शाहजहाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(ख़ुर्रम se punarnirdeshit)
shahajahan
shahajahan
poora nam mirza sahab uddin beg muhammad khan khurram
any nam khurram
janm 5 janavari, sanh 1592
janm bhoomi lahaur
mrityu tithi 22 janavari, sanh 1666
mrityu sthan agara
pita/mata jahangir, jagat gosaee (jodhabaee)
pati/patni arjumand bano (mumataj)
sntan dara shikoh, shuza, murad, aurngazeb, jahanara, roshanara, gauhanara
upadhi abul muzaffar shahabuddin muhammad sahib kiran-e-sani, shahajahan (jahangir ke dvara pradatt)
rajy sima uttar aur madhy bharat
shasan kal san 8 navambar 1627 - 2 agast 1658 ee.
sha. avadhi 31 varsh
rajyabhishek 25 janavari, sanh 1628
dharmik manyata sunni musalaman
prasiddhi vishv ke sat ashchary men ek-"tajamahal" ka nirman
nirman tajamahal, lal qila dilli, moti masjid agara, jama masjid dilli
rajadhani dilli
poorvadhikari jahangir
uttaradhikari aurngajeb
rajagharana mugal
vnsh timuri vnsh
maqabara tajamahal
snbndhit lekh mugal kal

mirza sahab uddin beg muhammad khan khurram (angrezi: Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram, janm: 5 janavari, 1592, lahaur; mrityu: 22 janavari, 1666, agara) panchavan mugal shahnshah tha. shahajahan apani nyayapriyata aur vaibhavavilas ke karan apane kal men bada lokapriy raha. shahajahan ko samrat jahangir ke maut ke bad, chhoti umr men hi unhen mugal sinhasan ke uttaradhikari ke roop men chun liya gaya tha. 1627 men apane pita ki mrityu hone ke bad vah gaddi par baitha.

jivan parichay

shahajahan ka janm jodhapur ke shasak raja udayasinh ki putri 'jagat gosaee' (jodhabaee) ke garbh se 5 janavari, 1592 ee. ko lahaur men hua tha. usaka bachapan ka nam khurram tha. khurram jahangir ka chhota putr tha, jo chhal−bal se apane pita ka uttaradhikari hua tha. vah bada kushagr buddhi, sahasi aur shauqin badashah tha. vah bada kala premi, visheshakar sthapaty kala ka premi tha. usaka vivah 20 varsh ki ayu men noorajahan ke bhaee asaf khan ki putri 'arazumand bano' se sanh 1611 men hua tha. vahi bad men 'mumataz mahal' ke nam se usaki priyatama begam huee. 20 varsh ki ayu men hi shahajahan, jahangir shasan ka ek shaktishali stnbh samajha jata tha. phir us vivah se usaki shakti aur bhi badh gee thi. noorajahan, asaf khan aur unaka pita mirza giyasabeg jo jahangir shasan ke kartta-dhartta the, shahajahan ke vishvasaniy samarthak ho gaye the. shahajahan ke shasan−kal men mugal samrajy ki samriddhi, shan−shauqat aur khyati charam sima par thi. usake darabar men desh−videsh ke anek pratishthit vyakti ate the. ve shahajahan ke vaibhav aur that−bat ko dekh kar chakit rah jate the. usake shasan ka adhikansh samay sukh−shanti se bita tha; usake rajy men khushahali rahi thi. usake shasan ki sab se badi den usake dvara nirmit sundar, vishal aur bhavy bhavan hain. usake rajakosh men apar dhan tha. samrat shahajahan ko sab suvidhaen prapt thin.

manasab v upadhi

1606 ee. men shahazada khurram ko 8000 jat evn 5000 savar ka manasab prapt hua. 1612 ee. men khurram ka vivah asaf khan ki putri arazumand banon begam (bad men mumataz mahal) se hua, jise shahajahan ne ‘malika-e-jamani’ ki upadhi pradan ki. 1631 ee. men prasav pida ke karan usaki mrityu ho gee. agara men usake shav ko dafana kar usaki yad men snsar prasiddh tajamahal ka nirman kiya gaya. shahajahan ki prarambhik saphalata ke roop men 1614 ee. men usake netritv men mevad vijay ko mana jata hai. 1616 ee. men shahajahan dvara dakshin ke abhiyan men saphalata prapt karane par use 1617 ee. men jahangir ne ‘shahajahan’ ki upadhi pradan ki thi.

shano-shauqat

shahajahan ne sanh 1648 men agara ki bajay dilli ko rajadhani banaya; kintu usane agara ki kabhi upeksha nahin ki. usake prasiddh nirman kary agara men bhi the. shahajahan ka darabar saradar samnton, pratishthit vyaktiyon tatha desh−videsh ke rajadooton se bhara rahata tha. usamen sabake baithane ke sthan nishchit the. jin vyaktiyon ko darabar men baithane ka saubhagy prapt tha, ve apane ko dhany manate the aur logon ki drishti men unhen gauravanvit samajha jata tha. jin videshi sajjnon ko darabar men jane ka suyog prapt hua tha, ve vahan ke rng−dhng, shan−shauqat aur that−bat ko dekh kar ashchary kiya karate the. takht-e-taoos shahajahan ke baithane ka rajasinhasan tha.

sinhasan ke lie sazish

noorajahan ke rukh ko apane pratikool janakar shahajahan ne 1622 ee. men vidroh kar diya, jisamen vah poornatah asaphal raha. 1627 ee. men jahangir ki mrityu ke uparant shahajahan ne apane sasur asaf khan ko yah nirdesh diya, ki vah shahi parivar ke un samast logon ko samapt kar den, jo raj sinhasan ke davedar hain. jahangir ki mrityu ke bad shahajahan dakshin men tha. atah usake shvasur asaf khan ne shahajahan ke ane tak khusaron ke ladake dabar bakhsh ko gaddi par baithaya. shahajahan ke vapas ane par dabar bakhsh ka qatl kar diya gaya. is prakar dabar bakhsh ko bali ka bakara kaha jata hai. asaf khan ne shaharayar, dabar bakhsh, gurusasp (khusaron ka ladaka), hoshnkar (shahazada daniyal ke ladake) adi ka qatl kar diya.

rajyabhishek

24 faravari, 1628 ee. ko shahajahan ka rajyabhishek agara men ‘abul mujaphphar shahabuddin, muhammad sahib kiran-e-sani' ki upadhi ke sath kiya gaya. vishvasapatr asaf khan ko 7000 jat, 7000 savar evn rajy ke vazir ka pad pradan kiya. mahavat khan ko 7000 jat 7000 savar ke sath ‘khanakhana’ ki upadhi pradan ki gee. noorajahan ko do lakh ru. prati varsh ki penshan dekar lahaur jane diya gaya, jahan 1645 ee. men usaki mrityu ho gee.

dharmik niti

samrat akabar ne jis udar dharmik niti ke karan apane shasan kal men abhootapoorv saphalata prapt ki thi, vah shahajahan ke kal men nahin thi. usamen islam dharm ke prati kattarata aur kuchh had tak dharmandhata thi. vah musalamanon men sunniyon ke prati pakshapati aur shiyaon ke lie anudar tha. hindoo janata ke prati sahishnuta evn udarata nahin thi. shahajahan ne khule am hindoo dharm ke prati virodh bhav prakat nahin kiya, tathapi vah apane ant:karan men hinduon ke prati asahishnu evn anudar tha.

shahajahan ke samay men hue vidroh

lagabhag sabhi mugal shasakon ke shasanakal men vidroh hue the. shahajahan ka shasanakal bhi in vidrohon se achhoota nahin raha. usake samay ke nimnalikhit vidroh pramukh the-

bundelakhand ka vidroh (1628-1636ee.)

virasinh bundela ke putr jujhar sinh ne praja par kadaee kar bahut-sa dhan ekatr kar liya tha. ekatr dhan ki janch n karavane ke karan shahajahan ne usake oopar 1628 ee. men akraman kar diya. 1629 ee. men jujhar sinh ne shahajahan ke samane atmasamarpan kar maphi mang li. lagabhag 5 varsh ki mugal vaphadari ke bad jujhar sinh ne gondavana par akraman kar vahan ke shasak prem narayan ki rajadhani ‘chairagadh’ par adhikar kar liya. aurngazeb ke netritv men ek vishal mugal sena ne jujhar sinh ko parast kar bhagatasinh ke ladake devisinh ko orachha ka shasak bana diya. is tarah yah vidroh 1635 ee. men samapt ho gaya. champataray evn chhatrasal jaise mahoba shasakon ne bundelon ke sngharsh ko jari rakha.

khanejahan lodi ka vidroh (1628-1631 ee.)

pir khan oorph khanejahan lodi ek afagan saradar tha. ise shahajahan ke samay men malava ki soobedari mili thi. 1629 ee. men mugal darabar men samman n milane ke karan apane ko asurakshit mahasoos kar khanejahan ahamadanagar ke shasak murtaja nizamashah ke darabar men pahuncha. nizamashah ne use ‘bir’ ki jagiradari is shart par pradan ki, ki vah mugalon ke qabze se ahamadanagar ke kshetr ko vapas kar den. 1629 ee. men shahajahan ke dakshin pahunch jane par khanejahan ko dakshin men koee sahayata n mil saki, atah nirash hokar use uttar-pashchim ki or bhagana pada. ant men banda zile ke ‘sinhoda’ namak sthan par ‘madhosinh’ dvara usaki hatya kar di gee. is tarah 1631 ee. tak khanejahan ka vidroh samapt ho gaya.

purtagaliyon ke badhate prabhav ko samapt karane ke uddeshy se shahajahan ne 1632 ee. men unake mahattvapoorn vyaparik kendr ‘hugali’ par adhikar kar liya. shahajahan ke samay men (1630-32) dakkan evn gujarat men bhishan durbhiksh (akal) pada, jisaki bhaynkarata ka ullekh angrez vyapari 'pitar mundi' ne kiya hai. shahajahan ke shasan kal men hi sikkh pnth ke chhathen guru haragovind sinh se mugalon ka sngharsh hua, jisamen sikkhon ki har huee.

samrajy vistar

dakshin bharat men shahajahan ke samrajy vistar ka kram is prakar hai-

shahajahan

ahamadanagar

jahangir ke rajy kal men mugalon ke akraman se ahamadanagar ki raksha karane vale malik ambar ki mrityu ke uparant sultan evn malik ambar ke putr fatah khan ke bich antarik kalah ke karan shahajahan ke samay mahavat khan ko dakkan evn daulatabad prapt karane men saphalata mili. 1633 ee. men ahamadanagar ka mugal samrajy men vilay kiya gaya aur namamatr ke shasak husainashah ko gvaliyar ke qile men karavas men dal diya gaya. is prakar nizamashahi vnsh ka ant hua, yadyapi shivaji ke pita shahaji bhonsale ne 1635 ee. men murtaja tritiy ko nizamashahi vnsh ka shasak ghoshit kar sngharsh kiya, kintu saphalata hath n lagi. choonki shahaji ki sahayata apratyaksh roop se golakunda evn bijapur ke shasakon ne ki thi, isalie shahajahan inako dand dene ke uddeshy se daulatabad pahuncha. golakunda ke shasak ‘abdullashah’ ne dar kar shahajahan se nimn sharton par sndhi kar li-

  1. badashah ko 6 lakh rupayen ka varshik kar dene mnzoor kiya.
  2. badashah ke nam se sikke dhalavane evn khutaba (upadesh ya prashnsatmak rachana) padhavane ki bat man li.
  3. sath hi bijapur ke virudv mugalon ki sainy karyavahi men sahayog ki bat ko man liya.
  4. golakunda ke shasak ne apane putri ka vivah aurngazeb ke putr muhammad se kar diya.
  5. mir jumala (faras ka prasiddh vyapari) jo golakunda ka vazir tha, mugalon ki sena men chala gaya aur usane shahajahan ko kohinoor hira bhet kiya.

bijapur

bijapur ke shasak adilashah dvara saralata se adhinata n svikar karane par shahajahan ne usake oopar tin or se akraman kiya. bachav ka koee bhi marg n pakar adilashah ne 1636 ee. men shahajahan ki sharton ko svikar karate hue sndhi kar li. sndhi ki sharton men badashah ko varshik kar dena, golakunda ko pareshan n karana, shahaji bhonsale ki sahayata n karana adi shamil tha. is tarah badashah shahajahan 11 julaee, 1636 ee. ko aurngazeb ko dakshin ka rajapratinidhi niyukt kar vapas a gaya.

dakshini mugal pradesh ka vibhajan

aurngazeb 1636-1644 ee. tak dakshin ka soobedar raha. is bich usane aurngabad ko mugalon dvara dakshin men jite gaye pradeshon ki rajadhani banaya. isane dakshin ke mugal pradesh ko nimn soobon men vibhajit kiya-

  1. khanadesh- isaki rajadhani ‘burahanapur’ thi. isake pas asiragadh ka shaktishali qila tha.
  2. barar- isaki rajadhani ‘ilichapur’ thi.
  3. telngana- isaki rajadhani nander thi.
  4. ahamadanagar- isake antargat ahamadanagar ke jite gaye kshetr shamil the.

1644 ee. men aurngazeb ko vivash hokar dakkan ke rajapratinidhi pad se istifa dena pada. isaka karan usake prati dara shikoh ka nirntar virodh ya dara shikoh ke prati shahajahan ka pakshapat tha. taduparant aurngazeb 1645 ee. men gujarat ka shasak hua. bad men vah balkh, badakhshan tatha kndhar par akraman karane ke lie bheja gaya, par ye akraman asaphal rahe. 1652 ee. men punah use doosari bar dakkan ka rajapratinidhi bana kar bheja gaya. tabase daulatabad ya aurngabad usaki sarakar ka pradhan karyalay raha.

1652-1657 ee. men dakshin ki soobedari ke apane doosare karyakal men aurngazeb ne dakshin men murshidakuli khan ke sahayog se lagan vyavastha evn arthavyavastha ko vyavasthit karane ka prayas kiya. apane in sudhar karyon men aurngazeb ne todaramal evn malik ambar ki lagan vyavastha ko adhar banaya.

aurngazeb ne apane dvitiy karyakal (dakkan ki soobedari) ke dauran men sampann sainik abhiyan ke antargat golakunda ke shasak kutubashah ko 1636 ee. men sampann sndhi ki avahelana karane evn mir jumala ke putr mohammad amin ko qaid karane ke aparadh men dand dene ke irade se faravari, 1656 ee. men golakunda ke durg par ghera dal diya. sultan abdulla kutubashah aurngazeb ke akraman se itana bhayabhit ho gaya ki, rajakumar har shart manane ko taiyar ho gaya. parinamasvaroop ek aur sndhi sampann huee. sultan ne mugal samrat ki adhinata svikar kar li. mugal adhipaty ke samay golakunda vishv ke sabase bade hira vikreta bazar ke roop men prasiddh tha.

madhy eshiya

mayoor sinhasan par shahajahan

shahajahan ne madhy eshiya ko vijit karane ke lie 1645 ee. men shahazada murad evn 1647 ee. men shahazada aurngazeb ko bheja, par use saphalata n prapt ho saki.

kndhar

kndhar mugalon evn farasiyon ke madhy lambe samay tak sngharsh ka karan bana raha. 1628 ee. men kndhar ka qila vahan ke qiledar ali mardan khan ne mugalon ko de diya. 1648 ee. men ise punah farasiyon ne adhikar men kar liya. 1649 ee. evn 1652 ee. men kndhar ko jitane ke lie do sainy abhiyan kie ge, parantu donon men asaphalata hath lagi. 1653 ee. men dara shikoh dvara kndhar jitane ki koshish nakam rahi. is prakar shahajahan ke shasan kal men kndhar ne mugal adhipaty ko nahin svikara.

shahajahan ki bimari

san 1657 men shahajahan bahut bimar ho gaya tha. us samay usane dara ko apana vidhivat uttaradhikari ghoshit kar diya tha. dara bhi rajadhani men rah kar apane pita ki seva−sushrusha aur shasan ki dekhabhal karane laga. barniyar ne likha hai - 'mainne soorat men akar yah bhi maloom kiya ki shahajahan ki umr is samay sattar varsh ke lagabhag hai aur usake char putr tatha do putriyan hain aur kee varsh hue usane apane charon putron ko bharatavarsh ke bade-bade char pradeshon ka, jinako rajy ka ek-ek bhag kahana chahie, snpoorn adhikar pradan kar diya hai. mujhe yah bhi vidit hua hai ki ek varsh se kuchh adhik kal se badashah aisa bimar hai, ki usake jivan men bhi sndeh hai aur usaki aisi avastha dekhakar shahazadon ne rajy-prapti ke lie mnsoobe bandhane aur udyog karane arnbh kar die hain. ant men bhaiyon men ladaee chhidi aur vah panch varsh tak chali.'[1]

uttaradhikar ka yuddh

shahajahan ke bimar padane par usake charon putr dara shikoh, shahashuja, aurngazeb evn murad bakhsh men uttaradhikar ke lie sngharsh prarambh ho gaya. shahajahan ki mumataz begam dvara utpann 14 santanon men 7 jivit thin, jinamen 4 ladake tatha 3 ladakiyan - jahan ara, raushan ara evn gohan ara thin. jahan ara ne dara ka, roshan ara ne aurngazeb ka evn gohan ara ne murad ka samarthan kiya. shahajahan ke charon putron men dara sarvadhik udar, shikshit evn sabhy tha. shahajahan ne dara ko apana uttaradhikari ghoshit kiya aur use 'shahabuland iqabal' ki upadhi di. uttaradhikari ki ghoshana se hi ‘uttaradhikar ka yuddh’ prarambh hua. yuddhon ki is shrnkhala ka pratham yuddh shahashuja evn dara ke ladake suleman shikoh tatha amer ke raja jayasinh ke madhy 24 faravari, 1658 ee. ko bahadurapur men hua, is sngharsh men shahashuja parajit hua. doosara yuddh aurngazeb evn murad bakhsh tatha dara ki sena, jisaka netritv maharaj jasavant sinh evn kasim khan kar rahe the, ke madhy 25 aprail, 1658 ee. ko ‘dharamat’ namak sthan par hua, isamen dara ki parajay huee. aurngazeb ne is vijay ki smriti men ‘fatehabad’ namak nagar ki sthapana ki. tisara yuddh dara evn aurngazeb ke madhy 8 joon, 1658 ee. ko ‘samoogadh’ men hua. isamen bhi dara ko parajay ka samana karana pada. 5 janavari, 1659 ko uttaradhikar ka ek aur yuddh khajuva namak sthan par lada gaya, jisamen jasavnt sinh ki bhoomika aurngazeb ke viruddh thi, kintu aurngazeb saphal hua. inhen bhi dekhen: bahadurapur ka yuddh

dara ki hatya

uttaradhikar ki antim ladaee dara evn aurngazeb ke madhy 12 se 14 aprail, 1659 ee. ko 'devaree ki ghati' men ladi gee. is yuddh men parajit hone ke uparant dara hatash hokar rajadhani se bhag gaya; kintu use shighr hi pakad kar aurngazeb ke samane laya gaya. usake donon beton suleman aur sipahar ko giraftar kar qaidi bana liya gaya. is prakar aurngazeb ki chhal−phareb bhari kutil niti ke karan dara rajagaddi se hi vnchit nahin hua, varanh apane putron sahit asamay hi mar dala gaya. dara ko marane se pahile bada apamanit kiya gaya tha. dara ka sabase bada aparadh yah tha, ki vah udar dharmik vicharon ka tha; isalie vah kafir tha aur kafir ki saza maut hoti hai. phalat: use qatl kiya gaya aur usaka sir kat kar aurngazeb ki seva men bhej diya gaya. aurngazeb ne hukm diya ki is abhage ko humayoon ke maqabare men dafana do. is prakar aurngazeb ne apane sabhi bhaee−bhatijon ko mara aur apane vriddh pita ko 'takht-e- taoos' se hata kar agara ke qile men qaid kar liya aur khud sanh 1658 men mugal samrat ban baitha.

tajamahal
Tajmahal

shahajahan ki mrityu

shahajahan 8 varsh tak agara ke qile ke shahaburj men qaid raha. usaka antim samay bade du:kh aur manasik klesh men bita tha. us samay usaki priy putri jahanara usaki seva ke lie sath rahi thi. shahajahan ne un varshon ko apane vaibhavapoorn jivan ka smaran karate aur tajamahal ko ashrupoorit netron se dekhate hue bitaye the. ant men janavari, sanh 1666 men usaka dehant ho gaya. us samay usaki ayu 74 varsh ki thi. use usaki priy begam ke parshv men tajamahal men hi dafanaya gaya tha.

abdul hamid lahauri

abdul hamid lahauri badashah shahajahan ka sarakari itihasakar tha. raj darabar men bhi use kafi man-samman aur pratishatha prapt thi. usane jis mahattvapoorn kriti ki rachana ki, usaka nam 'padashahanama' hai. 'padashahanama' ko shahajahan ke shasan ka pramanik itihas mana jata hai. isamen shahajahan ka sampoorn vritant likha hua hai.

shahajahan ke kuchh kary

  • shahajahan ne sijada aur payabos pratha ko samapt kiya.
  • ilahi snvat ke sthan par hijari snvat ka prayog arambh kiya.
  • gohatya par se pratibandh utha liya. hinduon ko muslim das rakhane par pabandi laga di.
  • apane shasan ke sataven varsh tak adesh jari kiya, jisake anusar agar koee hindoo svechchha se musalaman ban jay, to use apane pita ki sampatti se hissa prapt hoga.
  • hinduon ko musalaman banane ke lie ek prithakh vibhag khola.
  • purtagaliyon se yuddh ka khatara hone par usane agara ke girijaghar ko tudava diya.
  • mugalakalin sthapaty evn vastukala ki drishti se shahajahan ne anekon bhavy imaraton ka nirman karavaya tha, jis karan se usaka shasanakal madhyakalin bharat ke itihas ka ‘svarn kal’ kaha jata hai.

videshi yatri

shahajahan ke shasan kal men anek videshi yatriyon ne mugalakalin bharat ki yatra ki. in videshi yatriyon men do yatri fransisi the. jin bapatiste tevarniyar, jo ek jauhari tha, ne shahajahan aur aurngazeb ke shasan kal men chhah bar mugal samrajy ki yatra ki. doosara yatri phrensis barniyar tha, jo ek phransisi chikitsak tha. is kal men ane vale do italavi yatri pitar mundi aur nikolo manoochi the. manoochi anek ghatanaon visheshatah uttaradhikar yuddh pratyakshadarshi tha. usane ‘storiyo di mogor’ namak apane yatra vrittant men samakalin itihas ka bahut sundar varnan kiya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani

  1. barniyar ki bharat yatra (hindi) (php) pustak.org. abhigaman tithi: 22.10, 2010.

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah