जवाहरलाल नेहरू  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(नेहरू जी se punarnirdeshit)
javaharalal neharoo vishay soochi
javaharalal neharoo
Jawahar-Lal-Nehru.jpg
poora nam pndit javaharalal neharoo
any nam chacha neharoo, pndit ji
janm 14 navambar, 1889
janm bhoomi ilahabad, uttar pradesh
mrityu 27 mee, 1964
mrityu sthan dilli
mrityu karan dil ka daura
abhibhavak pn. motilal neharoo aur svaroop rani
pati/patni kamala neharoo
sntan indira gandhi
smarak shantivan, dilli
nagarikata bharatiy
parti bharatiy rashtriy kangres
pad bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri
kary kal 15 agast 1947-27 mee 1964
shiksha bairistar
vidyalay inglaind ke hairo skool, kenbrij ke triniti kaaulej
bhasha hindi, angrezi
jel yatra nau bar jel yatra ki
puraskar-upadhi bharat ratn samman
snbndhit lekh jaliyanvala bag, mahatma gandhi, saradar patel, indira gandhi
rachanaen vishv itihas ki jhalak, bharat ki khoj adi
any janakari neharoo ji ka janm divas 14 navnbar poore desh men bal divas ke roop men manaya jata hai.

pndit javaharalal neharoo (angrezi: Jawaharlal Nehru, janm: 14 navambar, 1889; mrityu: 27 mee, 1964) bharatiy svatantrata sngram ke mahanh senani evn svatantr bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri (1947-1964) the. javahar lal neharoo, snsadiy sarakar ki sthapana aur videshi mamalon men 'gutanirapeksh' nitiyon ke lie vikhyat hue. 1930 aur 1940 ke dashak men bharat ke svatntrata andolan ke pramukh netaon men se vah ek the.

janm evn shiksha

neharoo kashmiri brahman parivar ke the, jo apani prashasanik kshamataon tatha vidvatta ke lie vikhyat the aur jo 18vin shatabdi ke arnbh men ilahabad a gaye the. inaka janm ilahabad men 14 navambar 1889 ee. ko hua. ve pn. motilal neharoo aur shrimati svaroop rani ke ekamatr putr the. apane sabhi bhaee-bahanon men, jinamen do bahanen thin, javaharalal sabase bade the. unaki bahan vijayalakshmi pndit bad men snyukt rashtr mahasabha ki pahali mahila adhyaksh banin. unaki prarambhik shiksha ghar par hi huee 14 varsh ki ayu men neharoo ne ghar par hi kee angrez adhyapikaon aur shikshakon se shiksha prapt ki. inamen se sirf ek, fardinaind bruks ka, jo adhe ayarish aur adhe beljiyan adhyatmgyani the, un par kuchh prabhav pada. javaharalal ke ek samadrit bharatiy shikshak bhi the, jo unhen hindi aur snskrit padhate the. 15 varsh ki umr men 1905 men neharoo ek agrani angrezi vidyalay inglaind ke hairo skool men bheje gaye. hairo men dakhil hue, jahan vah do varsh tak rahe. neharoo ka shiksha kal kisi tarah se asadharan nahin tha. aur hairo se vah kenbrij ke triniti kaaulej ge, jahan unhonne tin varsh tak adhyayan karake prakriti vigyan men snatak upadhi prapt ki. unake vishay rasayanashastr, bhoogarbh vidya aur vanaspati shastr the. kenbrij chhodane ke bad lndan ke inar tenpal men do varsh bitakar unhonne vakalat ki padhaee ki aur unake apane hi shabdon men pariksha uttirn karane men unhen 'n kirti, n apakirti' mili.

parivar

inhen bhi dekhen: neharoo-gandhi parivar vriksh bharat lautane ke char varsh bad march 1916 men neharoo ka vivah kamala kaul ke sath hua, jo dilli men base kashmiri parivar ki thin. unaki akeli sntan indira priyadarshini ka janm 1917 men hua; bad men vah, vivahoparant nam 'indira gandhi', bharat ki pradhanamntri banin. tatha ek putr prapt hua, jisaki shighr hi mrityu ho gayi thi. 1912 ee. men ve bairistar bane aur usi varsh bharat lautakar unhonne ilahabad men vakalat prarambh ki. vakalat men unaki vishesh ruchi n thi aur shighr hi ve bharatiy rajaniti men bhag lene lage. 1912 ee. men unhonne bankipur (bihar) men hone vale bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke adhiveshan men pratinidhi ke roop men bhag liya.

rajaniti men

javaharalal neharoo aur mahatma gandhi
Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi

bharat lautane ke bad neharoo ne pahale vakil ke roop men sthapit hone ka prayas kiya lekin apane pita ke viparit unaki is peshe men koee khas ruchi nahin thi aur unhen vakalat aur vakilon ka sath, donon hi napasnd the. us samay vah apani pidhi ke kee any logon ki bhanti bhitar se ek aise rashtravadi the, jo apane desh ki azadi ke lie betab ho, lekin apane adhikansh samakalinon ki tarah use hasil karane ki thos yojanaen n bana paya ho.

gandhi ji se mulakat

1916 ee. ke lakhanoo adhiveshan men ve sarvapratham mahatma gandhi ke sampark men aye. gandhi unase 20 sal bade the. donon men se kisi ne bhi arnbh men ek-doosare ko bahut prabhavit nahin kiya. baharahal, 1929 men kangres ke aitihasik lahaur adhiveshan ka adhyaksh chune jane tak neharoo bharatiy rajaniti men agrani bhoomika men nahin a pae the. is adhiveshan men bharat ke rajanitik lakshy ke roop men snpoorn svarajy ki ghoshana ki gee. usase pahale mukhy lakshy aupaniveshik sthiti ki mang tha. neharoo ji ke shabdon men:-
kutilata ki niti ant men chalakar fayademand nahin hoti. ho sakata hai ki asthayi taur par isase kuchh fayada ho jae.

chacha neharoo

chacha neharoo bachchon ke sath
Jawaharlal Nehru with Childrens

deshabhar men javaharalal neharoo ka janmadin '14 navnbar' bal divas ke roop men manaya jata hai. neharoo bachchon se behad pyar karate the aur yahi karan tha ki unhen pyar se chacha neharoo bulaya jata tha. ek bar chacha neharoo se milane ek sajjan ae. batachit ke dauran unhonne neharoo ji se poochha, "pndit ji, ap sattar sal ke ho gaye hain, lekin phir bhi hamesha bachchon ki tarah tarotaza dikhate hain, jabaki apase chhota hote hue bhi main boodha dikhata hoon." neharoo ji ne muskurate hue javab diya, "isake tin karan hain.

  1. main bachchon ko bahut pyar karata hoon. unake sath khelane ki koshish karata hoon, isase main apane apako unako jaisa hi mahasoos karata hoon.
  2. main prakriti premi hoon, aur ped-paudhon, pakshi, pahad, nadi, jharanon, chand, sitaron se bahut pyar karata hoon. main inake sath men jita hoon, jisase yah mujhe tarotaza rakhate hain.
  3. adhikansh log sadaiv chhoti-chhoti baton men ulajhe rahate hain aur usake bare men soch-sochakar dimag kharab karate hain. mera nazariya alag hai aur mujh par chhoti-chhoti baton ka koee asar nahin hota." yah kahakar neharoo ji bachchon ki tarah khilakhilakar hns pade.
javaharalal neharoo hamari pidhi ke ek mahanatam vyakti the. vah ek aise advitiy rajanitigy the, jinaki manav-mukti ke prati sevaen chirasmaraniy rahengi. svadhinata-sngram ke yoddha ke roop men vah yashasvi the aur adhunik bharat ke nirman ke lie unaka anshadan abhootapoorv tha.- daau. sarvapalli radhakrishnan

svatntrata men yogadan

javaharalal neharoo mahatma gandhi ke kndhe se kndha milakar angrezon ke khilaf lade. chahe asahayog andolan ki bat ho ya phir namak satyagrah ya phir 1942 ke bharat chhodo andolan ki bat ho unhonne gandhi ji ke har andolan men badh-chadh kar bhag liya. malik ne bataya ki neharoo ki vishv ke bare men janakari se gandhi ji kafi prabhavit the aur isilie azadi ke bad vah unhen pradhanamntri pad par dekhana chahate the. sanh 1920 men unhonne uttar pradesh ke pratapagadh zile men pahale kisan march ka ayojan kiya. 1923 men vah akhil bharatiy kangres samiti ke mahasachiv chune ge.

azad bharat ke mukhy padav

javaharalal neharoo, vallabhabhaee patel aur si. rajagopalachari

british snsadiy pranali ko adhar man kar banae ge bharatiy snvidhan ke tahat hua yah pahala chunav tha jisamen janata ne matadan ke adhikar ka prayog kiya. is chunav ke samay matadataon ki kul snkhya 17 karod 60 lakh thi jinamen se 15 fisadi sakshar the. 1952 men pahale amachunav hue jisamen kangres parti bhari bahumat se satta men aee aur pndit javaharalal neharoo bharat ke pahale pradhanamntri bane. isase pahale vah 1947 men azadi milane ke bad se antarim pradhanamntri the. snsad ki 497 siton ke sath-sath rajyon ki vidhanasabhaon ke lie bhi chunav hue. lekin jahan snsad men kangres parti ko poorn bahumat hasil hua vahin kuchh rajyon men ise doosare dalon se zabardast takkar mili. kangres parti bahumat hasil karane men is shaharon chennee, haidarabad aur travanakor men viphal rahi jahan use kamyunist parti ne kadi takkar di. halanki in chunavon men hindoo mahasabha aur alagavavadi sikkh akali parti ko munh ki khani padi. pahale chunav ke bad se hi kamyunist parti aauph indiya (sipiaee) ne dakshini rajyon men janasamarthan badhana shuroo kar diya jisake natije 1957 men hue chunav men use mile. travanakor-kochin aur malabar ko mila kar bane keral men kamyunist parti satta men aee.

pradhanamntri ke roop men upalabdhiyan

1929 men jab lahaur adhiveshan men gandhi ne neharoo ko adhyaksh pad ke lie chuna tha, tab se 35 varshon tak- 1964 men pradhanamntri ke pad par rahate hue mrityu tak, 1962 men chin se harane ke bavajood, neharoo apane deshavasiyon ke adarsh bane rahe. rajaniti ke prati unaka dharmanirapeksh ravaiya gandhi ke dharmik aur parnparik drishtikon se bhinn tha. gandhi ke vicharon ne unake jivanakal men bharatiy rajaniti ko bhramak roop se ek dharmik svaroop de diya tha. gandhi dharmik rudhivadi pratit hote the, kintu vastutah vah samajik udaravadi the, jo hindoo dharm ko dharmanirapeksh banane ki cheshtha kar rahe the. gandhi aur neharoo ke bich asali virodh dharm ke prati unake ravaiye ke karan nahin, balki sabhyata ke prati ravaiye ke karan tha. jahan neharu lagatar adhunik sndarbh men bat karate the. vahin gandhi prachin bharat ke gaurav par bal dete the.

desh ke itihas men ek aisa mauqa bhi aya tha, jab mahatma gandhi ko svatntr bharat ke pratham pradhanamntri pad ke lie saradar vallabhabhaee patel aur javaharalal neharoo men se kisi ek ka chayan karana tha. lauh purush ke sakht aur bagi tevar ke samane neharoo ka vinamr rashtriy drishtikon bhari pada aur vah n sirf is pad par chune ge, balki unhen sabase lnbe samay tak vishv ke sabase vishal lokatntr ki bagador snbhalane ka gaurav hasil bhi hua.
hindustan ek khoobasoorat aurat nahin hai. nnge kisan hindustan hain. ve n to khoobasoorat hain, n dekhane men achchhe hain- kyonki garibi achchhi chiz nahin hai, vah buri chiz hai. isalie jab ap 'bharatamata' ki jay kahate hain- to yad rakhie ki bharat kya hai, aur bharat ke log nihayat buri halat men hain- chahe ve kisan hon, mazadoor hon, khudara mal bechane vale dookanadar hon, aur chahe hamare kuchh naujavan hon. javahar lal neharoo

khyatilabdh lekhak

pndit neharoo ek mahanh rajanitigy aur prabhavashali vakta hi nahin, khyatilabdh lekhak bhi the. unaki atmakatha 1936 ee. men prakashit huee aur snsar ke sabhi deshon men usaka adar hua. unaki any rachanaon men bharat aur vishv, soviyat roos, vishv itihas ki ek jhalak, bharat ki ekata aur svatntrata aur usake bad vishesh ullekhaniy hain. inamen se antim do pustaken unake phutakar lekhon aur bhashanon ke sngrah hain.

neharooji ke prerak prasng

bat us samay ki hai jab javahar lal neharoo kishor avastha ke the. pita motilal neharoo un dinon angrejon se bharat ko azad karane ki muhim men shamil the. isaka asar balak javahar par bhi pada. motilal ne pinjare men tota pal rakha tha. ek din javahar ne tote ko pinjare se azad kar diya. motilal ko tota bahut priy tha. usaki dekhabhal ek naukar karata tha. naukar ne yah bat motilal ko bata di. motilal ne javahar se poochha, 'tumane tota kyon uda diya. javahar ne kaha, 'pitaji poore desh ki janata azadi chah rahin hai. tota bhi azadi chah raha tha, so mainne use azad kar diya.' motilal javahar ka munh dekhate rah gaye. .... aur padhen inhen bhi dekhen: prerak prasng-bharatakosh

vaigyanik pragati ke prerana srot

gandhi ji ke vicharon ke pratikool javaharalal neharoo ne desh men audyogikaran ko mahatv dete hue bhari udyogon ki sthapana ko protsahan diya. vigyan ke vikas ke lie 1947 ee. men neharoo ne 'bharatiy vigyan kangres' ki sthapana ki. unhonne kee bar 'bharatiy vigyan kangres' ke adhyaksh pad se bhashan diya. bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men sthapit vaigyanik aur audyogik anusndhan parishad ke anek kendr is kshetr men unaki dooradarshita ke spasht pratik hain. khelon men neharoo ki vyaktigat ruchi thi. unhonne khelon ko manushy ke sharirik evn manasik vikas ke lie avashyak bataya. ek desh ka doosare desh se madhur sambandh qayam karane ke lie 1951 ee. men unhonne dilli men pratham eshiyaee khelon ka ayojan karavaya. samajavadi vicharadhara se prabhavit neharoo ne bharat men lokatantrik samajavad ki sthapana ka lakshy rakha. unhonne arthik yojana ki avashyakata par bal diya. ve 1938 ee. men kangres dvara niyojit 'rashtriy yojana samiti' ke adhyaksh bhi the. svatntrata pashchath ve 'rashtriy yojana ayog' ke pradhan bane. neharoo ji ne sampradayikata ka virodh karate hue dharmanirapekshata par bal diya. unake vyaktigat prayas se hi bharat ko ek dharmanirapeksh rashtr ghoshit kiya gaya tha.

javaharalal neharoo ne bharat ko tatkalin vishv ki do mahanh shaktiyon ka pichhalaggoo n banakar tatasthata ki niti ka palan kiya. neharooji ne nirgutata evn pnchashil jaise siddhanton ka palan kar vishv bandhutv evn vishvashanti ko protsahan diya. unhonne poonjivad, samrajyavad, jativad evn upaniveshavad ke khilaf jivanaparyant sngharsh kiya. apane qaidi jivan men javaharalal neharoo ne 'diskavari aauf indiya', 'glimpasej aauf varld histri' evn 'meri kahani' namak khyatiprapt pustakon ki rachana ki.

moolyankan

apani bharatiyata par zor dene vale neharoo men vah hindoo prabhamndal aur chhavi kabhi nahin ubhari, jo gandhi ke vyaktitv ka ang thi. apane adhunik rajanitik aur arthik vicharon ke karan vah bharat ke yuva buddhijiviyon ko angrezon ke khilaf gandhi ke ahinsak andolan ki or akarshit karane men aur svatantrata ke bad unhen apane asapas banae rakhane men saphal rahe. pashchim men pale-badhe hone aur svatantrata ke pahale yooropiy yatraon ke karan unake sochane ka dhng pashchimi sanche men dhal chuka tha. 17 varshon tak satta men rahane ke dauran unhonne lokatantrik samajavad ko disha-nirdeshak mana. unake karyakal men snsad men kangres parti ke zabaradast bahumat ke karan vah apane lakshyon ki or agrasar hote rahe. lokatantr, samajavad, ekata aur dharmanirapekshata unaki ghareloo niti ke char stnbh the. vah jivan bhar in char stnbhon se sudridh apani imarat ko kafi had tak bachae rakhane men kamayab rahe. neharoo ki ikalauti sntan indira gandhi 1966 se 1977 tak aur phir 1980 se 1984 tak bharat ki pradhanamntri rahin. indira gandhi ke bete rajiv gandhi 1984 se 1989 tak pradhanamntri rahe.

mrityu

chin ke sath sngharsh ke kuchh hi samay bad neharoo ke svasthy men giravat ke lakshan dikhaee dene lage. unhen 1963 men dil ka halka daura pada, janavari 1964 men unhen aur durbal bana dene vala daura pada. kuchh hi mahinon ke bad tisare daure men 27 mee 1964 men unaki mrityu ho gee.



bharat ke pradhanamntri
Arrow-left.png poorvadhikari
javaharalal neharoo uttaradhikari
lal bahadur shastri
Arrow-right.png

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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