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व्यवस्थापन (वार्ता | योगदान) dvara parivartit 18:12, 1 sitambar 2017 ka avataran (Text replacement - "राजपुत" to "राजपूत")

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Disamb2.jpg arab ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- arab (bahuvikalpi)

eshiya-khand ke dakshin-pashchimanchal men faras ki khadi, bharatiy samudr raktasagar ‘halab’ aur furat adi nadiyon se arab desh ghira hua hai. 6,000 mil lambe 2,240 mil chaude balukamay is pahadi desh ki tulana kuchh-kuchh hamare yahan ke maravad aur bikaner se ho sakati hai. bahut dinon se arab-nivasi ‘baddoo’ bakari- oont charate ek sthan se doosare sthan ghoomate-phirate hain. ‘sham’ ki bhasha men marubhoomi ko ‘arabath’ kahate hain, isi se ‘arab’ shabd nikala hai. yahan ka uchchatam parvat ‘sirat’, ‘yaman’ pradesh se ‘sham’ tak phaila hua hai; jisaki sabase oonchi choti 5,333 hath oonchi hai. bich-bich men kahi-kahi visheshakar ‘sham’ pradesh men kheti ke upayukt urvara bhoomi bhi hai. jahan kahin-kahin par sone-chandi ki khanen bhi payi jati hain.

itihas

  • atynt prachin kal men 'jadis', 'ad', 'samood' adi jatiyan, jinaka ab namamatr shesh hai, arab men nivas karati thin, kintu bharat-samrat harshavardhan ke sam-samayik hazarat muhammad ke samay 'qahatan', 'ismaeel', aur 'yahoodi' vnsh ke log hi arab men nivas karate the. arab ki sabhyata ke vishay men jarman vidvanh ‘naveldaki’ likhata hai-
eesa se ek hazar varsh poorv arab ke agney kon ki sabhyata charam sima par pahunchi huee thi. garmiyon men varsha ke ho jane se saba aur hamir ka yah yaman desh bada hara-bhara rahata tha. yahan ki prashastiyan aur bhavy prasadon ke dhvnsavashesh aj bhi hamen balath prashnsa ke lie prerit karate hain. samriddh-arab yah yavanon aur romakon (itali valon) ka kahana yahan ke lie bilakul upayukt tha. saban ki gauravasoochak anek kathaen ‘baibil’ granth men payi jati hain jinamen saban ki maharani aur suleman ki mulakat visheshatah smaraniy hai. saban valon ne uttar men arab ke ‘damashk’ prant se lekar‘, abisiniya (afrika men) paryant, arambh hi men lekhanakala ka prachar kiya tha.
  • pharestar mahashay ne apane bhoogol men sham ke padosi prachin ‘nabat’ rajy ke vishay men likha hai-
yutidh mahashay hi ka yah prayatn hai ki prachin dhvnsavashisht samagriyon dvara chir lupt samood jati ka parichay hamako mil saka. arambh men isake dvara shikshit ‘nabat’ jati bhi isake sadrish hi thi, jisaki kirti arab ki marubhoomi ka ullnghan kar ‘hijaz’ aur ‘najd’ tak phaili huee thi. vanijy, vyavasay dvara dhanarjan men kushal yah log ismaeel-vnsh ke anuroop yuddh bhay se bhi nirbhay the. inake philastin tatha ‘sham’ par akraman, aur arab samudr men anek bar misr ke jahajon par daka dalane yoonan ke rajaon ko bhi inaki shatruta ke lie prerit kiya tha, kintu ‘rom’ ki sammilit shakti ke atirikt koee bhi inako parast karane men samarth n hua. ‘astraboo’ ke samay ashakt hokar inhonne rom ki sandigdh adhinata svikar ki thi.
  • ‘thyachar’ mahashay ‘angl vishvakosh’ men likhate hain-
eesa se kee sau varsh dakshin ki or koee uchchatam sabhyata thi. aj vahan nagar-prasad ka dhvns baqi hai, jisaka varnan bahut se yatriyon ne liya hai. yaman aur hazamaut men aise dhvasanvasheshon ka bahuly hai. vahan kahin-kahin par prashastiyan bhi prapt hoti hain.
  • kadarjani ne ‘nagar-dhvnsavashesh’ pustak men ‘sana’ ke samipavarti durg ko sapt ashvayon men gina hai.
prachin saba ki rajadhani yarab nagari ke dhvns ko arno, halve aur glazi mahashayon ne dekha hai. vahan ki avashisht badi khaee ke chihn jirnoddhar kiye gaye adan ke kundo ka smaran dilate hain. 'glajri' prakashit do dirgh prashastiyon se unaka punaruddhar eesa ke pncham aur pashtham shatak men kiya gaya pratit hota hai.
yaman prant ke ‘haran’ namak sthan men 30 hath lambi khaee mili hai.

muhammad kalin arab

prachin kal men arab-nivasi susabhy aur shilp-kala men pravin the. parantu ‘nichairgachchhatyupari ch tatha chakranemikramen’ ke anusar kalantar men unake vnshaj ghor avidyandhakar men nimagn ho gaye aur sari shilpakalaon ko bhool kar oont- bakari charana matr unaki jivika ka upay rah gaya. vah isake lie ek srot se doosare srot, ek sthan se doosare sthan men hare charagahon ko khojate hue khemon men nivas karake kalakshep karane lage. kanakhajoora, goh, giragit adi sare jiv unake bhakshy the. nar-bali, vyabhichar, dyoot aur madyapan adi ka unamen bada prachar tha. islam ke poorv pita ki anaginat striyan dayabhag ke taur par putron men bant di jati thin, jinhen vah apani stri bana lete the. rajapootr ‘amulkais’ kavi ke apane aur apani phua ki kanya-sambandhi durvrittipoorn kavy ko bhi badi prasannata se logon se ‘kaba’ ke pavitr-mandir men sthan diya tha. prachin rajyon ke vidhvns ho jane par paraspar ladane-bhidane vale kshudr parivar-samanton ka sthan-sthan par adhikar tha. ek bhi adami ka hat hona us samay ubhay parivar ke lie chirakal-paryant kalah ka paryapt bij ho jata tha. us dveshagni ko mata ke doodh ke sath ladakon ke hridayon men pravisht kara diya jata tha. yuddh ke kaidiyon ke sath unake stri aur bachchon ka bhi shirachchhed us samay ki pratha men atisadharan tha. nidriton par akraman kar lootane aur marane men kushal log ‘fataq’ aur ‘fataq’ shabdon se abhipoojit hote the. prajjvalit agni men jivit manushy ko dal dena unake samip koee asadhu karm nahin samajha jata tha. hindoo-putr amroo ne apane bhaee ke mare jane par ek ke badale sau ke marane ki pratigya ki. usane ek din apane pratipakshi ‘tamim’ vnshiyon par dhava kiya, kintu log basti chhod kar bhag gaye the. keval ‘hamara’ nam ki ek budhiya vahan rah gee thi, jise usane jalati ag men dalava diya. usi samay abhagy ka mara 'amara' namak ek kshudhatur savar door se dhuan uthate dekh bhojan ki asha se udhar a nikala. in luteron ke poochhane par usane uttar diya ki main kee din ka bhookha hoon; kuchh milane ki asha se aya hoon. is par ‘amaroo’ ne apane sathiyon ko agya di ki isako ag men dal do.

komal shishuon ko lakshy banakar tir marana, asahy pida dene ke lie ek-ek ang ko thoda-thoda karake katana, shatru ke murdon ki nak-kat dalana, yahan tak ki unake kaleje kha jana[1] ityadi us samay ke anek kroor karm unaki nrishnsata ke parichayak the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ‘uhad’ ke yuddh men ‘hind’ namak stri ne ‘hamooja’ (m॰ muhammad ke sahayak) ke kaleje ko katakar khaya tha.

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