नागासाकी दिवस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nagasaki divas
Nagasaki-after-Atomic-attack.jpg
vivaran nagasaki divas 9 agast ko kaha jata hai. amerika dvara 9 agast ko dakshini japan ke bandaragah nagar nagasaki par 11 bajakar, 1 minat par 6.4 kilo. ka plootoniyam-239 vala 'phait main' nam ka bam giraya gaya tha.
tithi 9 agast
giraya gaya bam 'phait main' jo ki plootoniyam-239 nirmit tha
vazan 6.4 kilo
samay 11 bajakar, 1 minat
phatane ki oonchaee zamin se 1,540 phit ki oonchaee par
utpann ooshma 3,900 digri selsiyas
mare ge log 70,000 se 80,000 ke bich
any janakari nagasaki amerika ke nishane par nahin tha, lekin amerika ke tatkalin yuddhamntri stimsan ke kahane par japan ki purani rajadhani kyoto ka nam snbhavit shaharon ki soochi se hata kar usaki jagah nagasaki ka nam shamil kar liya gaya.

nagasaki divas (angrezi: Nagasaki Day) 9 agast ko kaha jata hai. amerika dvara 9 agast ko dakshini japan ke bandaragah nagar nagasaki par 11 bajakar, 1 minat par 6.4 kilo. ka plootoniyam-239 vala 'phait main' nam ka bam giraya gaya tha. isase pahale 6 agast ko amerika dvara hi japan ke hiroshima shahar par 'litil baauy' nam ka yooreniyam bam giraya ja chuka tha. isase lagabhag ek lakh chalis hazar log mare ge the. jab nagasaki par plootoniyam paramanu bam giraya gaya, tab 43 sekand ke bad zamin se 1,540 phit ki oonchaee par yah bam phata aur isase 21 kilotan ti.en.ti. ke barabar dhamaka hua. parinamasvaroop 3,900 digri selsiyas ki ooshma utpanh‍n huee aur hava ki gati 1005 ki.mi. prati ghante tak pahunch gayi. isase tatkal huee mauton ki snkhya ka anuman 40,000 se 75,000 ke bich tha. 1945 ke ant tak yah ankada 80,000 tak ja pahuncha.

itihas

vishv vijayi banana har takatavar desh ke tanashah ka sapana hota hai. hitalar ne bhi yahi sapana dekha tha. ek sitnbar 1939 ko polaind par achanak hamala karake usane is sapane ko poora karane ki shuruat ki to yah ek tarah se dvitiy vishvayuddh ki bhi shuruat thi. sudoor poorv men japan ka rajavnsh bhi isi sapane ko poora karane ki lalasa men 1937 se eshiya-prashant kshetr men apana vistar kar raha tha. jaldi hi vah bhi dvitiy vishv yuddh men shamil ho gaya. hitalar ne tav men akar 22 joon, 1941 ko soviyat sngh (roos) par akraman kar ‘roosi richh‘[1] ko chhed diya tha. japan ne bhi unmad men akar 7 disnbar, 1941 ko prashant mahasagar men sthit ameriki nausainik adde 'parl harbar' par dhunadhar bamabari kar amerika ko chunauti de di thi. japan ka yah ukasava amerika ke lie dvitiy vishvayuddh men kood padane ka khula nyauta ban gaya.

paramanu bam hamale ke ek mahine pahale maausko men japan ke rajadoot ne soviyat videshamntri se milakar anurodh kiya ki unaka desh mitr deshon ke netaon ke sath shanti-vartaen karana chahata hai. shuruat men ye donon desh kafi teji se age badhe. jarmani ka yoorop ke ek bade hisse par kabja ho gaya to japan eshiya-prashant mahasagar ke bahut bade bhoo-bhag par apana vistar kar chuka tha, lekin 1942 men havaee ke pas japani sena ki aur 1943 men stalinagrad men jarman sena ki parajay ke bad kismat ka pahiya in donon deshon ke lie ulta ghoomane laga. agale do salon men hi jarmani ki har tay ho gee. apane 56ven janmadin ke 10 din bad, 1945 men 29-30 aprail ke bich vali rat hitalar ne barlin ke apane bhoomigat bnkar men pahale to apani premika efa braun se shadi rachaee aur kuchh hi ghnte bad donon ne atmahatya kar li. marane se pahale hitalar ne apani vasiyat men likhavaya- "main aur meri patni bhagode banane ya atmasamarpan ki sharmindagi ke badale mrityu ka varan kar rahe hain." hitalar ki atmahatya ke ek hi saptah bad, 7 mee se 8 mee vali madhyaratri ko jarmani ne binashart atmasamarpan kar diya. is tarah yoorop men to dvitiy vishvayuddh ka ant ho gaya, kintu eshiya men vah chalata raha. japan ki bhi kamar to toot chuki thi, par vah ghutane tekane men talamatol kar raha tha.[2]

potsadam shikhar sammelan

jarmani ki parajay ke do mahine bad barlin se sate potsadam nagar men 17 julaee se 2 agast 1945 tak ek shikhar sammelan hua. isamen dvitiy vishvayuddh ke tin mukhy vijeta- amerika ke rashtrapati hairi troomain, briten ke pradhanamntri vinstan charchil aur soviyat sngh ke neta yozef stalin shamil the. isi baithak men jarmani ke vibhajan par sahamati bani. isi sammelan ke dauran rashtrapati troomain ko yah samachar mila ki 16 julaee ko amerika ke las alamaaus marusthal men pahale yooreniyam paramanu bam ka parikshan (triniti test) saphal raha hai. yah bhi ki vaisa hi doosara bam (lital baauy) yuddh men istemal ke lie prashant mahasagar ke ‘tiniyan‘ dvip par bheja ja raha hai. usi din charchil ko bhi yah bat pata chal gee. apane snsmaranon men unhonne likha- "achanak hi vah bhayasvapn (japan) gayab ho gaya tha, usaki jagah is santvana deni vali snbhavana ne le li ki ab ek ya do vidhvnsak hamale yuddh ka ant kar denge."

rashtrapati troomain apani dayari men us baithak ka jikr karate hue likhate hain ki- "24 julaee ke din soviyat neta stalin se unhonne kuchh aise dhng se, mano yah koee badi bat nahin hai, yah kaha ki amerika ne ek aisa bam bana liya hai jisase japan ke hosh thikane lagae ja sakate hain. stalin ne bhi bade sahaj bhav se kaha ki usaka 'sadupayog' hi karen to behatar hai. samajha jata hai ki amerika ki paramanu bam pariyojana 'mainahatan praaujekt' se jude jarmanavnshi british bhautikashastri klaus phuks ke jariye, jo roosi jasoos bhi tha, stalin ko is bam ki bhanak mil chuki thi. stalin ne usi sham soviyat guptachar seva ke pramukh lavarenti beriya ko hidayat di ki 1943 se chal rahe roosi paramanu bam ke kam men tezi laee jae.

'vishesh bam' ke istemal ki taiyari

phait main

25 julaee ko ameriki rashtrapati troomain ne philippin sagar men sthit tiniyan dvip par tainat amerika ki prashant mahasagariy vayusena ke mukhy kamandar ko potsadam se hi adesh diya ki 3 agast tak 'vishesh bam' ke istemal ki taiyari kar li jae. jis vishesh bam - 'lital baauy' - ko 3 agast ko girane ki bat troomain kar rahe the, vah yooreniyam bam tha. lekin isake sath hi ek doosara bam 'phait main' bhi taiyar ho raha tha. yah plootoniyam bam tha, jise 'triniti' parikshan ke do saptah bad taiyar kar liya gaya tha. halanki usaka poorn parikshan abhi baki tha. rashtrapati troomain aur unake salahakar japan par paramanu bam girane ke apane irade par atal the. unaka kahana tha ki do arab daaular laga kar in bamon ka vikas kya isalie kiya gaya hai ki unaka kabhi istemal hi n ho. yah janane ke lie ki donon men se kaun kitana snharak hai, donon prakar ke bam japan ke do shaharon men girae jane the. isake lie japan ke char shaharon ki soochi taiyar ki gee. snbhavit lakshyon ki pahali soochi men hiroshima ke alava kokoora, kyoto aur nieegata ke nam the.[2]

nagasaki nahin tha nishana

nagasaki amerika ke nishane par nahin tha, lekin amerika ke tatkalin yuddhamntri stimsan ke kahane par japan ki purani rajadhani kyoto ka nam snbhavit shaharon ki soochi se hata kar usaki jagah nagasaki ka nam shamil kar liya gaya. stimsan ne apani patni ke sath kyoto men kabhi hanimoon manaya tha aur ve nahin chahate the ki vah matiyamet ho jae. vahin doosari taraph amerika ke janaral dvait aizanahavar jaise sainik afasar aur leo zilard jaise bhautikashastri is bam ke viruddh the. unaka kahana tha ki isase soviyat sngh ke sath paramanu hathiyaron ki ghatak hod chal padegi. unaka yah bhi manana tha ki yoorop men jarmani ki parajay ke bad se japan itana kamazor ho gaya tha ki der-saver vah apane ap ghutane tekane hi vala tha. lekin, rashtrapati troomain aur unake salahakar japan par paramanu bam girane ke apane irade par atal rahe. unaka kahana tha ki do arab daaular laga kar in bamon ka vikas kya isalie kiya gaya hai ki unaka kabhi istemal hi n ho! tark diya gaya ki in bamon ki mar se japan jald hi atmasamarpan kar dega aur ameriki sainikon ka katana-marana bnd ho jaega. amerika ke lie apane sainikon ki yah atirikt chinta japani sainikon ke us jivat se bhi nikali thi, jisake boote unhonne julaee, 1945 men okinava ki ladaee men 12,500 ameriki sainikon ka saphaya kar diya tha. tab tak poore prashant mahasagariy kshetr men karib 70 000 ameriki sainik mare ja chuke the.

paramanu hamale ke bad ka drishy (nagasaki)

ameriki sena ne paramanu bam girane ke lie japan ke char shaharon ki ek soochi taiyar ki thi aur isamen nagasaki ka nam pahale shamil nahin tha. ek sachchaee yah bhi hai ki 1945 ka julaee mahina ane tak japan shanti-varta ke raste talashane laga tha. potsadam shikhar sammelan se ek saptah pahale, 9 julaee ko maausko men japani rajadoot ne soviyat videshamntri vyacheslav molotov se milakar anurodh kiya ki potsadam shikhar sammelan ke netaon se kaha jae ki japan unake sath shanti-vartaen chahata hai. lekin snsar ki pratham paramanu shakti ban chuke amerika ke rashtrapati ki dilachaspi kisi shanti-varta men nahin, japan ke binashart atmasamarpan men thi. 25 julaee 1945 ko 'vishesh bam' ke istemal ki taiyari shuroo karane ke adesh ke agale din, 26 julaee ko rashtrapati troomain ne potsadam men amerika, briten aur chyang kaee-shek ke rashtravadi chin ganarajy ki or se ek snyukt ghoshana padh kar sunaee. isamen japan se avilnb binashart atmasamarpan kar dene ki mang ki gee thi. isake lie soviyat sngh se koee mashavira nahin kiya gaya. jabaki soviyat videshamntri molotov ne anurodh kiya tha ki is ghoshana ko kuchh dinon ke lie tal diya jae taki unaki sarakar japan ke sath apani anakraman sndhi ka ant ghoshit kar sake.[2]

1939 ke soviyat-japani sima-sngharsh ke bad 13 aprail, 1941 ko donon deshon ne agale panch varshon tak ek-doosare par akraman nahin karane ki sndhi ki thi. lekin do mahine bad hi jab soviyat sngh jarman akraman ka shikar bana to use hitalar-virodhi mitr rashtron ke gut men shamil hona pada. is dauran usane mitr deshon ko yah ashvasan diya ki zaroorat padane par vah sudoorapoorv men jarmani ke sathi japan ke viruddh morcha kholane se nahin hichakega. yah duvidha japan ke sath bhi thi ki vah ek aise desh ke sath anakraman sndhi kaise nibhae jo usake param mitr jarmani ke sath yuddh men hai. phir bhi donon desh 1945 tak samay nikalate rahe. amerika aur briten agrah kar rahe the ki sudoorapoorv men unaka bojh halka karane ke lie soviyat sngh japan ke viruddh morcha khole. soviyat sngh ne antatah 5 aprail, 1945 ko japan ke sath anakraman sndhi se apana hath khinch liya aur potsadam shikhar sammelan ke samapan ke turnt bad 8 agast, 1945 ko japan adhikrit mnchooriya par akraman kar diya. amerika 16 julaee, 1945 ko paramanu bam ka parikshan kar chuka tha. isake bad vah japan ko akele hi dhool chatana chahata tha. ab amerika ko soviyat sngh ki koee avashyakata nahin thi.

troomain ki ghoshana

26 julaee, 1945 vali apani potsadam ghoshana men troomain ne kaha- "hamari snpoorn sainy shakti aur dridhanishchay ka arth hai japani sena ka aparihary vinash aur japani desh ka aparihary vidhvns. japan par poori tarah qabza kar liya jaega. usake netaon ko apadasth aur tahas-nahas kar diya jaega. lokatntr ki sthapana hogi aur aur yuddh-aparadhiyon ko dndit kiya jaega. japan ke bhoobhag ko char mukhy dvipon tak simit kar usase kshatipoorti vasooli jayegi."

hiroshima tatha nagasaki par hamala

6 agast, 1945 ko hiroshima par yooreniyam vala pahala paramanu bam gira kar troomain ne jata diya ki ve japan ka kaisa vidhvns chahate hain. subah ath baj kar 16 minat par zamin se 600 mitar oopar bam phoota aur 43 seknd ke bhitar 80 pratishat nagarakendr nestanaboot ho gaya. 10 lakh selshiyas tapaman vala ag ka ek aisa gola tezi se phaila, jisane 10 kilomitar ke dayare men pedon tak ko jala dala. shahar ke 76,000 gharon men se 70,000 tahas-nahas ya kshatigrast ho ge. 70,000 se 80,000 log turnt mar ge. jo log nagarakendr men the un ke sharir to bhap ban ge. jaise yah sab paryapt n ho, tin hi din bad 9 agast ko 11 baj kar do minat par nagasaki par doosara paramanu bam giraya gaya. yooreniyam se bhi kahin adhik vinashakari plootoniyam vale is bam ne ek kilomitar ke dayare men 80 pratishat makanon ko bhasm kar diya. anuman hai ki vahan bhi 70,000 se 80,000 hazar log mare. donon bamon ka auchity siddh karane ke lie tark yah diya gaya ki unake bina japan atmasamarpan men talamatol jari rakhata.

jarmani ke sarvajanik prasaran netavark earadi ke japan snvadadata klaus sherar ne japan aur amerika ke vaigyanikon, itihasakaron aur purane sainik adhikariyon ke sath batachit tatha dvitiy vishvayuddh ke samay ki ameriki nyooj philmon ke avalokan se yah janane ki koshish ki kya nagasaki par doosara bam girana zaroori tha? apani khoj par sherar ne ek pustak bhi likhi aur ek daaukyoomentri film bhi banaee. sherar ne paya ki japan par do bam isalie girae ge, kyonki amerika ke pas us samay do prakar ke bam the. yooreniyam vala bam hiroshima par giraya gaya aur plootoniyam vala nagasaki par. yah doosara bam bahut kharchila tha aur tab tak bina parikshan vala prototaip tha. usaka giraya jana sidhe ladaee ke maidan men parikshan ke saman tha. japan ne is doosare bam ke bad 15 agast, 1945 ko apani har man li aur 2 sitnbar ko vidhivat atmasamarpan kar diya.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. lnbe samay tak roos ko isi pratik se darshaya jata raha hai
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 hiroshima aur nagasaki : amerika ne yahan paramanu bam sirph yuddh khatm karane ke lie nahin girae the (hindi) satyagrah.scroll.in. abhigaman tithi: 06 agast, 2016.

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