हिरोशिमा दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hiroshima divas
paramanu bam se utpann dhuen ka gubbar, hiroshima
vivaran 'hiroshima divas' 6 agast ke din ko kaha jata hai. is din amarika dvara japan par anu bam giraya gaya tha.
tithi 6 agast
giraya gaya bam litil baauy, jo ki yooreniyam nirmit tha.
prabhavit kshetr 13 varg ki.mi.
mare ge log ek lakh chalis hazar
any janakari hiroshima par bam girane ke tin din bad hi 9 agast ko ‘phait main’ namak plootoniyam bam nagasaki par giraya gaya, jisamen anumanit 74 hazar log visphot v garmi ke karan mare ge.

hiroshima divas (angrezi: Hiroshima Day) '6 agast' ko kaha jata hai. amerika ne 6 agast, 1945 ke din japan ke hiroshima nagar par ‘litil baauy’ namak yooreniyam bam giraya tha. is bam ke prabhav se 13 varg ki.mi. men tabahi mach gayi thi. hiroshima ki 3.5 lakh ki abadi men se ek lakh chalis hazar log ek jhatake men hi mare ge. ye sab sainik nahin the. inamen se adhikansh sadharan nagarik, bachche, boodhe tatha striyan thin. isake bad bhi anek varshon tak anaginat log vikiran ke prabhav se marate rahe. amarika itane par hi nahin ruka. use ek any prakar ke bam ke prabhavon ko abhi aur azamana tha. isalie is amanaviy vinash ke tin din bad hi 9 agast ko ‘fait main’ namak plootoniyam bam nagasaki par giraya gaya, jisamen anumanit 74 hazar log visphot v garmi ke karan mare ge. inamen bhi adhikansh nirih nagarik the.[1]

itihas

hiroshima ko 6 agast, 1945 tak japan ke ek audyogik nagar ke roop men jana jata tha. doosare vishvayuddh ke samay japani sena ki 5vin divijan ka yahan mukhyalay tha. yahan sainik chhavani bhi thi aur yah sainik apoorti marg ka mahatvapoorn padav tha. doosare vishvayuddh ke dauran 6 agast se poorv is nagar par amarika ne bamabari nahin ki thi, taki anubam se hone vale nukasan ka satik akalan kiya ja sake. vishv men pahali bar 6 agast, 1945 ko jab is shahar par 'litil baauy' nam ka anubam giraya gaya, tab japan sarakar ke rashan apoorti ke ankadon ke anusar shahar men kul abadi 2,55,000 thi. lekin is shahar men lagatar sainik aur sahayak majadoor a-ja rahe the. gair adhikarik ankadon ke anusar nagar ki tatkalin abadi 3,81,000 ke as-pas thi.[2]

amarika ki viman karyavahi

kamandar karnal paaul tibets ki kaman men 6 agast ko amariki sena ke viman enola ge (bi-29) ne dakshin prashant ke vayu sainik adde 'tiniyan' se do any bi-29 vimanon ke sath udan bhari. viman ka nam 'enola ge' usake payalat paaul tibets ki man ke nam par rakha gaya tha. sath udan bharane vale vimanon men ek ka nam tha- 'gret artist'. anubam ka prabhav napane vale yntron-upakaranon se sajjit is viman ko mejar charls svini uda rahe the. doosare anam viman, bad men jisaka nam 'nesesari ivil' rakha gaya, men duniya ko anubam ki snharak kshamata aur amariki shakti ke praman jutane ke liye uchch kshamata ke kaimare lage hue the, isake payalat the kaiptan jaaurj maikvard. tiniyan se udan bharane ke bad tinon vimanon ne ivojima hote hue japan ki vayusima men pravesh kiya. us vakt viman 8,000 phit ki oonchaee par ud rahe the. hiroshima ke pas pahunch kar viman ki oonchaee 32,300 phit ho gayi. udan ke dauran jalasena ke kaiptan viliyam parsans ne viman men 'litil baauy' ko phit kiya aur lakshy par pahunchane ke 30 minit poorv unake sahayak sekend lephtinent tenent maauris jaipsan ne us anubam par lage suraksha upakaranon ko hatakar use sakriy kiya.

hiroshima par hamala

japan ke chetavani radar ne hamale ke lagabhag ek ghante poorv dakshin japan ki or badh rahe in amariki vimanon ko chihnit karake sambhavit havaee hamale ki rediyo se chetavani de di thi. subah lagabhag 8 baje hiroshima ke radar chalak ne dekha ki vimanon ki snkhya keval tin hi hai, isaliye usane mana ki yah tohi viman hain aur koee hamala nahin hone ja raha. apane eendhan aur havaee jahajon ko bachane ki drishti se japani vayusena ne amariki jahajon par pratirodhi havaee akraman nahin kiya. agar japan ke radar pahachan lete ki ye bamavarshak viman hain to shayad adhik gambhir prayas kiye jate. lakshy par sthaniy samay ke anusar subah 8:15 par bam phainka gaya.

paramanu hamale ke bad ka ek drishy (hiroshima)

60 kilogram yooreniyam-235 vale 'litil baauy' namak anubam ko havaee jahaj se phainke jane ke bad shahar se lagabhag 2,000 phit ki, phatane ki oonchaee, tak pahunchane men 57 sekand lage. hava ke viparit bahav ke karan yah apane nirdharit lakshy 'iyoee brij' se karib 800 phit door 'shima sarjikal klinik' ke oopar phata. dhamaka lagabhag 13 kilotan ti.en.ti. ke barabar tha. parinamasvaroop lagabhag 1.6 ki.mi. ka ilaka poori tarah dhvast ho gaya. 11 varg ki.mi. ka kshetr ag ki lapaton men ghirakar jal gaya. amariki adhikariyon ke anusar is bam se 12 varg ki.mi. ka ilaka poori tarah dhvast hua tha. japani adhikariyon ne dava kiya ki hiroshima nagar ki 69 pratishat imaraten poori tarah nasht ho gayin aur isake alava 6-7 pratishat bhavanon ko anshik kshati pahunchi. isake bavajood amariki vaigyanikon ke anusar yoo-235 vala yah astr nakam raha, kyonki isane eendhan ke keval 1.38 pratishat ka hi sakriy upayog kiya tha.

hamale ke bad 7 agast se 9 agast ke bich japan ke samrat hirohito v unaki yuddh salahakar samiti samarpan ke svaroop aur sharton par vichar kar rahi thi, lekin amariki sarakar ko apane ek aur bam ka parikshan kar prabhav ka satik akalan karana tha aur use duniya ko dikhana bhi tha. isalie japan ke samarpan taiyari ko janate hue bhi 9 agast ko dakshini japan ke bandaragah nagar nagasaki par 11 bajakar, 1 minat par 6.4 kilo plootoniyam-239 vala 'phait main' nam ka doosara bam giraya gaya. 43 sekand ke bad zamin se 1,540 phit ki oonchaee par yah bam phata aur isase 21 kilotan ti.en.ti. ke barabar dhamaka hua. parinamasvaroop 3,900 digri selsiyas ki ooshma utpanh‍n huee aur hava ki gati 1005 ki.mi. prati ghante tak pahunch gayi. isase tatkal huee mauton ki snkhya ka anuman 40,000 se 75,000 ke bich tha. 1945 ke ant tak yah ankada 80,000 tak ja pahuncha.

japan ka samarpan

17 agast ya 18 agast ko japan par tisara anu hamala hona tha. isi kram se sitambar men tin aur aktoobar men 3 hamale karane ki bhi yojana thi. udhar japan ke samrat sthiti ko turant kaboo men karana chahate the, jabaki soviyat sngh ne bhi japan ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. antat: japan ne 14 agast ko samarpan kar diya. is prakar japan ke samarpan ke sath hi vishv itihas ke sarvadhik nirmam akraman aur sarvadhik snharak astr ke parikshan ka patakshep hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahavinash 'hiroshima divas' (hindi) pravakta.kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 28 julaee, 2015.
  2. nirmam hamala ya snharak astr ka parikshan ? (hindi) antar bharati. abhigaman tithi: 28 julaee, 2015.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah