विश्व स्तनपान सप्ताह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vishv stanapan saptah
stanapan pratik
vivaran stanapan ke prati jan jagarookata lane ke maqasad se agast mah ke pratham saptah ko poore vishv men stanapan saptah ke roop men manaya jata hai.
uddeshy shishuon ko janm se chh: mah tak keval man ka doodh pilane ke lie mahilaon ko is saptah ke dauran vishesh roop se protsahit kiya jata hai.
sh‍tanapan sh‍tanapan shishu ke janh‍m ke pashh‍chat ek sh‍vabhavik kriya hai.
kolosh‍tram kolosh‍tram athava man ka pratham doodh yani vah gadha, pila doodh jo shishu janh‍m se lekar kuchh dinon (4 se 5 din tak) men uth‍panh‍n hota hai, usamen vitamin, enh‍tibaaudi, anh‍y poshak tath‍v adhik matra men hote hain.
any janakari rashtriy svasthy parivar kalyan sarvekshan 2005-2006 ke anusar desh ke qarib 46% bachche kuposhan se grasit hain. uttar pradesh men yah ankada lagabhag 46% hai. bharat men sabase zyada kuposhan se grasit bachche madhy pradesh men hain.

stanapan ke prati jan jagarookata lane ke maqasad se agast mah ke pratham saptah ko poore vishv men stanapan saptah ke roop men manaya jata hai. stanapan saptah ke dauran man ke doodh ke mahattv ki janakari di jati hai. navajat shishuon ke lie man ka doodh amrit ke saman hai. man ka doodh shishuon ko kuposhan v atisar jaisi bimariyon se bachata hai. stanapan ko badhava dekar shishu mrityu dar men kami laee ja sakati hai. shishuon ko janm se chh: mah tak keval man ka doodh pilane ke lie mahilaon ko is saptah ke dauran vishesh roop se protsahit kiya jata hai.

stanapan

sh‍tanapan shishu ke janh‍m ke pashh‍chat ek sh‍vabhavik kriya hai. bharat men apane shishuon ka sh‍tanapan sabhi mataain karati hain, paranh‍tu pahali bar man banane vali mataon ko shuroo men sh‍tanapan karane hetu sahayata ki avashh‍yakata hoti hai. sh‍tanapan ke bare men sahi gyan ke abhav men janakari n hone ke karan bachh‍chon men kuposhan ka rog evn snkraman se dash‍t ho jate hain.

stanapan kyon zaroori hai

Cow-Calf.jpg
  • shishu ke lie stanapan snrakshan aur snvardhan ka kam karata hai. rog pratirodhatmak shakti ne janme hue bachche men nahin hoti hai. yah shakti man ke doodh se shishu ko hasil hoti hai. man ke doodh men lektophormin namak tattv hota hai, jo bachche ki ant men lauh tattv ko bandh leta hai aur lauh tattv ke abhav men shishu ki ant men roganu panap nahin pate.
  • man ke doodh se ae sadharan jivanu bachche ki ant men panapate hain aur roganuon se pratispardha kar unhen panapane nahin dete. man ke doodh men roganu nashak tattv hote hain.
  • man ki ant men vatavaran se pahunche roganu, ant men sthit vishesh bhag ke snpark men ate hain, jo un roganu-vishesh ke khilaf pratirodhatmak tattv banate hain. ye tattv ek vishesh nalika thorasik dakt se sidhe man ke stan tak pahunchate hain aur doodh ke dvara bachche ke pet men. bachcha is tarah man ka doodh pikar sada svasth rahata hai.
  • man ka doodh jin bachchon ko bachapan men paryapt roop se pine ko nahin milata, unamen bachapan men shuroo hone vali madhumeh ki bimari adhik hoti hai. buddhi ka vikas un bachchon men doodh pine vale bachchon ki apekshakrit kam hota hai. agar bachcha samay se poorv janma (primechyor) ho, to use badi ant ka ghatak rog, nekrotaijing entorokolaitis ho sakata hai. agar gay ka doodh pital ke bartan men ubal kar diya gaya ho, to use livar (yakrit) ka rog indiyan chaildahud sirosis ho sakata hai. isalie man ka doodh chhah-ath mahine tak bachche ke lie shreshth hi nahin, jivan rakshak bhi hota hai.

visheshataen

man ke doodh ki visheshataon ke bare men mahilaon ko khasataur par vishv stanapan saptah ke dauran bataya ja raha hai. kaha jata hai ki man ke doodh men zaroori poshak tatv, enti badij, harmon, pratirodhak karak aur aise aksident maujood hote hain, jo navajat shishu ke behatar vikas aur svasthy ke lie zaroori hote hain.

man ka doodh sarvottam ahar

  • ekanishh‍th sh‍tanapan ka arth janh‍m se chhah mah tak ke bachh‍che ko man ke doodh ke alava pani ka koee thos ya taral ahar nahin dena chahie.
  • man ke doodh men kafi matra men pani hota hai jisase chhah mah tak ke bachh‍che ki pani ki avashh‍yakataain garm aur shushh‍k mausam men bhi poori ho saken.
  • man ke doodh ke alava bachh‍che ko pani dene se bachh‍che ka doodh pina kam ho jata hai aur snkraman ka khatara badh jata hai.
  • prasav ke adhe ghanh‍te ke anh‍dar-anh‍dar bachh‍che ke munh men sh‍tan dena chahie.
  • aaupareshan se prasav karae bachh‍chon ko 4- 6 ghanh‍te ke anh‍dar jaise hi man ki sthiti thik ho jae, sh‍tan se laga dena chahie.[1]

pratham doodh (kolosh‍tram)

pratham doodh (kolosh‍tram) yani vah gadha, pila doodh jo shishu janh‍m se lekar kuchh dinon (4 se 5 din tak) men uth‍panh‍n hota hai, usamen vitamin, enh‍tibaaudi, anh‍y poshak tath‍v adhik matra men hote hain.

  • yah snkramanon se bachata hai, pratirakshan karata hai aur rataundhi jaise rogon se bachata hai.
  • sh‍tanapan ke lie koee bhi sthiti, jo suvidhajanak ho, apanayi ja sakati hai.
  • kam janh‍m bhar ke aur samay poorv uth‍panh‍n bachh‍che bhi sh‍tanapan kar sakate hain.
  • yadi bachh‍cha sh‍tanapan nahin kar pa raha ho to ek kap aur chamh‍mach ki sahayata se sh‍tan se nikala hua doodh pilayen.
  • botal se doodh pine vale bachh‍chon ko dash‍t rog hone ka khatara bahut adhik hota hai atah bachh‍chon ko botal se doodh kabhi nahin pilayen.
  • yadi bachh‍cha 6 mah ka ho gaya ho to use man ke doodh ke sath- sath anh‍y poorak ahar ki bhi avashh‍yakata hoti hain.
  • is sthiti men sh‍tanapan ke sath-sath anh‍y ghar men hi banane vale khady pradarth jaise masali huee dal, ubala hua aloo, kela, dal ka pani, adi taral evn ardv taral thos khady padarth dene chahie, lekin sh‍tanapan 1/2 varsh tak karate rahana chahie.
  • yadi bachh‍cha bimar ho to bhi sh‍tanapan evn poorak ahar jari rakhana chahie. sh‍tanapan evn poorak ahar se bachh‍che ke sh‍vash‍thh‍y men jalh‍di sudhar hota hai.

bachh‍chon ke lie ahar (6 se 12 mahine)

  • bachh‍chon ko sh‍tanapan ke sath-sath ardhathos ahar, mirch masale rahit daliya, khichadi, chaval, dalen, dahi ya doodh men bhigoee roti masal kar den.
  • ek bar men ek hi prakar ka bhojan shuroo karen.
  • bhojan ki matra v vividhata dhire-dhire badhae.
  • pakae evn masale hue aloo, sabjiyan, kela tatha anh‍y phal bachh‍che ko den.
  • bachche ki shakti badhane ke lie ahar men ek chamh‍mach tel ya ghi milaen.
  • sh‍tanapan se pahale bachh‍che ko poorak ahar khilayen.

kuposhan

vikas ke lakh dave karane ke bavazood bhi vishv men bharat ek akela aisa desh hai jahan har sal navajat shishuon ke janm dar aur mrityu dar ka anupat sabase adhik hai. rashtriy svasthy parivar kalyan sarvekshan 2005-2006 ke anusar desh ke qarib 46% bachche kuposhan se grasit hain. uttar pradesh men yah ankada lagabhag 46% hai. bharat men sabase zyada kuposhan se grasit bachche madhy pradesh men hain. uttar pradesh men lagabhag 40% bachche ausat darje se kam bhar ke paida hote hain. pratyek sal 0 se 5 varsh tak ki ayu varg ke bachchon men hone vali mrityu ke antarnihit karanon men lagabhag 60% mrityu kuposhan ke karan hoti hai. kuposhan ki samasya gramin chhetron men pichhadi jati ke logon, tatha ashikshit varg ke logon men adhik vyapt hai. kuposhan ki samasya garbhavati mahilaon men vyapak hone ke karan paida hone vale bachche kam bhar ke hote hain.

karan

shishu ko sahi samay aur paryapt matra men man ka doodh n mil pana bhi kuposhan ki samasya ka ek pramukh karan hai. shishu ke janm ke ek ghnte ke bhitar stanapan ki shuruat, shishu aur 5 sal se kam ayu ke bachchon ki mrityu ke anupat ko kam karane ki disha men mahattvapoorn qadam hai. jisake dvara uchch navajat mrityu dar ko jabaradast dhng se ghataya ja sakata hai aur har sal bharat men qarib das lakh shishuon ki jan bachaee ja sakati hai. ankadon se pata chalata hai ki bharat men keval 23% mataen hi shishu ke janm ke ek ghnte ke bhitar stanapan kara pati hain. vahin uttar pradesh men yah ankada sirf 7.2% hai. jo ki bharatiy rajyon men shishu stanapan ke anupat men 28ven sthan par ata hai. jo mahilayen shishu ko janm ke pahale ek ghnte men stanapan shuroo kara deti hain unake pas shishuon ko pahale 6 mahine tak saphalatapoorvak aur poornatah stanapan karane ke vyapak avasar badh jate hain. pahale 6 mahinon tak poornatah stanapan karane se shishu svasth rahata hai aur poorn kshamata ke sath usake vikas ko bhi sunishchit karata hai.

sudhar

poshan men sudhar lane ke liya samuday star par poshan se sambndhit vyavaharon men parivartan lakar poshan star men sudhar laya ja sakata hai. uchit poshan ke kuchh pramukh vyavahar ko hamen dhyan rakhana chahie jaise–

  • shishu ko garam rakhana evn kisi bhi bahy snkraman se bachana.
  • garbhavati mahila ko garbhavastha ke dauran din men do ghnte aram tatha ek atirikt khurak avashy leni chahie.
  • umr ke anusar nirdharit tikakaran avashy karana chahie.
  • man ko poshtik ahar lete rahana chahie.
  • khane men aise khady padarthon ka istemal karana chahie jisamen lohe ki matr zyada se zyada ho, is bat ka hamesha dhyan rakhana chahie ki man aur bachcha donon hi hamesha 'ayodin' yukt namak ka hi prayog karen .

stanapan ke fayade

stanapan ke anek fayade hain. navajat shishu ke lie man ke doodh se behatar aur koee bhi doodh nahin hota hai. isase donon man aur bachche ko anek labh pahunchata hai. stanapan ke anek fayade hain-

  • man ka doodh supachy hota hai jisase yah shishu ko pet sambandhi gadabadiyon se bachata hai.
  • stanapan shishu ki pratirodhak kshamata badhane men bhi sahayak hota hai.
  • stanapan se dama aur kan sambandhi bimariyan niyntrit rahati hai, kyonki man ka doodh shishu ki nak aur gale men pratirodhi tvacha bana deta hai.
  • stanapan se jivan ke bad ke charanon men udar v shvasan tntr ke rog, rakt kainsar, madhumeh tatha uchch raktachap ka khatara kam ho jata hai.
  • stanapan se shishu ki bauddhik kshamata bhi badhati hai kyonki stanapan karane vali man aur usake shishu ke bich bhavanatmak rishta pragadh hota hai.
  • stanapan karane vali mataon ko stan ya garbhashay ke kainsar ka khatara kam hota hai.
  • shodhon se siddh hua hai ki lambe tak stanapan karane vale bachche bad ke jivan men utane hi adhik samay tak motape se bache rah sakate hain.
  • man ke doodh men milane vale tattv metabolijm behatar karate hain.
  • garbhavastha ke samay ya stanapan ke dauran man ka jo bhi khan-pan rahata hai vah bad men bachche ke lie bhi pasndida ban jata hai.
  • man ke doodh men pae jane vale di.ech.e.(D.H.A.) v e.e.(A.A.) phaiti esid mastishk ki koshikaon ke vikas men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhate hain.
  • stanapan se bachche ka aee. kyoo. (Intelligence Quotient) achchhi tarah vikasit hota hai.[2]

kritrim doodh aur man ke doodh men antar

kritrim doodh, man ke doodh ki gunavatta, ka anukaran karane ki koshish kar sakata hai, lekin sahi mayane men yah anukaran ho hi nahin sakata hai. yah isalie ki man ke doodh men anek gunadharm hain, jinaka anukaran karana namumakin hai. kritrim doodh men man ke doodh ke jaisi samagri karbohaidret, protin, vasa aur vitamin ityadi dal die jate hain, kintu inaki matra niyat rahati hai. man ke doodh men inaki matra badalati rahati hai. kabhi man ka doodh gadha rahata hai to kabhi patala, kabhi doodh kam hota hai to kabhi adhik, janm ke turnt bad aur janm ke kuchh haphton bad ya mahinon bad badala rahata hai. isase doodh men upasthit samagri ki matra badalati rahati hai, aur yah prakriti ka banaya gaya niyam hai ki man ke doodh men bachche ki umr ke sath badalav hote rahate hain. bhautik gunavatta ke alava, man ke doodh men anek jaivik gun hote hain, jo ki kritrim doodh men nahin hote hain. udaharan ke lie man ke doodh dene se man-bachche ke bich lagav, man se bachche ke rog se bachane ke lie pratiraksha milana aur any. isake bavazood jin man ko apana doodh nahin ho pata hai, unake lie phir yahi janavar ya kritrim doodh ka sahara hota hai. isake bare men any jagah zikr kiya gaya hai.

stanapan se labh
man ko labh bachche ko labh
man ko bachche se lagav khane ki prapti
sntushti bachche ka poorn vikas
botal ke doodh ko banane aur saf karane ke jhnjhat se bachana pratiraksha ya imyuniti (immunity) men badhav
phri- paisa bachana buddhi men vikas
sada upalabdh- din men ya rat men, ghar men ya bahar men snkramit bimariyon se bachav, jaise ki dast aur charm rog
apane oopar bharosa elarji se bachav
mahavari ko rokana, jo ki turnt phir garbh hone ko rok sakata hai motapa se bachav
apane bachche ko snkramit bimariyon se bachana jo ki gnde botal ya usake nippal se ho sakati hain man-bachche ke bich lagav ‌

stanapan sarvottam upalabdh bhojan

stanapan bachche ke lie sarvottam upalabdh bhojan hai aur bachche ki sabhi zarooraton ko poora karata hai. stanapan karane vale bachche sarvadhik sntulit ahar prapt kar lete hain aur unhen snkraman ki snbhavana kam hoti hai. keval man ke doodh men hi protin, avashyak vasayukt lavan aur bachche ke mastishk ke vikas ke lie avashyak any zaroori padarth milate hain. stanapan keval chhah mahine tak jari rakhana chahie. prasav poorv klinikon men ane vali garbhavati mahilaon aur parivar ke any sadasyon ko stanapan ke labhon ke bare men batalaya jana chahie, taki yadi koee mahila ghar men prasav karana chahe to bhi use janakari n hone ke karan koee bhi bachcha stanapan ke labhon se vnchit n rahe. kuposhan aur snkraman jaise rog se keval stanapan karane se hi bahut si zindagiyon ko bachaya ja sakata hai. yadyapi stanapan karane ki dar adhik hai, phir bhi doodh pilane se poorv any bhojan dene, stanapan men vilamb karane, kolostram ko phenk dene aur bhojan ke bich men bachche ko pani pilane jaisi snbhavit hanikarak adaten abhi bhi am bat hai. garbhavastha ke dauran aur bachche ke janm ke bad mahilaon ko achchhi tarah bhojan karana chahie aur aram karana chahie. prayah sabhi mahilaen jinamen kuposhan vali mahilaen bhi shamil hain, achchhi tarah stanapan kara sakati hain.
stanapan bachche ko prasav ke adhe ghnte ke andar karaya jana chahie. sijeriyan sekshan se janm lene vale bachche ko man ki halat thik hote hi 4 se 6 ghnte men stanapan karaya jana chahie. janm ke bad pahale kuchh dinon tak pile gadhe doodh kolestraaum men prachur matra men vitamin, entivaaudij aur sookshmaposhak tattv hote hain. isase snkraman ka prakritik roop se bachav hota hai aur shishu ka enimiya, keratomelasiya jaise sookshm poshak tatvon ki kami se hone vali rogon se bhi bachav hota hai. stanapan karane vale bachche ko 6 mah ki ayu tak pani ki koee avashyakata nahin hoti. stan ke doodh men bachchon ki zaroorat ko poora karane ke lie 4 mah tak paryapt pani hota hai. bachchon ko bhookh lagane par hi khilaya jana chahie. aisa karane se adhik doodh banata hai aur stanon men adhik doodh hone se dard bhi nahin hota hai. kam vajan vale aur samay se pahale janm lene vale bachche bhi stanapan kar sakate hain. botal aur pesiphayar ka kabhi bhi istemal nahin kiya jana chahie. yadi bachcha asvasth hai, tab bhi stanapan karana jari rakhana chahie taki bachche ko paryapt poshan milata rahe.
kuposhanagrast bachche ko snkraman hone ka adhik khatara hota hai. stanapan karane se bachche ko aram bhi milega. do varsh se kam ayu ka bachcha apani man par poori tarah nirbhar hota hai. yadi vah phir se garbhavati ho jati hai to vah paryapt dekhabhal nahin kar paegi. yadi mahila do varsh ke andar garbhavati ho jati hai to usamen bhi ayaran aur anivary sookshm poshak tatvon ki kami ho jaegi.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sh‍tanapan evn poshan (hihndi) (ech.ti.em) rajasthan sarakar. abhigaman tithi: 27 julaee, 2010.
  2. stanapan:- fayade anek (hihndi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi blaaug. abhigaman tithi: 27 julaee, 2010.
  3. stanapan sarvottam upalabdh bhojan (hihndi) (ech.ti.em.el) vebaduniya. abhigaman tithi: 27 julaee, 2010.

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