अंतरराष्ट्रीय महिला दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

antararashtriy mahila divas
antararashtriy mahila divas
vivaran is din ko sampoorn vishv ki mahilaen desh, jat-pat, bhasha, rajanitik, sanskritik bhedabhav se pare ekajut hokar manati hain.
tithi 8 march
sthapana 1910
uddeshy yah din mahilaon ko unaki kshamata, samajik, rajanitik v arthik taraqqi dilane v un mahilaon ko yad karane ka din hai jinhonne mahilaon ko unake adhikar dilane ke lie athak prayas kie.
vishesh snyukt rashtr har bar mahila divas par ek thim rakhata hai. varsh 2015 ki thim hai- sashakt mahila-sashakt manavata. mahilaon ko sashakt karane ka arth hai 'insaniyat ko bulnd karana'.
any janakari duniya ke pramukh vikasit evn vikasashil deshon men bhagadaud aur apadhapi se hone vale tanav ke bare men kie ge sarvekshan ke anusar bharat ki sarvadhik mahilaen tanav men rahati hain. sarve men 87 pratishat bharatiy mahilaon ne kaha ki zyadatar samay ve tanav men rahati hain aur 82 pratishat ka kahana hai ki unake pas aram karane ke lie vaqt nahin hota.
bahari kadiyan antararashtriy mahila divas
adyatan‎

antararashtriy mahila divas (angrezi: International Women's Day) har varsh '8 march' ko vishvabhar men manaya jata hai. is din sampoorn vishv ki mahilaen desh, jat-pat, bhasha, rajanitik, sanskritik bhedabhav se pare ekajut hokar is din ko manati hain. mahila divas par stri ki prem, sneh v matritv ke sath hi shaktisnpann stri ki moorti samane ati hai. ikkisavin sadi ki stri ne svayn ki shakti ko pahachan liya hai aur kafi had tak apane adhikaron ke lie ladana sikh liya hai. aj ke samay men striyon ne siddh kiya hai ki ve ek-doosare ki dushman nahin, sahayogi hain.[1] snyukt rashtr har bar mahila divas par ek thim rakhata hai. varsh 2015 ki thim hai- sashakt mahila-sashakt manavata. mahilaon ko sashakt karane ka arth hai 'insaniyat ko bulnd karana'.

'antararashtriy mahila divas' manati huee mahilaen
“nari tum keval shraddha ho, vishvas rajat nag pag tal men.
piyoosh srot si baha karo, jivan ke sundar samatal men..“
'antararashtriy mahila divas'

itihas

itihas ke anusar am mahilaon dvara samanadhikar ki yah ladaee shuroo ki gee thi. lisisatrata namak mahila ne prachin gris men phrench kranti ke dauran yuddh samapti ki mang rakhate hue andolan ki shuruat ki, farasi mahilaon ke samooh ne varasels men is din ek morcha nikala, isaka uddeshy yuddh ke karan mahilaon par badhate atyachar ko rokana tha. pahali bar sanh 1909 men soshalist parti aauf amerika dvara poore amerika men 28 faravari ko mahila divas manaya gaya tha. 1910 men soshalist intaraneshanal dvara kopenahegan men mahila divas ki sthapana huee. 1911 men aaustriya, denamark, jarmani aur svitjaralaind men lakhon mahilaon ne raili nikali. is raili men matadhikar, sarakari naukari men bhedabhav khatm karane jaise muddon ki mang uthi. pratham vishv yuddh ke dauran, roosi mahilaon dvara pahali bar shanti ki sthapana ke lie faravari mah ke antim ravivar ko mahila divas manaya gaya. yoorop bhar men bhi yuddh virodhi pradarshan hue. 1917 tak roos ke do lakh se zyada sainik mare ge, roosi mahilaon ne phir roti aur shanti ke lie is din hadatal ki. halanki rajaneta isake khilaf the, phir bhi mahilaon ne andolan jari rakha aur tab roos ke jar ko apani gaddi chhodani padi aur sarakar ko mahilaon ko vot ke adhikar ki ghoshana karani padi.


'mahila divas' ab lagabhag sabhi vikasit, vikasashil deshon men manaya jata hai. yah din mahilaon ko unaki kshamata, samajik, rajanitik v arthik taraqqi dilane v un mahilaon ko yad karane ka din hai jinhonne mahilaon ko unake adhikar dilane ke lie athak prayas kie.[2] 'snyukt rashtr sngh' ne bhi mahilaon ke samanadhikar ko badhava aur suraksha dene ke lie vishvabhar men kuchh nitiyan, karyakram aur mapadnd nirdharit kie hain. bharat men bhi 'mahila divas' vyapak roop se manaya jane laga hai.[3]

klara zetakin

antararashtriy divas banane ka sujhav

rashtriy mahila divas ko antararashtriy banane ka sujhav ek stri ka hi tha. klara zetakin ne 1910 men kopenahegan men kamakaji mahilaon ki ek intaraneshanal kaaunphrens ke dauran antararashtriy mahila divas manane ka sujhav diya. us vaqt kaaunfrens men 17 deshon ki 100 mahilaen maujood thin. un sabhi ne is sujhav ka samarthan kiya. sabase pahale sal 1911 men aaustriya, denamark, jarmani aur svitzaralaind men antararashtriy mahila divas manaya gaya. 1975 men mahila divas ko adhikarik manyata us vakt di gee thi, jab snyukt rashtr ne ise varshik taur par ek thim ke sath manana shuroo kiya. antararashtriy mahila divas ki pahali thim thi- 'selibreting d past, planing faaur d phyoochar.'

8 march hi kyon?

ye saval to sabake zahan men bhi uthata hi hoga ki akhir 8 march ko hi antararashtriy mahila divas kyon manaya jata hai? darasal, klara zetakin ne mahila divas manane ke lie koee tarikh pakki nahin ki thi. san 1917 men yuddh ke dauran roos ki mahilaon ne 'bred end pis' (yani khana aur shanti) ki mang ki. mahilaon ki hadatal ne vahan ke samrat nikolas ko pad chhodane ke lie majaboor kar diya aur antarim sarakar ne mahilaon ko matadan ka adhikar de diya. us samay roos men jooliyan kailendar ka prayog hota tha. jis din mahilaon ne yah hadatal shuroo ki thi, vah tarikh 23 faravari thi. gregeriyan kailendar men yah din 8 march tha aur usi ke bad se antararashtriy mahila divas 8 march ko manaya jane laga.[4]

kee deshon men is divas ke avasar par rashtriy avakash ki ghoshana ki jati hai. roos aur doosare kee deshon men is din ke as-pas phoolon ki kimat kaphi badh jati hai. is dauran mahila aur purush ek-doosare ko phool dete hain. chin men jyadatar daftaron men mahilaon ko adhe din ki chhutti di jati hai. vahin amarika men march ka mahina 'vimens histri mnth' ke taur par manaya jata hai.

pragati, durgati men parinit

samaj men yah vishamata charon taraph hai aur mahilaon ko lekar bhi yah sahaj svabhavik hai. mahilaon ki pragati badalav ki bayar men durgati men adhik parinit huee hai. ham bar-bar age badhakar pichhe khisake hain. bat chahe alag-alag tariqe se kie ge balatkar ya hatya ki ho, khauphanak pharamanon ki ya mahila asmita se jude kisi vilnbit adalati phaisale ki. kahin na kahin mahila kahalae jane vala varg hairan aur hataprabh hi nazar aya hai.[2]

srishti srijan men yogadan

'antararashtriy mahila divas' manati huee mahilaen

srishti ke rachayita brahma ke bad srishti srijan men yadi kisi ka yogadan hai to vo nari ka hai. apane jivan ko danv par laga kar ek jiv ko janm dene ka sahas eeshvar ne keval mahila ko pradan kiya hai. halanki tatha-kathit purush pradhan samaj men nari ki ye shakti usaki sabase badi kamazori mani jati hai. aj samaj ke dohare mapadnd nari ko ek taraph poojyaniy batate hai to doosari or usaka shoshan karate hain. yah nari jati ka apaman hai. aurat samaj se vahi samman pane ki adhikarini hai jo samaj purushon ko usaki anekon galatiyon ke bad bhi pun: ek achchha adami banane ka adhikar pradan karata hai.

shakti pradhan samaj ka ang

nari ko arakshan ki zaroorat nahin hai. unhen uchit suvidhaon ki avashyakata hai, unaki pratibhaon aur mahattvakankshaon ke samman ki aur sabase badh kar to ye hai ki samaj men nari hi nari ko samman dene lage to ye samasya kafi had tak kam ho sakati hai. mahila apani shakti ko pahachane aur purushon ki jhoothi prashnsa se bache aur soch badale ki ve purush pradhan samaj ki nahin balki shakti pradhan samaj ka ang hai aur shakti prapt karana hi unaka lakshy hai aur vo keval ek din ki sahanubhooti nahin apitu har din apana hak evn samman chahati hai.[5]
'antararashtriy mahila divas' manati huee mahilaen

poonjivadi shoshan ke khilaf

'antararashtriy mahila divas' lagabhag sau varsh poorv, pahali bar manaya gaya tha, jab poonjivad aur samrajyavad tezi se vikasit ho rahe the aur lakhon mahilayen mazadoori karane nikal padi thin. mahilaon ko poonjivad ne mukt karane ke bajay, karakhanon men gulam banaya, unake parivaron ko ast-vyast kar diya, un par mahila, mazadoor aur grihasthi hone ke bahutarapha bojh dale tatha unhen apane adhikaron se vnchit kiya. mahila mazadoor ekajut hueen aur badi bahaduri v snkalp ke sath, sadakon par utar kar sngharsh karane lagin. apane diler sngharshon ke zariye, ve shasak vargon v shoshakon ke khilaf sngharsh men kuchh jiten hasil kar payin. isi sngharsh aur kurabani ki parnpara 'antararashtriy mahila divas' par manayi jati hai. 'antararashtriy mahila divas' poonjivadi shoshan ke khilaf aur shoshan-daman se mukt naye samaj ke liye sngharsh, yani samajavad ke liye sngharsh ke sath nazadiki se juda raha. samajavadi v kamyunist andolan ne sabase pahale sngharsharat mahilaon ki mangon ko apane vyapak karyakram men shamil kiya. jin deshon men bisavin sadi men samajavad ki sthapana huee, vahan mahilaon ko mukt karane ke sabase saphal prayas kiye gaye the.

aparadhikaran aur asuraksha ka shikar

'antararashtriy mahila divas' ke avasar par vibhinn karyakram

'pratham antararashtriy mahila divas' ke manaye jane ke lagabhag sau varsh bad hamen nazar ata hai, ki ek taraph, duniya ki lagabhag har sarakar aur saramayadaron ke kee any snsthan antararashtriy mahila divas par khoob dhoom machate hain. ve mahilaon ke liye kuchh karane ke bade-bade vade karate hain. doosari or, sari duniya men lakhon mahilayen aj bhi har prakar ke shoshan aur daman ka shikar banati rahati hain. vartaman udarikaran aur bhoomndalikaran ke yug men poonji pahale se kahin zyada azadi ke sath, mazadoori, bazar aur snsadhanon ki talash men, duniya ke kone-kone men pahunch rahi hai. vishv men poore desh, ilake aur arthavyavastha ke kshetr vikas ke nam par tabah ho rahe hain aur karodon mehanatakashon ki zindagi barabad ho rahi hain. jahan hindustan men hazaron ki snkhya men kisan krishi kshetr men tabahi ki vajah se khudakushi kar rahe hain, mil-karakhane bnd kiye ja rahe hain, logon ko rozagar ki talash men ghar-var chhodakar shaharon ko jana padata hai, shaharon men unhen n to naukari milati hai n suraksha aur behad gndi halaton men jina padata hai. mahilayen, jo dugune v tigune shoshan ka samana karati hain, jinhen ghar-parivar men bhi khas zimmedariyan nibhani padati hain, jo badhate aparadhikaran aur asuraksha ka shikar banati hain, in paristhitiyon men mahilayen bahut hi utpidit hain.

nyay

vishv men bite sau varshon men mahilaon ke anubhavon se ham yah aham sabak lete hain ki mahilaon ka uddhar poonjivadi vikas se nahin ho sakata. balki, mahilaon ka aur zyada shoshan karane ke liye, mahilaon ko dabakar rakhane ke liye, poonjivad samaj ke sabase pratikriyavadi takaton aur tatvon ke sath gathajod bana leta hai. jo bhi mahilaon ki unnati aur uddhar chahate hain, unhen is sachchaee ka samana karana padega. jo vyavastha manav shram ke shoshan ke adhar par panapati hai, vah mahilaon ko kabhi nyay nahin dila sakati.

mahila andolan

'antararashtriy mahila divas' manati huee mahilaen

bharat men mahila andolan par yah dabav aur bhi badh gaya hai kyonki kamyunist andolan ki sabase badi partiyan aur unake mahila sngathan bhi isi raste par chalate hain. in sngathanon ne ek nayi samajik vyavastha ke liye sngharsh to chhod hi diya hai. mahila andolan ko vicharadhara se n bndhe hue hone ke nam par bahut hi tng ya tatkalin muddon tak simit rakha gaya hai. mahila andolan par kee logon ne aisa vichar thop rakha hai ki mahilaon ki chinta ke vishay itane mahila-vishisht hain, ki mahilaon ke uddhar ke sngharsh ka sabhi mehanatakashon ke uddhar ke sngharsh se koee snbndh hi nahin hai. is tarah se yah nakara jata hai ki niji sampatti hi parivar aur samaj men mahilaon ke shoshan-daman ka adhar hai. aisi takaton ne is prakar se mahila andolan ko rajanitik jagarukata se door rakhane ka poora prayas kiya hai, taki mahila andolan pngoo rahe aur mahilaon ke uddhar ke sngharsh ko aguvaee dene ke kabil hi n rahe.
hindustan ki kamyunist gadar parti is antararashtriy mahila divas par desh ki sabhi sngharsharat mahilaon se ahvan karati hai ki apaka bhavishy samajavad men hai, vartaman vyavastha ke vikalp ke liye sngharsh men hai. sirf vahi samaj jo parajiviyon v shoshakon ke dabadabe se mukt hai, vahi mahilaon ko samanata, ijzat, suraksha v khushahali ka jivan dila sakati hai. par aisi vyavastha ki rachana tabhi ho payegi jab mahilayen, jo samaj ka adha hissa hain, khud ekajut hokar isake liye sngharsh men age ayengi. jaise-jaise mahilayen apane uddhar ke liye sngharsh ko aur tez karengi, adhik se adhik snkhya men is sngharsh men judane ke liye age ayengi, vaise-vaise vah din nazadik ata jayega jab apane v apane parijanon ke liye behatar jivan sunishchit karane ka mahilaon ka sapana sakar hoga.

bharat ki prasiddh mahilaen
indira gandhi pratibha patil madar teresa lata mngeshakar em. es. subbulakshmi kiran bedi sarojini nayadoo amrita pritam mira kumar sucheta kripalani bachhendri pal karnam malleshvari kalpana chavala aishvarya ray sushmita sen mairi kaaum saina nehaval

antararashtriy mahila divas par kavita

(1) subhadra kumari chauhan dvara[6]

mainne hnsana sikha hai
main nahin janati rona.
barasa karata pal-pal par
mere jivan men sona॥

main ab tak jan n paee
kaisi hoti hai pida.
hns-hns jivan men mere
kaise karati hai krida॥

jag hai asar, sunati hoon
mujhako sukh-sar dikhata.
meri ankhon ke age
sukh ka sagar laharata.

utsah-umng nirntar
rahate mere jivan men.
ullas vijay ka hnsata
mere matavale man men.

asha alokit karati
mere jivan ko pratikshan.
hain svarn-sootr se valayit
meri asaphalata ke ghan.

sukh bhare sunahale badal
rahate hain mujhako ghere.
vishvas prem sahas hain
jivan ke sathi mere.[7]

(2) dhirendr sinh dvara

asaman sa hai jisaka vistar
chaaud-sitaron ka jo sajae snsar
dharati jaisi hai sahanashilata jisamen
hai nari har jivan ka adhar

kabhi phool sa rng-sugndh lage
kabhi chinti sa bojh uthae apar
kabhi sneh ka lage dariya nirjhar
kabhi bane kisi ka param adhar

choolha-chauka rishton-naton ki veni
har ghar ki yah garimamay shrringar
aj kahan se kahan pahunch gee hai
har naiya ki ban sashakt patavar

ghar se daftar choolhe se chnda tak
purush sng ab daude yah nar
mahila divas hai shakti divas bhi
purush nazariya men ho aur sudhar[8]

apanon ka chahie sath

bharat ki prasiddh baidamintan khiladi saina nehaval jab bhi apane mata-pita ke hath men medal v kap thame tasvir phesabuk par sheyar karati hain to unhen dheron laiks milate hain. pi.vi. sindhu ko jab 'padmashri' mila to poora parivar anndit tha. unake pita ke mutabik, “pi.vi. ki kamayabi usaki apani mehanat aur lagan ki badaulat hai. hamane to sirf us par bharosa kiya, usaka sath diya.“ adhi abadi ka bada tabaka aise hi bharose aur sath ki bat joh raha hai. kitani hi pratibhavan betiyan apane sapanon ko aise hi sath ki badaulat sach karana chahati hain. ving kamandar pooja thakur ne jab rajapath par barak obama ko gard aauf aaunar dene vali vuman fors ka netritv kiya to is aitihasik upalabdhi par har kisi ko garv hua. pooja thakur kahati hain ki- “us khushi ka koee mol nahin, jo desh ke lie yogadan dene ke bad prapt hua.... par yah ehasas namumakin hota, yadi parivar ka sath nahin milata. any samany ladakiyon ki tarah apanon ka sath pakar mera bhi hausala badhata gaya, utsah chauguna hota gaya.“

lagatar arthik pragati ke bavajood bharatiy mahilaon ko abhi bhi svasthy, shiksha aur karyakshetr men asamanata ka samana karana pad raha hai. jeneva sthit varld ikonaaumik phoram ke varshik laingik samanata indeks men bharat ab 114ven sthan par khisak gaya hai.

sabase zyada tanavagrast hain bharatiy mahilaen

duniya ke pramukh vikasit evn vikasashil deshon men aj ki bhagadaud aur apadhapi se hone vale tanav ke bare men kie ge bharatiy mahilaen ke sarvekshan ke anusar bharat ki sarvadhik mahilaen tanav men rahati hain. duniya bhar men mahilaen khud ko behad tanav aur dabav men mahasoos karati hain. yah samasya arthik taur par ubharate hue deshon men zyada dikh rahi hai. ek sarve men bharatiy mahilaon ne khud ko sabase zyada tanav men bataya. 21 vikasit aur ubharate hue deshon men karae ge nilasan sarve men samane aya ki teji se ubharate hue deshon men mahilaen behad dabav men hain lekin unhen arthik sthirata aur apani betiyon ke lie shiksha ke behatar avasar milane ki ummid bhi doosaron ke muqabale kahin zyada hai. sarve men 87 pratishat bharatiy mahilaon ne kaha ki zyadatar samay ve tanav men rahati hain aur 82 phisadi ka kahana hai ki unake pas aram karane ke lie vaqt nahin hota.[9]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. antararashtriy mahila divas (hindi) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 8 navambar, 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 mahila divas (hindi) (ech ti em) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 8 navambar, 2011.
  3. vishv mahila divas (hindi) (ech ti em el) laiv hindustan daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 8 navambar, 2011.
  4. 8 march ko hi kyon manaya jata hai antararashtriy mahila divas (hindi) bbc.com. abhigaman tithi: 8 march, 2018.
  5. mahila divas (hindi) jagaran jnkshan. abhigaman tithi: 8 navambar, 2011.
  6. antarrashtriy mahila divas par subhadra kumari chauhan ki kavita (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 09 march, 2013.
  7. antararashtriy mahila divas (hindi) (ech ti em el) hindi yugm. abhigaman tithi: 8 navambar, 2011.
  8. antararashtriy mahila divas (hindi) (ech ti em el) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 8 navambar, 2011.
  9. bharatiy mahilaen duniya men sabase zyada tanav ka shikar hain (hindi) shodh v sarve. abhigaman tithi: 27 faravari, 2015.

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