विश्व पर्यावरण दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vishv paryavaran divas
vishv paryavaran divas ka pratik chihn, varsh- 2012
vivaran vishv paryavaran divas snyukt rashtr dvara sakaratmak paryavaran kary hetu duniya bhar men manaya jane vala sabase bada utsav hai.
tithi 5 joon
shuruat sanh 1972
uddeshy paryavaran ki gunavatta ke snrakshan hetu sabhi avashyak qadam uthana. jaise- paryavaran pradooshan ke nivaran, niyntran aur upashaman hetu rashtravyapi karyakram ki yojana banana aur use kriyanvit karana.
snbndhit lekh prithvi divas, vishv jal divas
any janakari prithvi ka tin chauthaee hissa jalamagn hai phir bhi qarib 0.3 phisadi jal hi pine yogy hai. vibhinn udyogon aur manav bastiyon ke kachare ne jal ko itana pradooshit kar diya hai ki pine ke qarib 0.3 phisadi jal men se matr qarib 30 phisadi jal hi vastav men pine ke layaq rah gaya hai.
vishv paryavaran divas snyukt rashtr dvara sakaratmak paryavaran kary hetu duniya bhar men manaya jane vala sabase bada utsav hai. paryavaran aur jivan ka anyonyashrit snbndh hai tathapi hamen alag se yah divas manakar paryavaran ke snrakshan, snvardhan aur vikas ka snkalp lene ki avashyakata pad rahi hai. yah chintajanak hi nahin, sharmanak bhi hai. paryavaran pradooshan ki samasya par sanh 1972 men snyukt rashtr sngh ne stakahom (svidan) men vishv bhar ke deshon ka pahala paryavaran sammelan ayojit kiya. isamen 119 deshon ne bhag liya aur pahali bar ek hi prithvi ka siddhant many kiya. isi sammelan men snyukt rashtr paryavaran karyakram (UNEP) ka janm hua tatha prati varsh 5 joon ko paryavaran divas ayojit karake nagarikon ko pradooshan ki samasya se avagat karane ka nishchay kiya gaya. tatha isaka mukhy uddeshy paryavaran ke prati jagarookata late hue rajanitik chetana jagrit karana aur am janata ko prerit karana tha. ukt goshthi men tatkalin pradhanamntri shrimati indira gandhi ne 'paryavaran ki bigadati sthiti evn usaka vishv ke bhavishy par prabhav' vishay par vyakhyan diya tha. paryavaran-suraksha ki disha men yah bharat ka prarnbhik qadam tha. tabhi se ham prati varsh 5 joon ko vishv paryavaran divas manate a rahe hain.[1]
dak tikaton men vishv paryavaran divas

paryavaran snrakshan adhiniyam

  • 19 navnbar 1986 se paryavaran snrakshan adhiniyam lagoo hua. tadanusar jal, vayu, bhoomi- in tinon se snbndhit karak tatha manav, paudhon, sookshm jiv, any jivit padarth adi paryavaran ke antargat ate hain. paryavaran snrakshan adhiniyam ke kee mahattvapoorn bindu hain. jaise-
  1. paryavaran ki gunavatta ke snrakshan hetu sabhi avashyak qadam uthana.
  2. paryavaran pradooshan ke nivaran, niyntran aur upashaman hetu rashtravyapi karyakram ki yojana banana aur use kriyanvit karana.
  3. paryavaran ki gunavatta ke manak nirdharit karana.
  4. paryavaran suraksha se snbndhit adhiniyamon ke antargat rajy-sarakaron, adhikariyon aur snbndhiton ke kam men samanvay sthapit karana.
  5. aise kshetron ka parisiman karana, jahan kisi bhi udyog ki sthapana athava audyogik gatividhiyan snchalit n ki ja saken, adi- adi. ukt-adhiniyam ka ullnghan karane valon ke lie kathor dnd ka pravadhan hai.[1]

vartaman men paryavaran ki sthiti

  • ajakal 5 joon 'vishv paryavaran divas' ka ayojan mahaj ek rasm adayagi hai. bhale hi is avasar par bade-bade vyakhyan diye jaen, hazaron paudha-ropan kie jaen aur paryavaran snrakshan ki jhoothi qasamen khayi jaen, par is ek din ko chhod shesh 365 din prakriti ke prati hamara amanaviy vyavahar is bat ka spasht praman hai ki ham paryavaran ke prati kitane udasin aur snvedan shoony hain? aj hamare pas shuddh peyajal ka abhav hai, sans lene ke lie shuddh hava kam padane lagi hai. jngal katate ja rahe hain, jal ke srot nasht ho rahe hain, vanon ke lie avashyak vany prani bhi vilin hote ja rahe hain. audyogikaran ne khet-khalihan aur van-prantar nigal liye. vany jivon ka ashiyana chhin gaya. kal-karakhane dhuan ugal rahe hain aur pranavayu ko dooshit kar rahe hain. yah sab khatare ki ghnti hai.[1]
  • bharat ki sattar pratishat abadi ganvon men rahati hai. ab vah bhi shaharon men palayan hetu atur hai jabaki shahari jivan narakiy ho chala hai. vahan hariyali ka namonishan nahin hai, bahumnjili imaraton ke jngal pasarate ja rahe hain. shahari gharon men kuen nahin hote, pani ke lie bahari srot par nirbhar rahana padata hai. ganvon se palayan karane valon ki jhuggiyan shaharon ki samasyaen badhati hain. yadi sarakar ganvon ko suvidha-snpann banane ki or dhyan den to vahan se logon ka palayan ruk sakata hai. vahan achchhi sadaken, avagaman ke sadhan, skool-kaaulej, aspatal v any avashyak suvidhaen sulabh hon tatha shasan ki kalyanakari nitiyon aur yojanaon ka labh amajan ko milane ka poora prabndh ho to log palayan kyon karenge ? ganvon men krishi kary achchhe se ho, kuen-talab, bavadiyon ki saphaee yatha-samay ho, gndagi se bachav ke upay kiye jaen. snkshep men yah ki vahan gramin vikas yojanaon ka eemanadari-poorvak snchalan ho to gramon ka svaroop nishchay hi badalega aur vahan ke paryavaran se prabhavit hokar shahar se jane vale naukari-pesha bhi vahan rahane ko atur honge.[1]
vishv paryavaran divas ke avasar par vriksharopan karate log

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  • dharati ka tapaman nirntar badh raha hai, isalie pashu-pakshiyon ki kee prajatiyan lupt ho gayi hain. jngalon se sher, chite, bagh adi gayab ho chale hain. bharat men 50 karod se bhi adhik janavar hain, jinamen se panch karod prati varsh mar jate hain aur sadhe chh: karod naye janm lete hain. vany prani prakritik sntulan sthapit karane men sahayak hote hain. unaki ghatati snkhya paryavaran ke lie ghatak hai. jaise giddh janavar ki prajati vany jivan ke lie varadan hai par ab 90 pratishat giddh mar chuke hain isilie desh ke vibhinn bhagon men sade hue janavar dikh jate hain. jabaki ausatan bis minat men hi giddhon ka jhund ek bade mrit janavar ko kha jata tha. paryavaran ki drishti se vany praniyon ki raksha anivary hai. isake lie sarakar ko van-snrakshan aur vanon ke vistar ki yojana par gnbhirata se kary karana hoga. vanon se lage hue gramavasiyon ko vanikaran ke labh samajha kar unaki sahayata leni hogi tabhi hamare jngal naye sire se vikasit ho paenge jisaki nitant avashyakata hai.[1]

paryavaran pradooshan

prithvi ke sabhi prani ek-doosare par nirbhar hai tatha vishv ka pratyek padarth ek-doosare se prabhavit hota hai. isalie aur bhi avashyak ho jata hai ki prakriti ki in sabhi vastuon ke bich avashyak sntulan ko banaye rakha jaye. is 21vin sadi men jis prakar se ham audyogik vikas aur bhautik samriddhi ki or badhe chale ja rahe hain, vah paryavaran sntulan ko samapt karata ja raha hai. anekanek udyog-dhndhon, vahanon tatha anyany mashini upakaranon dvara ham har ghadi jal aur vayu ko pradooshit karate rahate hain. vayumndal men bade paimane par lagatar vibhinn ghatak audyogik gaison ke chhode jane se paryavaran sntulan par atynt viparit prabhav padata rahata hai. mukhyatah paryavaran ke pradooshit hone ke mukhy karan hain - nirntar badhati abadi, audyogikaran, vahanon dvara chhoda jane vala dhuan, nadiyon, talabon men girata hua kooda-kachara, vanon ka katan, kheton men rasayanon ka asntulit prayog, pahadon men chattanon ka khisakana, mitti ka katan adi.[1]

bhoomi pradooshan

paryavaran ki raksha ke lie mrida, jal, vayu aur dhvani pradooshan ki rokatham anivary hai. bhoomi-pradooshan ka karan hai - vanon ka vinash, khadanen, bhoo-ksharan, rasayanik khad tatha kitanashak davaon ka upayog adi. bhoomi ki urvarata badhane hetu rasayanik khad ka tatha phasal ko kidon aur rogon se bachane ke lie kitanashak davaon ka upayog kiya jata hai, jo bhoomi ko pradooshit kar dete hain. inake karan bhoomi ko labh pahunchane vale mendhak v kenchua jaise jiv nasht ho jate hain jabaki phasalon ko kshati pahunchane vale kide-makodon se bachav men yahi jiv sahayak hote hain. at: krishi phasal men elagi, kampost khad tatha hari khad ka upayog kiya jana chahie taki kheton men aise labhadayak jivon ki vriddhi ho sake jo kheti ki urvara shakti badha saken. krishi tatha any karyon men kitanashakon ke prayog ki bat karen to vishv svasthy sngathan ne adhikansh kitanashakon ko vishaila ghoshit kiya hai, bavajood isake hamare desh men to inaka prayog dhadalle se ho raha hai.[1]

jal pradooshan

prithvi ka tin chauthaee hissa jalamagn hai phir bhi qarib 0.3 phisadi jal hi pine yogy hai. vibhinn udyogon aur manav bastiyon ke kachare ne jal ko itana pradooshit kar diya hai ki pine ke qarib 0.3 phisadi jal men se matr qarib 30 phisadi jal hi vastav men pine ke layaq rah gaya hai. jal pradooshan ke karan anek bimariyan jaise - pechish, khujali, haija, piliya adi phailate hain. choonki ab jal-snkat gnbhir roop dharan kar chuka hai at: jal-sroton ko sookhane se bachane ke sath-sath jal-pradooshan ko rokane ke upay bhi karane honge. nirntar badhati janasnkhya, pashu-snkhya, audyogikaran, jal-sroton ke durupayog, varsha men kami adi karanon se jal-pradooshan ne ugr roop dharan kar liya hai. nadiyon evn any jalasroton men karakhanon se nishkasit rasayanik padarth v gnda pani mil jane se vah pradooshit ho jata hai. nadiyon ke kinare base nagaron men jal-adhajale shav tatha mrit janavar nadi men phenk diye jate hain. krishi-utpadan badhane aur kidon se unaki raksha hetu jo rasayanik khad evn kitanashak prayog men laye jate hain ve varsha ke jal ke sath bahakar any jal-sroton men mil jate hain aur pradooshan phailate hain. nadiyon, jalashayon men kapade dhone, kooda-kachara phenkane v mal-mootr visarjit karane se bhi yah sthiti paida hoti hai. aise men jal ka durupayog rokana aur mitavyayita se usaka prayog karana avashyak hai. boond-boond se hi ghada bharata hai, yah kahavat ab charitarth ho rahi hai. hamen varsha ke jal ko snrakshit karana hoga.[1]

vayu aur dhvani pradooshan

  • paryavaran ke lie vayu aur dhvani pradooshan bhi kam ghatak nahin hai. vayu men 78 pratishat naitrojan, 21 pratishat aauksijan, 0.03 pratishat karban daiaauksaid tatha shesh nishkriy gaisen aur jal vashp hoti hai. hava men vidyaman aauksijan hi jivadhariyon ko jivit rakhata hai. manushy samanyat: pratidin baees hazar bar sans leta hai aur solah kilogram aauksijan ka upayog karata hai jo ki usake dvara grahan kiye jane vale bhojan aur jal ki matra se bahut adhik hai. vayumndal men aauksijan ka prachur bhndar hai kintu audyogik pragati ke karan vah pradooshit ho chala hai. ghareloo eendhan, vahanon ki badhati snkhya aur audyogik karakhane isake lie zimmedar hain. isase nipatane ke lie koyala, dijal v petrol ka upayog vivek-poorn dhng se hona chahie. karakhanon men chimaniyon ki oonchaee badhayi jae tatha usamen philtar ka upayog kiya jae. gharon evn hotalon men eendhan ke roop men gobar gais v saur oorja ke istemal par zor diya jana chahie.[1]
  • dhvani-pradooshan ek gnbhir samasya hai jo paryavaran hi nahin snpoorn jiv jagat ke lie chunauti hai. jiv jntuon ke alava ped paudhe tatha bhavan adi bhi vayu pradooshan se prabhavit hote hain. aye din mashinon, laudaspikaron, karon dvara tatha vivahotsav, tyoharon, dharmik karyon ke avasaron par hone vala dhvani pradooshan n jane kitanon ki nind haram karata rahata hai. aniyntrit janasnkhya, shaharon men yatayat ke vividh sadhanon, samajik evn sanskritik samarohon men dhvani vistarak yntron tatha kal-karakhanon ke karan bahut shoragul badh raha hai. log teliphon aur mobail par bhi chikh-chikhakar baten karate hain. malti stori avason tak men dhime bolane ki snskriti vikasit nahin ho saki hai. dhvani pradooshan niyntran hetu qanoon to hai par usaka palan nahin kiya jata.[1]
  • vartaman samay men hamare dvara chhode jane vale dhuen ityadi ka andaza isi se lagaya ja sakata hai ki irak yuddh ke samay irak par hone vali bamabari tatha vahan ke tel ke kuon men lagane vali ag ke karan vayumndal men itana vishakt pahunch gaya ki vahan do-tin bar kale pani ki varsha ho chuki hai. bharat men lagabhag 4000 se adhik rasayanik karakhane hai jinamen kam karane vale anek rogon se pidit ho jate hai aur anekon ka to jivan hi samapt ho jata hai. van aur vrikshon ka vinash pradooshan ka ek mukhy karan hai. isake sath hi vichar pradooshan men ek svarthabaddh evn snkuchit vichar vayumndal men dooshit lahariyon ka snchar karate hai. inake karan anek ped-paudhe tatha phoolon ki vriddhi badhit hoti hai tatha anaitik karyon ki prerana prapt hoti hai.[1]
vishv paryavaran divas ke thim tatha nare
kr. sn. varsh thim tatha nare
1. 2016 thim- "duniya ko ek behatar jagah banane ke lie daud men shamil hon."
2. 2015 thim- "ek vishv, ek paryavaran."
3. 2014 thim- "chhote dvip vikasit rajy hote hain" ya "esaidies" aur "apani avaz uthao, na ki samudr star."
4. 2013 thim- "socho, khao, bachao" aur nara- "apane phoodaprint ko ghatao."
5. 2012 thim- "harit arthavyavastha: kyon isane apako shamil kiya hai?"
6. 2011 thim- "jngal: prakriti apaki seva men."
7. 2010 thim- "bahut sari prajati. ek grah. ek bhavishy."
8. 2009 thim- "apake grah ko apaki jarurat hai- jalavayu parivartan ka virodh karane ke liye ek hona."
9. 2008 thim- "CO2, adat ko lat maro- ek nimn karban arthavyavastha ki or."
10. 2007 thim- "barph ka pighalana- ek gnbhir vishay hai?"
11. 2006 thim- "registan aur marusthalikaran" aur nara- "shushk bhoomi par registan mat banao."
12. 2005 thim- "harit shahar" aur nara- "grah ke liye yojana banayen."
13. 2004 thim- "chahate hain! samudr aur mahasagar" aur nara- "mrityu ya jivit?"
14. 2003 thim- "jal" aur nara- "2 biliyan log isake liye mar rahen hain."
15. 2002 thim- "prithvi ko ek mauka do."
16. 2001 thim- "jivan ki varld vaid veb."
17. 2000 thim- "paryavaran shatabdi" aur nara- "kam karane ka samay."
18. 1999 thim- "hamari prithvi- hamara bhavishy" aur nara- "ise bachayen."
19. 1998 thim- "prithvi par jivan ke liye" aur nara- "apane sagar ko bachayen."
20. 1997 thim- "prithvi par jivan ke liye."
21. 1996 thim- "hamari prithvi, hamara avas, hamara ghar."
22. 1995 thim- "ham log: vaishvik paryavaran ke liye ek ho."
23. 1994 thim- "ek prithvi ek parivar."
24. 1993 thim- "garibi aur paryavaran" aur nara- "dushchakr ko todo."
25. 1992 thim- "keval ek prithvi, dhyan den aur banten."
26. 1991 thim- "jalavayu parivartan. vaishvik sahayog ke liye jarurat."
27. 1990 thim- "bachche aur paryavaran."
28. 1989 thim- "global varming; global varming."
29. 1988 thim- "jab log paryavaran ko pratham sthan par rakhenge, vikas ant men ayega."
30. 1987 thim- "paryavaran aur chhat: ek chhat se jyada."
31. 1986 thim- "shanti ke liye ek paudha."
32. 1985 thim- "yuva: janasnkhya aur paryavaran."
33. 1984 thim- "marusthalikaran."
34. 1983 thim- "khataranak gndagi ko nipatana aur prabndhan karana: esid ki barish aur oorja."
35. 1982 thim- "staaukahom (paryavaran chintaon ka pun:sthapan) ke 10 varsh bad."
36. 1981 thim- "jamin ka pani; manav khady shrrinkhala men jaharila rasayan."
37. 1980 thim- "naye dashak ke liye ek nayi chunauti: bina vinash ke vikas."
38. 1979 thim- "hamare bachchon ke liye keval ek bhavishy" aur nara- "bina vinash ke vikas."
39. 1978 thim- "bina vinash ke vikas."
40. 1977 thim- "ojon parat paryavaran chinta; bhoomi ki hani aur mitti ka nimnikaran."
41. 1976 thim- "jal: jivan ke liye ek bada srot."
42. 1975 thim- "manav samajhauta."
43. 1974 thim- "74 ke pradarshan ke dauran keval ek prithvi."
44. 1973 thim- "keval ek prithvi."

paryavaran ke prati jagarookata aur samadhan

paryavaran ki avahelana ke gnbhir dushparinam samooche vishv men parilakshit ho rahe hain. ab sarakar jitane bhi niyam-qanoon lagoo karen usake sath sath janata ki jagarookata se hi paryavaran ki raksha snbhav ho sakegi. isake lie kuchh atynt samany baton ko jivan men dridhatapoorvak apanana avashyak hai. jaise -

  1. pratyek vyakti prati varsh yadagar avasaron[2] par apane ghar, mndir ya aise sthal par phaladar athava aushadhiy paudha-ropan kare, jahan usaki dekhabhal ho sake.
  2. upahar men bhi sabako paudhe den.
  3. shiksha snsthanon v karyalayon men vidyarthi, shikshak, adhikari aur karmacharigan rashtriy parv tatha mahattvapoorn tithiyon par paudhe ropen.
  4. vidyarthi ek snstha men jitane varsh adhyayan karate hain, utane paudhe vahan lagayen aur jivit bhi rakhen.
  5. pratyek ganv/shahar men har muhalle v kaauloni men paryavaran snrakshan samiti banayi jaye.
  6. niji vahanon ka upayog kam se kam kiya jae.
  7. rediyo-telivizan ki avaz dhimi rakhen. sadaiv dhime svar men bat karen. ghar men parti ho tab bhi shor n hone den.
  8. jal vyarth n bahayen. gadi dhone ya paudhon ko pani dene men istemal kiye pani ka prayog karen.
  9. anavashyak bijali ki batti jalati n chhoden. paaulithin ka upayog n karen. kachara koodedan men hi dalen.
  10. apana makan banava rahe hon to usamen varsha ke jal-snrakshan aur udyan ke lie jagah avashy rakhen.
  • aisi anek chhoti-chhoti baton par dhyan dekar bhi paryavaran ki raksha ki ja sakati hai. ye apake kee anavashyak kharchon men to kami layenge hi, paryavaran ke prati apani zimmedari nibhane ki atmasntushti bhi denge. to prayas kijiye - sirph salana ayojan ke upalakshy men hi nahin balki ek adat ke roop men bhi paryavaran chetana ko apanane ka. ullekhaniy hai ki paryavaran-snrakshan hetu utkrisht kary karane vale vyakti aur sngathan ko bharat sarakar ke paryavaran evn van mntralay dvara ek-ek lakh rupaye ka indira gandhi paryavaran puraskar prati varsh 19 navnbar ko pradan kiya jata hai. [1]
  • paryavaran ki mahatta ko dekhate hue ise skoolon men bachchon ki pathan samagri men shamil kar liya gaya hai. hamare charon or prakriti tatha manav nirmit jo bhi jivit-nirjiv vastuen hai, ve sab milakar paryavaran banati hai. is prakar mitti, pani, hava, ped-paudhe, jiv-jntu sabhi kuchh paryavaran se ang hai, aur in sabhi ke apasi talamel[3] ko paryavaran sntulan kaha jata hai.[4]

saransh

dak tikaton men vishv paryavaran divas

saransh roop men audyogik vikas, garibi aur any vikas se utpann vatavaran, badalata hua sochane-samajhane ka dhng adi zimmedar hai. paryavaran pradooshan ke ham pratyek kary karane se poorv yah sochate hain ki isake karane se hamen kya labh hoga, jabaki hamen yah sochana chahie ki hamare is kary se kisi ko koee nukasan to nahin hoga. bharat ke rishi-muniyon ne aj se saikadon varsh poorv paryavaran ke prati apane dayitv ka anubhav karate hue kaha tha - prakriti hamari mata hai, jo apana sarvasv apane bachchon ko arpan kar deti hai. prakriti ki god men khelakar, lot-pot kar ham bade hote hain. vah hamari samast avashyakataon ki poorti karati hai. dharati, nadi, pahad, maidan, van, pashu-pakshi, akash, jal, vayu adi sab hamen jivanayapan men sahayata pradan karate hai. ye sab hamare paryavaran ke ang hai. apane jivan ke sarvasv paryavaran ki raksha karana, usako banae rakhana ham manavon ka kartavy hona chahie. hakiqat to yah hai ki svachchh paryavaran jivan ka adhar hai aur paryavaran pradooshan jivan ke astitv ke sammukh prashnachihn laga deta hai. paryavaran jivan ke pratyek paksh se juda hua hai. isilie yah ati avashyak ho jata hai ki pratyek vyakti apane paryavaran ke prati jagarook rahe aur is prakar paryavaran ka sthan jivan ki prathamikataon men sarvadhik mahattvapoorn karyon men hona chahie, lekin afasos ki bat hai ki ham chet nahin rahe hai. [4]

arth nahin paryavaran premi hain bharatiy

duniya men sabase teji se badh rahi arthavyavasthaon men se ek bharat harit arthavyavastha banane ka prayas kar raha hai. ne sarvekshan men khulasa hua hai ki bharatiy log arthik vriddhi par paryavaran raksha ko mamooli roop se prathamikata dete hain. amerika ki pramukh sarvekshan ejensi ‘gailap’ ne apane taja sarvekshan men kaha ki zyadatar abadi arthavyavastha se zyada paryavaran par dhyan kendrit kie hue hain. gailap ki manen to bharat ne vaishvik bhoobhag par harit kshetr ko badhane ke ullekhaniy prayas kie hain. isaki ek banagi rashtriy rajadhani dilli hai, jahan hal ke varsho men harit kshetr men vriddhi darj ki gee hai. dilli ka lagabhag 20 phisadi hissa vanon se dhaka hua hai. sarakar ne agale kuchh salon men ise badhakar 25 phisadi karane ka lakshy rakha hai.[5]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 vishv paryavaran divas par vishesh (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) humsamvet.org. abhigaman tithi: 7 joon, 2011.
  2. janmadin, vivah ki varshaganth
  3. uchit matra men hona
  4. 4.0 4.1 5 joon-vishv paryavaran divas’ (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) jagaran jnkshan. abhigaman tithi: 7 joon, 2011.
  5. arth nahin paryavaran premi hain bharatiy (hindi) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 4 joon, 2011.

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