आंग्ल-अफ़ग़ान युद्ध द्वितीय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dvitiy angl-afagan yuddh (1878-1880 ee.) tak lada gaya. yah yuddh vayasaray laaurd litan pratham (1876-1880 ee.) ke shasan kal men prarambh hua. is doosare yuddh men vijay ke lie angrezon ko bhari qimat chukani padi. angrez afaganistan par sthayi roop se qabza to nahin kar sake, lekin unhonne usaki niti par niyntran banaye rakha aur sath hi afaganon ko apani shakti aur sainy sngathan ka bhi parichay kara diya. dvitiy angl-afagan yuddh do nitiyon ki parasparik pratikriya ka parinam tha. ek niti, jise 'agrasar niti' (faravard palisi) kaha jata tha, isake anusar kndhar tatha qabul donon british samrajy ke lie avashyak mane gaye. doosari niti ke anusar roos aur inglaind, jo poorv men apane samrajy ka vistar karane ke karan ek doosare ke pratidvandvi the, donon afaganistan ko apane prabhav ke antargat rakhana chahate the.

roos ka prabhutv

yah yuddh vayasaray laaurd litan pratham ke shasan kal se prarambh hokar aur usake uttaradhikari laaurd ripan (1880-1884 ee.) ke shasan kal men samapt hua. amir dost muhammad ki mrityu 1863 ee. men ho gee thi aur usake beton men uttaradhikar ke lie yuddh shuroo ho gaya. uttaradhikar ka yah yuddh (1863-1868 ee.) panch varsh tak chala. is bich bharat sarakar ne poorn nishkriyata ki niti ka palan kiya aur qabul ki gaddi ke pratidvandviyon men kisi ka paksh nahin liya. ant men 1868 ee. men jab dost mahammad ke tisare bete sherali ne qabul ki gaddi prapt kar li to bharat sarakar ne usako afaganistan ka amir man liya. lekin isi bich madhy eshiya men roos ka prabhav bahut badh gaya. roos ne bukhara par 1866 men, tashaknd par 1867 men aur samarakand par 1868 ee. men adhikar kar liya. is prakar roos ka prabhutv badhata hi ja raha tha. madhy eshiya men roos ka prabhav badhane se afaganistan aur bharat ki angrez sarakar ko chinta ho gayi.

sherali aur meyo ki bhent

amir sherali madhy eshiya men roos ke prabhav ko rokana chahata tha aur bharat ki angrez sarakar afaganistan ko roosi prabhav se mukt rakhana chahati thi. in paristhitiyon men 1869 ee. men pnjab ke ambala nagar men amir sherali aur bharat ke vayasaray laaurd meyo (1869-1872 ee.) ki bhent huee. us samay amir angrezon ki yah mang man lene ke lie taiyar ho sakata tha ki vah apane vaideshik snbndh men angrezon ka niyntran svikar kar le aur roos ke viruddh usaki suraksha ki zimmedari le len aur sahayata karen aur usako athava usake namajad vyaktiyon ko hi afaganistan ka amir manen. inglaind ke nirdesh par british sarakar ne suraksha ki zimmedari lene ki bat nahin mani, yadyapi shastrastr aur dhan ki sahayata dene ka vachan diya. svabhavik roop se amir sherali ko bharat sarakar se samajhaute ki sharten sntoshajanak nahin lagin. lekin 1873 ee. men roosiyon ne khiva par adhikar kar liya aur is prakar unaka badhav afaganistan ki or hone laga.

angl-afaganistan sndhi prastav

roos ke is badhate prabhav aur in halaton se chintit hokar amir sherali ne 1873 ee. men vayasaray laaurd narthabruk (1872-1876 ee.) ke samane 'angl-afaganistan sndhi' ka prastav rakha, jisamen afaganistan ko yah ashvasan dena tha ki yadi roos athava usake snrakshan men koee rajy afaganistan par akraman kare to british sarakar afaganistan ki sahayata keval shastrastr aur dhan dekar hi nahin karegi varanh apani sena bhi vahan par bhejegi. us samay inglaind men glaidaston ka mntrimndal tha. usaki salah ke anusar laaurd narthabruk is prastav par raji nahin hua. narthabruk is bat ke lie raji nahin hua ki amir sherali ke putr abdulla jan ko usaka varis manakar use bhavi amir man le. in baton se sherali angrezon se naraj ho gaya aur usane roos se apane sambandh sudharane ke lie likha padhi shuroo kar di. roosi ejent jaldi-jaldi qabul ane lage.

angrezon ki niti

1874 ee. men dizareli briten ka pradhanamntri bana aur 1877 ee. men roos-turki yuddh shuroo ho gaya, jisase inglaind aur roos ke sambandhon men katuta utpann ho gee aur donon men kisi samay bhi yuddh chhidane ki ashnka utpann ho gee. is halat men angrezon ne afaganistan par apana mazaboot niyntran rakhane ka phaisala kiya, jisase afaganistan se hokar bharat men angrez rajy ke lie koee khatara n utpann ho. is niti ke parinamasvaroop angrezon ne kveta par 1877 ee. men adhikar kar liya, kyonki kndhar ke raste ki suraksha ke lie us par niyntran rakhana zaroori tha. laaurd narthabruk ke uttaradhikari laaurd litan pratham (1876-1880 ee.) ne dizareli mntrimndal ki salah se qabul darabar men ek british pratinidhimndal bhejane ka nishchay kiya, jise 1873 ee. men afaganistan ke amir dvara prastavit sharton ke adhar par sndhi ki batachit shuroo karani thi. un sharton ke alava yah shart bhi rakhi gayi ki herat men bhi british rejident rakha jaye. lekin amir ne british pratinidhimndal qabul bhejane ka prastav svikar nahin kiya. usaki or se kaha gaya ki yadi afaganistan men british pratinidhimndal ayega to roos ke pratinidhimndal ko bhi ane ki ijajat deni padegi.

dvitiy yuddh ki shuruat

is prakar is mamale men gatirodh-sa utpann ho gaya. lekin amir ke pratibndh ke bavajood ek roosi pratinidhimndal janaral stolitaph ke netritv men 1878 ee. men afaganistan pahuncha aur usane amir sherali se 22 julaee, 1878 ee. ko sndhi ki batachit shuroo kar di. usane afaganistan par videshi hamala hone par roos ki or se suraksha ki garnti dene ka prastav rakha. roosi pratinidhimndal ke qabul men hue svagat se laaurd litan pratham bhaynkar roop se kruddh ho gaya aur usane inglaind ki british sarakar ke paramarsh se afaganistan ke amir par is bat ka dabav dala ki vah qabul men british pratinidhimndal ka bhi svagat ek nishchit tarikh 20 navambar, 1878 ee. ko kare. amir ne tab nayi sndhi ke antargat roos se madad mangi. lekin is bich roos-turki yuddh samapt ho gaya tha aur yoorop men shanti sthapit ho gee thi aur inglaind aur roos ke bich 1878 ee. ki 'barlin ki sndhi' ho gee thi. roos ab inglaind se yuddh nahin karana chahata tha. isalie usane sherali ko angrezon se sulah karane ki salah di, lekin sherali ne ab sulah men kafi der kar di thi, kyonki angrez sena ne 20 navambar ko afaganistan par hamala bol diya aur is prakar doosara angl-afagan yuddh shuroo ho gaya.

angrezon ki saphalata

jis prakar pratham afagan yuddh (1838-1842 ee.) men british bharatiy sena ko arambh men saphalataen mili thin, is prakar is bar bhi milin. roos ke sath n dene ke karan sherali angrezi akraman ka adhik pratirodh nahin kar saka. tin angrezi senaon ne tin or se qabul par chadhaee kar di. janaral braun ke netritv men ek sena khaibar darre se, doosari sena janaral (bad men laaurd) rabarts ke netritv men kurram ki ghati se aur tisari sena janaral bidalf ke netritv men kveta se age badhi. chauthi british sena ne janaral stuart ke netritv men kndhar par adhikar kar liya. sherali ki halat ek mahine men hi itani patali ho gee ki vah afaganistan chhodakar turkistan bhag gaya, jahan shighr hi usaki mrityu ho gayi.

gndamak ki sndhi

sher ali ki mrityu ke bad usake bete yakoob khan ne angrezon se sulah ki batachit chalayi aur mee, 1879 ee. men 'gndamak ki sndhi' kar li. is sndhi men angrezon ki sabhi sharten mnjoor kar li geen. isake alava qabul men british rajadooton ko rakhana tay hua aur afaganistan ki vaideshik niti bharat ke vayasaray ki ray se tay karane ki bat bhi man li gee. kurram, pishin aur sibi ke zile bhi angrezon ko saunp diye ge. 'gndamak ki sndhi' ke anusar pratham british rajadoot 'kaivaganari' julaee, 1879 ee. men qabul pahunch gaya.

afaganon ka vidroh

kaivaganari ke qabul ane ke samay aisa maloom hota tha ki is yuddh men angrezon ko poori saphalata mili hai. lekin 3 sitambar ko qabul ki afagan sena men vidroh ho gaya, kaivaganari ki hatya kar di gee aur phir se ladaee shuroo ho gayi. angrezon ne is bar tatkal prabhavashali dhng se karravahi ki. rabarts ne aktoobar, 1879 ee. men qabul par adhikar kar liya aur amir yakoob khan ki halat qaidi jaisi ho gee. usake bhaee ayoob khan ne apane ko amir ghoshit kar diya aur usane julaee 1880 ee. men british sena ko kndhar ke nikat bhaeeband ke yuddh men parajit kar diya. lekin rabarts ek badi sena lekar qabul se kndhar pahuncha. sherali ke bhatije abdurrahaman ne bhi angrezon ki kafi madad ki aur british sena ne ayoob khan ko poori tarah se hara diya.

yuddh ki samapti

isi bich inglaind men dizareli ke sthan par glaidaston pradhanamntri ban gaya, jisane bharat ke vayasaray laaurd litan ko vapas bulakar laaurd ripan ko bharat ka vayasaray (1880-1884 ee.) banaya. naye vayasaray ne abdurrahaman ke sath sndhi karake doosara angl-afagan yuddh samapt kar diya. is sndhi men abdurrahaman khan ko afaganistan ka amir man liya gaya. amir ne angrezon se varshik sahayata pane ke badale men apani vaideshik niti par bharat sarakar ka niyntran svikar kar liya. 'gndamak ki sndhi' men jo zile angrezon ko mile the, ve unake pas hi bane rahe.

samagr vishleshan

doosara angl-afagan yuddh do nitiyon ki parasparik pratikriya ka parinam tha. ek niti jise 'agrasar niti' (faravard palisi) kaha jata tha, usake anusar bharat ki, pashchimottar men, prakritik sima hindookush honi chahie. is niti ke anusar bharat ke british samrajy men kndhar aur qabul ko, jo bharat ke do dvar mane jate the, sammilit karana avashyak mana jata tha. doosari niti ke anusar roos aur inglaind, jo poorv men apane samrajy ka vistar karane ke karan ek doosare ke pratidvandvi the, donon afaganistan ko apane prabhav ke antargat rakhana chahate the. inglaind men vishesh roop se 'knjaravetiv parti' ko afaganistan hokar bharat ki or roosi prasar ka tivr bhay tha. yadyapi yah bhay kabhi sakar nahin hua tathapi isane afaganistan ke prati british niti ko samoochi 19vin shatabdi bhar prabhavit kiya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah