विश्व बालश्रम निषेध दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vishv balashram nishedh divas
majadoori karata balak
vivaran balashram ke virodh men yah divas poore vishv men manaya jata hai.
tithi 12 joon
uddeshy balashram ki samasya ka samadhan evn pratyek bachche ko usaka adhikar pahunchana
any janakari bharat ki kendr sarakar ne 1986 men 'balashram nishedh aur niyaman adhiniyam' parit kar diya. is adhiniyam ke anusar balashram takaniki salahakar samiti niyukt ki gee. is samiti ki sipharish ke anusar, khataranak udyogon men bachchon ki niyukti nishiddh hai.

vishv balashram nishedh divas (angrezi: World Day Against Child Labour) pratyek varsh 12 joon ko manaya jata hai. bharat men balashram ki samasya dashakon se prachalit hai. bharat sarakar ne balashram ki samasya ko samapt qadam uthae hain. bharatiy snvidhan ke anuchchhed 23 khataranak udyogon men bachchon ke rojagar par pratibndh lagata hai. bharat ki kendr sarakar ne 1986 men balashram nishedh aur niyaman adhiniyam parit kar diya. is adhiniyam ke anusar balashram takaniki salahakar samiti niyukt ki gee. is samiti ki sipharish ke anusar, khataranak udyogon men bachchon ki niyukti nishiddh hai. 1987 men, rashtriy balashram niti banaee gee thi.

bharat men balashram

bharatavarsh men prarnbh se hi bachchon ko eeshvar ka roop mana jata hai. eeshvar ke bal roop yatha 'bal ganesh', 'bal gopal', 'bal krishna', 'bal hanuman' adi isake pratyaksh udaharan hain. bharat ki dharati dhruv, prahlad, lav-kush evn abhimanyu jaise bal charitron se pati huee hai. bachchon ka vartaman drishy isase bhinn hai. bachchon ka bhavishy andhakaramay hota ja raha hai. garib bachche sabase adhik shoshan ka shikar ho rahe hain. garib bachchiyon ka jivan bhi atyadhik shoshit hai. chhote-chhote garib bachche skool chhodakar bal-shram hetu majaboor hain. bal-shram, manavadhikar ka khula ullnghan hai. yah bachchon ke manasik, sharirik, atmik, bauddhik evn samajik hiton ko prabhavit karata hai. bachche aj ke parivesh men ghareloo naukar ka kary kar rahe hain. ve hotalon, karakhanon, seva-kendron, dukanon adi men kary kar rahe hain, jisase unaka bachapan poornataya prabhavit ho raha hai.

bharat ke snvidhan, 1950 ka anuchchhed 24 spasht karata hai ki 14 varsh se kam umr ke kisi bhi bachche ko aise kary ya karakhane ityadi men n rakha jaye jo khataranak ho. karakhana adhiniyam, bal adhiniyam, bal shram nirodhak adhiniyam adi bhi bachchon ke adhikar ko suraksha dete hain kintu isake viparit aj ki sthiti bilakul bhinn hai. pichhale kuchh varshon se bharat sarakar evn rajy sarakaron ki pahal is disha men sarahaniy hai. unake dvara bachchon ke utthan ke lie anek yojanaon ko prarnbh kiya gaya hain, jisase bachchon ke jivan v shiksha par sakaratmak prabhav dikhe. shiksha ka adhikar bhi is disha men ek sarahaniy kary hai. isake bavajood bal-shram ki samasya abhi bhi ek vikat samasya ke roop men virajaman hai. isamen koee shak nahin ki bal-shram ki samasya kisi bhi desh v samaj ke lie ghatak hai. bal-shram par poornataya rok lagani chahie. bal-shram ki samasya jad se samapt hona ati avashyak hai.[1]

kuchh rochak ankaden

vishv balashram nishedh divas

bharat ki bat karen to sarakari ankadon ke anusar 2 karod aur antarrashtriy shram sngathan ke anusar to lagabhag 5 karod bachche bal shramik hain. in balashramikon men se 19 pratishat ke lagabhag ghareloo naukar hain, gramin aur asngathit kshetron men tatha krishi kshetr se lagabhag 80% jude hue hain. shesh any kshetron men, bachchon ke abhibhavak hi bahut thode paison men unako aise thekedaron ke hath bech dete hain jo apani vyavastha ke anusar unako hotalon, kothiyon tatha any karakhanon adi men kam par laga dete hain. unake niyokta bachchon ko thoda sa khana dekar manamana kam karate hain. 18 ghnte ya usase bhi adhik kam karana, adhe pet bhojan aur manamafik kam n hone par pitaee yahi unaka jivan ban jata hai.

keval ghar ka kam nahin in balashramikon ko patakhe banana, kalin bunana, velding karana, tale banana, pital udyog men kam karana, kanch udyog, hira udyog, machis, bidi banana, kheton men kam karana (bail ki tarah), koyale ki khanon men, patthar khadanon men, siment udyog, dava udyog men tatha hotalon v dhabon men jhoothe bartan dhona adi sabhi kam malik ki marji ke anusar karane hote hain. in samast karyon ke atirikt kooda binana, polithin ki gndi thailiyan chunana, adi anek kary hain jahan ye bachche apane bachapan ko nahin jite, narak bhugatate hain parivar ka pet palate hain. inake bachapan ke lie n man ki loriyan hain n pita ka dular, n khilaune hain, n skool n baladivas. inaki duniya simit hai to bas kam kam aur kam, dhire dhire bidi ke adhajale tukade uthakar dhuan udana, yaun shoshan ko khel manana inaki niyati ban jati hai.

velding ke karan ankhen alpayu men gavan baithana, phaiktri ke dhune men nikalate khataranak avasheshon ko shvas ke sath sharir ka ang bana lena, jaharili gaison se ghatak rogon phephadon ka kensar ti.bi. adi ka shikar banana, yaun shoshan ke karan eds ya any yaun rogon ke karan sara jivan hom kar dena bharapet bhojan v nind n milane se any sharirik durbalataen, kahan tak inaki samasyaon ko gina jae ye to anaginat hain. aisa nahin ki keval ladake hi bal shramik hain ladakiyan bhi in karyon men lagi hai. gharon men aise ladake ladakiyan apako pray: mil jayenge jo ghareloo kary karate hain utpidan unaka bhi hota hai. vibhinn prakar ke udyog dhndhon men ladakiyan karyarat hain baki sabhi samasyaon ke sath yaun utpidan unaki dinacharya ka ek ang ban jata hai. aise bal shramikon se sambndhit ek any samasya hai, bahut bar in bachchon ko taskari adi karyon men bhi laga diya jata hai. madak dravyon ki taskari men v any aise hi karyon men inako snlipt kar inaki vivashata ka labh uthaya jata hai. bachchon ko muslim deshon men bech dene ki ghatanaen bhi hoti hain jahan bachchon ko manornjan ka sadhan man khilauna bana diya jata hai vahan ke shekhon ke lie.[2]

kya kahata hai bharatiy snvidhan ?

snvaidhanik vyavastha ke anuroop bharat ka snvidhan maulik adhikaron aur rajy ke niti-nirdeshak siddhant ki vibhinn dharaon ke madhyam se kahata hai-

  • 14 sal ke kam umr ka koee bhi bachcha kisi phaiktari ya khadan men kam karane ke lie niyukt nahin kiya jayega aur n hi kisi any khataranak niyojan men niyukt kiya jayega (dhara 24).
  • rajy apani nitiyan is tarah nirdharit karenge ki shramikon, purushon aur mahilaon ka svasthy tatha unaki kshamata surakshit rah sake aur bachchon ki kam umr ka shoshan n ho tatha ve apani umr v shakti ke pratikool kam men arthik avashyakataon ki poorti ke lie pravesh karen (dhara 39-ee).
  • bachchon ko svasth tarike se svatntr v sammanajanak sthiti men vikas ke avasar tatha suvidhaen di jayengi aur bachapan v javani ko naitik v bhautik durupayog se bachaya jayega (dhara 39-eph).
  • snvidhan lagoo hone ke 10 sal ke bhitar rajy 14 varsh tak ki umr ke sabhi bachchon ko muft aur anivary shiksha dene ka prayas karenge (dhara 45).
  • bal shram ek aisa vishay hai, jis par snghiy v rajy sarakaren, donon kanoon bana sakati hain. donon staron par kee kanoon banaye bhi gaye hain.
  • any prayas jo is sndarbh men samay samay par hue hain unamen
    • bal shram (nishedh v niyaman) kanoon 1986- yah kanoon 14 varsh se kam umr ke bachchon ko kisi bhi avaidh peshon aur 57 prakriyaon men, jinhen bachchon ke jivan aur svasthy ke lie ahitakar mana gaya hai, niyojan ko nishiddh banata hai. in peshon aur prakriyaon ka ullekh kanoon ki anusoochi men hai.
    • phaiktari kanoon 1948 - yah kanoon 14 varsh se kam umr ke bachchon ke niyojan ko nishiddh karata hai. 15 se 18 varsh tak ke kishor kisi phaiktari men tabhi niyukt kiye ja sakate hain, jab unake pas kisi adhikrit chikitsak ka phitanes praman patr ho. is kanoon men 14 se 18 varsh tak ke bachchon ke lie har din sadhe char ghnte ki karyavadhi tay ki gayi hai aur rat men unake kam karane par pratibndh lagaya gaya hai.
    • bharat men bal shram ke khilaph karravaee men mahatvapoorn nyayik hastakshep 1996 men uchchatam nyayalay ke us phaisale se aya, jisamen snghiy aur rajy sarakaron ko khataranak prakriyaon aur peshon men kam karane vale bachchon ki pahachan karane, unhen kam se hatane aur unhen gunavattayukt shiksha pradan karane ka nirdesh diya gaya tha. nyayalay ne yah adesh bhi diya tha ki ek bal shram punarvas sah kalyan kosh ki sthapana ki jaye, jisamen bal shram kanoon ka ullnghan karanevale niyoktaon ke anshadan ka upayog ho.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bharat men balashram (hindi) hindi essay blog. abhigaman tithi: 29 mee, 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 bachapan ke din hain umr khelane ki (bal shram nishedh divas) (hindi) jagaran jnkshan. abhigaman tithi: 29 mee, 2015.

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