उर्दू  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

व्यवस्थापन (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 13:20, 7 navambar 2017 ka avataran (Text replacement - "उच्छवास" to "उच्छ्वास")

(अंतर) ← पुराना अवतरण | वर्तमान अवतरण (अंतर) | नया अवतरण → (अंतर)

urdoo ek bharatiy ary bhasha hai, jo bharatiy sngh ki 22 rashtriy bhashaon men se ek v pakistan ki rashtrabhasha hai. halanki yah farasi aur arabi se prabhavit hai, lekin yah hindi ke nikat hai aur isaki utpatti aur vikas bharatiy upamahadvip men hi hua. donon bhashaen ek hi bharatiy adhar se utpann huee hain. svar vaigyanak aur vyakaran ke star par inamen kafi samanata hai aur ye ek hi bhasha pratit hoti hain. lekin shabd sngrah ke star par inamen vibhinn sroton (urdoo men arabi tatha farasi aur hindi men snskrit) se vyapak roop se grihit shabd hain, jisase inhen svatntr bhashaon ka darja diya ja sakata hai. inake bich sabase bada vibhed bhasha lekhan ke star par parilakshit hota hai. hindi ke lie devanagari ka upayog hota hai aur urdoo ke lie farasi-arabi lipi prayukt hoti hai, jise avashyakatanusar sthaniy roop men parivartit kar liya gaya hai. inhen bhi dekhen: urdoo sahity evn urdoo hindi shabdakosh

bhasha

urdoo bhasha bharat aur pakistan ke padosi deshon, jaise afaganistan, bangladesh aur nepal men boli jati hai. vyavaharik roop se urdoo dakshin eshiyaee musalamanon ki aur is upamahadvip se bahar, visheshakar khadi aur madhy-poorv, pashchim yoorop, skaindineviya, amerika aur kanada men sanskritik v bolachal ki bhasha hai. urdoo pakistan ki sarakari bhasha hai; isaka upayog sarakari skoolon men shiksha ke madhyam ke roop men, zila star par prashasan men aur jan-snchar men hota hai. pakistan ki 1981 ki janaganana ke anusar, vahan urdoo bolane valon ki snkhya ek karod das lakh hai aur ise bolane vale karachi aur pnjab men sabase adhik kendrit hain. bharat ki 1991 ki janaganana ke anusar, desh men lagabhag char karod chalis lakh urdoo-bhashi log hain, jinaki sabase adhik snkhya uttar pradesh men hai, isake bad bihar, andhr pradesh, maharashtr aur karnatak ka sthan ata hai. yah jammoo-kashmir rajy ki sarakari bhasha hai. urdoo sahity tatha prakashan ka ek pradhan kendr dilli hai.

vyutpatti

urdoo ka vikas 12vin shatabdi men ane vale musalamanon ke prabhav ke phalasvaroop pashchamottar bharat ki upakshetriy apabhrnsh ki bhashaee kathinata se bachane ke upay ke roop men hua. isake pahale pramukh kavi amir khusaro the, jinhonne dohon, lokagiton, paheliyon v mukariyon ki rachana navanirmit bhasha hindavi men ki. madhyakal tak is mishrit bhasha ko hindavi, zaban-e-hind, hindi, zaban-e-dilli, rekhta, gujari, dakkhani, zaban-e-urdoo-e-mualla, zaban-e-urdoo ya sirf urdoo kaha jata tha, jo vastutah sainik chhavani ki bhasha thi. is bat ke praman hain ki ise 17vin shatabdi ke uttarardh men hindustani bhi kaha gaya, jo bad men urdoo ka samanarthi ban gaya, phir bhi pramukh urdoo lekhak ise 19vin shatabdi ke arambh tak hindi ya hindavi kahate rahe.

svar

svar vaigyanik drishtikon se urdoo ki dhvaniyan, laghu svar visham dhvaniyon men kuchh parivartan ke sath hindi ke saman hi hai. urdoo men sabhi mahapranit viram (shravy shvas ko sahasa uchchhvasit karake uchcharit) baraqarar hai, jo bharatiy-ary bhashaon ki visheshata hai. sath moordhany svar bhi isamen hain. grihit dhvaniyon ke mamale men urdoo men farasi-arabi vynjanon ki sampoorn shrinkhala ko nahin liya gaya hai. shamil ki gee dhvaniyon men sabase adhik dhvaniyan sngharshi (mukh ke kisi nichale hisse se shvas ke sngharsh se uchcharit) hain, arthath 'f, z, jh, ks, g', aur viram varg ki keval ek dhvani shvasadvariy 'q' hai.

vyakaran

vyakaran ke drishtikan se farasi-arabi upasarg jaise- dar 'me', ba 'ke sath', be/bila/la 'ke bina', bad 'bimar, galat' tatha pratyayon jaise- dar 'se yukt', saz 'banane vala', khor 'khane vala', posh 'dhakane vala' men, jinaka upayog hindi ke muqabale urdoo men zyada hota hai, hindi v urdoo men adhik antar nahin hai. isake alava samany bahuvachan darshane vala, jaise 'a', urdoo men 'ee' ban jata hai, urdoo men 'at' ka upayog hota hai, jaise kagajat, javaharat aur makanat. hindi men prayukt 'ka' ke alava isamen vyutpattijany snrachanaon men 'ee' ka upayog hota hai jaise- 'subah-e-azadi', 'azadi ki subah' , 'khoon-e-jigar', 'jigar ka khoon'.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah