ki bani ghntiyan bhi yahan se prapt huee hain. bahut-si chhoti-chhoti vastuon men dharm chakr ke akar ki bani purohit ke dnde ki mooth, murge ki moorti tatha manushy ki moortiyan ityadi mili hain. yahan par stri ki thos moorti, jo kamal par khadi hai, badi hi sundar hai.

kanse ke patr se labh

kanse ke patr buddhivardhak, svad arthath ruchi utpann karane vale hote hain. atah kanse ke patr men bhojan karana chahie. isase buddhi ka vikas hota hai. ushn prakriti vale vyakti tatha aml pitt, rakt pitt, tvacha vikar, yakrit v hriday adi vikar se pidit vyaktiyon ke lie kanse ke patr svasthyaprad hain. isase pitt ka shaman v rakt ki shuddhi hoti hai. parntu 'skand puran' ke anusar chaturmas ke dinon men tanbe v kanse ke patron ka upayog n karake any dhatuon ke patron ka upayog karana chahie. chaturmas men palash vriksh ke patton men ya inase bani pattalon men kiya gaya bhojan 'chandrayan vrat' evn 'ekadashi vrat' ke saman puny pradan karane vala mana gaya hai. itana hi nahin, palash ke patton men kiya gaya ek-ek bar ka bhojan triratr vrat ke saman punyadayak aur bade-bade patakon ka nash karane vala bataya gaya hai. chaturmas men bad ke patton ya pattal par kiya gaya bhojan bhi bahut punyadayi mana gaya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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