आधुनिक भारत का आर्थिक इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

angrezon ne bharatiy krishi ke kshetr men 'bhoomi vyavastha' v 'bhoo-rajasv' ke antargat vyapak parivartan kiya tha. unhonne anek bhoo-dhriti paddhatiyan lagoo kin, jinamen mukhy thin- sthayi bandobast ya zamindari pratha, 'mahalavadi vyavastha' evn 'raiyyatavadi vyavastha'. lagan vyavastha ke antargat 1790 ee. men laaurd kaaurnavaaulis ne dasavarshiy vyavastha ko lagoo kiya tha. yah vyavastha 1793 ee. men bngal, bihar aur udisa men sthaee roop se lagoo kar di gee. british bharat ki 19 pratishat bhoomi par yah vyavastha nishchit kar di gee thi. isake bad 'mahalavadi vyavastha' ka prastav sarvapratham 1819 ee. men 'haault maikenji' dvara laya gaya. sabase pahale yah vyavastha uttar pradesh, madhy pradesh evn pnjab men lagoo ki gee thi. isake antargat bhoomi ka lagabhag 30 pratishat bhag shamil tha. 1792 ee. men 'raiyyatavadi vyavastha' madras ke baramahal men pahali bar lagoo ki gee. madras men yah vyavastha 30 varshon tak lagoo rahi. 1835 ee. men bhoo-sarvekshan ke adhar par ise bambee (vartaman mumbee) men bhi lagoo kar diya gaya tha.

bhoomi vyavastha

Blockquote-open.gif dadabhaee nauroji ne bharat ki vastavik garibi ka karan 'bharatiy dhan ki nikasi' ko hi mana. unhonne british shasan se poorv ki sthiti ka ullekh karate hue kaha ki, mugalon evn turkon ne bharat ko avashy hi loota, parantu us dhan ka upayog desh ke bhitar hi kiya. bhale hi vah dhan sultanon aur badashahon ke vyaktigat sukh-suvidhaon par kharch kiya gaya tha, parantu angrezon ne bharatiy dhan ko itani door le jakar kharch kiya ki, usaka koee bhi labh hamen nahin mil saka. angrezon ne hamara dhan kabhi bhi hamare bhale ke liye kharch nahin kiya. Blockquote-close.gif

bharat men angrezon ne jo bhoomi vyavastha lagoo ki thi, unaka vivaran is prakar se hai-

sthayi bandobast

is vyavastha ko 'zamindari pratha', 'malaguzari' v 'bisavedari' nam se bhi jana jata tha. is vyavastha ke lagoo kiye jane se poorv british sarakar ke samaksh yah samasya thi, ki bharat men krishi yogy bhoomi ka malik kise man jay? sarakar rajasv chukane ke lie antim roop se kise uttaradayi banaye tatha upaj men se sarakar ka hissa kitana ho. varen hestings ne apana vichar vyakt karate hue kaha tha, ki kisanon se lagan vasool karane ke badale men zamindaron ke pas kuchh kamishan prapt karane ke adhikar hon. parantu hestings ki yah paddhati asaphal rahi. 1772 ee. men hestings ne pnchavarshiy bandobast chalaya. 1776 ee. men is vyavastha ko bhi tyag diya gaya. 1786 ee. men laaurd kaaurnavaaulis bngal ka gavarnar-janaral bana. usane jems grant evn sar jaaun shor se navin lagan vyavastha par vichar vimarsh kiya. 1790 ee. men karnavalis ne dasavarshiy vyavastha ko lagoo kiya. 1793 ee. men is vyavastha ko bngal, bihar evn udisa men sthayi kar diya gaya aur kalantar men ise uttar pradesh ke banaras khand evn uttari karnatak men bhi lagoo kiya gaya.

mahalavadi vyavastha

mahalavadi vyavastha ka prastav sarvapratham 'haault maikenji' dvara laya gaya tha. is vyavastha ke antargat bhoomi par gram samuday ka samoohik adhikar hota tha. is samuday ke sadasy alag-alag ya phir snyukt roop se lagan ki adayagi kar sakate the. sarakari lagan ko ekatr karane ke prati poora 'mahal' ya 'kshetr' samoohik roop se zimmedar hota tha. mahal ke antargat chhote v bade sabhi star ke zamindar ate the. mahalavadi vyavastha ka prastav sarvapratham 1819 ee. men 'haault maikenji' dvara laya gaya tha. is prastav ko 1822 ee. ke regyooleshan-7 dvara qanooni roop pradan kiya gaya.

raiyyatavadi vyavastha

is vyavastha men pratyek pnjikrit bhoomidar bhoomi ka svami hota tha, jo sarakar ko lagan dene ke lie uttaradayi hota tha. isake pas bhoomi ko rakhane v bechane ka adhikar hota tha. bhoomi kar n dene ki sthiti men use bhoosvamitv ke adhikar se vnchit hona padata tha. is vyavastha ke antargat sarakar ka raiyyat se sidha sampark hota tha. raiyyatavadi vyavastha ko madras tatha bambee evn asam ke adhikansh bhagon men lagoo kiya gaya. raiyyatavadi bhoomi kar vyavastha ko pahali bar 1792 ee. men madras ke ‘baramahal’ zile men lagoo kiya gaya. taaumas munaro jis samay madras ka garvanar tha, us samay usane kul upaj ke tisare bhag ko bhoomikar ka adhar manakar madras men is vyavastha ko lagoo kiya. madras men yah vyavastha lagabhag 30 varshon tak lagoo rahi thi.

krishi ka vyaparikaran

british bharat men pade akal
varsh akal prabhavit kshetr
1860-1861 ee. pnjab, rajapootana, uttar-pashchim prant evn kachchh
1866-1867 ee. bngal, bihar, udisa
1868-1869 ee. uttar pradesh, rajapootana, pnjab
1873-1874 ee. bihar, bngal, maisoor,haidarabad
1877-1878 ee. pnjab, kashmir, uttar pradesh
1888-1889 ee. udisa, gnjam
1890-1892 ee. pnjab
1896-1897 ee. avadh, bngal, madras, pnjab, uttar pradesh, bambee
1899-1900 ee. barar, bambee, pnjab, uttar pradesh, bambee
1905-1906 ee. bambee
1906-1907 ee. uttar bihar
1907-1908 ee. uttar pradesh, madhy pradesh, bngal, madras, bambee

angrezon dvara bharatiy krishi ke vyaparikaran ke pichhe mukhy uddeshy tha- inglaind ke udyogon ke lie kachche mal ko upalabdh karana. 1850 ee. tak bharat men un vastuon ki kheti ki jati thi, jo mukhyatah bharatiyon ke upabhog hetu avashyak hoti thi. parantu 1850 ee. ke bad angrezi sarakar ne unhin vastuon ke utpadan ko protsahan diya, jinaka upayog briten ke udyogon men kachche mal ke roop men ho sakata tha. british sarakar bharat ko apane samanon ki mndi tatha kachcha mal bhejane vale ek upanivesh ki bhoomika ke lie teyar kar rahi thi. is niti ke tahat british sarakar ne bharatiy kisanon ko oonchi qimat dene ka pralobhan dekar kapas, joot, nil, kaaufi, chay, moongaphali, ganna jaise vanijyik fasalon ke utpadan ke lie protsahan diya. sarakar dvara sarvadhik dhyan kapas ki kheti par diya gaya, jisake parinamasvaroop genhoon, chaval, jvar, bajara jaise khadyanon ka abhav ho gaya, jisase yahan bhukhamari phail gayi. fasalon ke vanijyikaran ke phalasvaroop hi tatkalin samay men bharat ko kee akalon ka samana karana pada.

  • jaaun sulavin ke kathan ke anusar, "hamari pranali ek aise spnj ke roop men kam karati hai, jo gnga ke kinaron se pratyek achchhi vastu ko le leti hai aur tems ke kinare par nichod deti hai."

kisanon ka shoshan

1850 ee. ke bad desh men relon ki vyavastha ne bhi vanijyik fasalon ke utpadan ko protsahit kiya. is suvidha ka labh uthakar bharatiy kisan ab vishv bazar se sampark sadhane lage. naqad paise ke lalach men bharatiy kisan apani fasalon ko nimn dar par bechane laga, jisase usake shoshan ko badhava mila. vyaparik fasalon ki kheti karane se niahsndeh kuchh kisanon ki sthiti pahale se behatar huee, parantu desh men khadyannon ke abhav ke karan inake mooly men bhaynkar vriddhi huee.

aupaniveshik arthavyavastha

angrezon dvara bharat ka kiya gaya shoshan tin kalon men banta ja sakata hai- pratham kal 1756 ee. se 1812 ee. tak mana jata hai. is samay arthavyavastha men vyaparik poonji ka samrajy tha. eest indiya kampani ne vyapar par poorn adhikar rakha tha. eest indiya kampani ke adhikari ji bharakar bharat ko loot rahe the. prasiddh british itihasakar 'parsival spiyan' ne tippani ki hai, "ab bngal men khula tatha besharm loot ka kal arambh hua." ve kam dam par bharatiy vastuon ko kray kar inglaind niryat kar dete the. prasiddh itihasakar 'ke.em.panikkar' ne 1765 ee. se 1772 ee. ke kal ko 'dakoo rajy' kaha hai. dvitiy kal arthath 1813 ee. se 1857 ee. ke madhy mukt vyapar evn poonji ke samrajyavad ka kal tha. is samay ka bharat briten se nirmit vastron ke lie bazar evn kachche mal ke srot ke roop men prasiddh tha. is kal men bharat ke kutir evn laghu udyogon ka patan hua. is sndarbh men karl marks ne kaha tha, "sooti kapadon ke ghar men sooti kapadon ki bharamar kar di gee hai." tritiy kal arthath 1857 ee. se 1947 ee. ke madhy vittiy poonji ka samrajyavad bharat men apani jaden jamane ka prayatn karane laga. tatpary yah hai ki angrezon dvara yahan ke udyogon men bhari matra men poonji nivesh kiya jane laga.

bharatiy dhan ki nikasi

prashn uthata hai ki, dhan ka nishkasan kya hai? "jab kisi desh ke dhan ko us desh se bahar bheja jata tha, tatha badale men us desh ko kuchh bhi prapt nahin hota tha, to dhan ke is bahirgaman ko hi dhan ki nikasi kaha jata tha." bharat men dhan ki yah nikasi pashchimi deshon ki or dhatvik mudra ke roop men kam, parantu vastuon ki niryat ke roop men adhik huee. vaise ayat se adhik niryat karane vale desh ko arthik roop se sampann mana jata hai, parantu bharat ke niryat ka charitr kuchh doosara hi tha. eest indiya kampani jo bhi rajasv bharat men ekatr karati thi, usi se vastuon ko kray kar apane desh ko niryat karati thi. 1850 ee. ke bad angrezon ne bharat se kuchh nee vastuon, jaise pashchimi bharat se kapas, pnjab se genhoon, asam se chay, dakshin bharat se tihalan, bngal se patasan, chamada evn khalon ka niryat karana prarambh kar diya. 1858 ee. ke bad hue snvaidhanik sudharon ke karan kampani ke hisse ka rin evn usaki samast denadariyan ab bharat sarakar ke hisse men a geen. ab british bharat ke sabhi adhikariyon ki penshanen, inglaind se bharat ke lie kharide jane vale sainik saj-saman, sainikon ke prashikshin par hone vale vyay, parivahan par vyay, bharat ki simaon se bahar kiye jane vale abhiyanon par ane vale vyay adi bharat sarakar par hi bharit the. in sabhi sadhanon ke dvara bharat ka dhan jis prakar se briten ki or ja raha tha, usi ko dhan ki nikasi ke nam se jana gaya.

dadabhaee nauroji

1868 ee. men sarvapratham dadabhaee nauroji ne angrezon dvara bharat ke 'dhan ki nikasi' ki or sabhi bharatiyon ka dhyan akrisht kiya. unhonne 2 mee, 1867 ee. ko lndan men ayojit 'eest indiya esosieshan' ki baithak men apane patr, jisaka shirshak 'England Debut To India' ko padhate hue pahali bar dhan ke bahirgaman ke siddhant ko prastut kiya. unhonne kaha- "bharat ka dhan hi bharat se bahar jata hai, aur phir dhan bharat ko punah rin ke roop men diya jata hai, jisake lie use aur dhan byaj ke roop se chukana padata hai. yah sab ek dushchakr tha, jise todana kathin tha." unhonne apani pustak 'Poority And Unbritish Rules In India' men prati vyakti varshik ay ka anuman 20 rupaye lagaya tha. isake atirikt unaki any pustaken, jisamen unhonne dhan ke nishkasan siddhant ki vyakhya ki hai, 'd vants end mins aauf indiya (1870 ee.)', 'an di kamars aauf indiya (1871 ee.)' adi hain. dadabhaee nauroji 'dhan ke bahirgaman ke siddhant' ke sarvapratham aur sarvadhik prakhar pratipadak the. 1905 ee. men unhonne kaha tha ki, "dhan ka bahirgaman samast buraiyon ki jad hai, aur bharatiy nirdhanata ka mukhy karan." dadabhaee nauroji ne dhan nishkasan ko 'anishton ka anisht' ki sngya di hai.

  • mahadev govind ranade ne kaha hai, "rashtriy poonji ka ek tihaee hissa kisi n kisi roop men british shasan dvara bharat se bahar le jaya jata hai."

bharatiy dhan nikasi ka parinam

bharat men prati vyakti ay ka anuman
vyakti anumanit rupaye
dadabhaee nauroji (1867-1870 ee.) 20 rupaye prati varsh
elavin bering aur devid belafar (1882 ee.) 27 rupaye prati varsh
laaurd karzan (1901 ee.) 30 rupaye prati varsh
viliyam digbi (1899 ee.) 18 rupaye prati varsh
daau. vi.ke.ar.vi.rav (1931-1932 ee.) 62 rupaye prati varsh

bharatiy dhan ki nikasi ke vishay men ar.si.datt ne kaha, "bharatiy rajaon dvara kar lena to soory dvara apani bhoomi se pani lene ke saman tha, jo ki punah varsha ke roop men bhoomi par urvarata dene ke lie vapas ata tha, par angrezon dvara liya gaya kar bharat men varsha n karake inglaind men hi varsha karata tha." ramesh chandr datt ne apani pustak 'ikonomik histri aauf indiya' (1901 ee.) men dhan ke bahirgaman ka ullekh kiya hai. is pustak ko bharat ke arthik itihas par pahali prasiddh pustak mana jata hai. bharatiy rashtriy kangres dvara apane 'kalakatta adhiveshan' (1896 ee.) men sarvapratham 'dhan ke nishkasan' siddhant ko svikar kiya gaya. 1901 ee. men impiriyal lejisletiv kaunsil ke bajat par bhashan dete hue gopal krishn gokhale ne 'dhan ke bahirgaman' siddhant ko prastut kiya. bharat men dhan ke nishkasan ki or sarvapratham dhyan dadabhaee nauroji ka gaya tha aur unhonne usake dooragami prabhabhon ko samajha. lagatar dhan ki nikasi ka parinam yah hua ki, bharatiyon par kar ka bojh badh gaya. dadabhaee nauroji ne bharat ki vastavik garibi ka karan bharatiy dhan ki nikasi ko hi mana. unhonne british shasan se poorv ki sthiti ka ullekh karate hue kaha ki, mugalon evn turkon ne bharat ko avashy hi loota, parantu us dhan ka upayog desh ke bhitar hi kiya gaya, bhale hi vah dhan sultanon aur badashahon ke vyaktigat sukh-suvidhaon par kharch kiya gaya ho, parantu angrezon ne bharatiy dhan ko itani door le jakar kharch kiya ki, usaka koee bhi labh hamen nahin mil saka.

hastashilp udyog ka hras

jahan ek or inglaind men huee audyogik kranti ke phalasvaroop vishv men audyogikaran ki prakriya gati pakad rahi thi, vahin doosari or bharat men isaka kuprabhav dekhane ko mil raha tha. 1800-1850 ee. ke madhy ke samay ko bharat ke 'prakh audyogikikaran' ke kal ke nam se jana jata hai. is kal men bharat ke hastashilp evn kutir udyogon ka patan hua. sooti kapade evn any hastashilp ki vastuon par 70 se 80 pratishat tak ayat shulk laga diya gaya. bharat men mukt vyapar ke adhikar ke sath hi yahan par videshi logon ne udyog lagana prarambh kar diya. angrezon ki is niti ke karan yahan par briten men nirmit sooti vastr chha gaye. yahan ke bunakaron aur shilpiyon ko apani takanik ka rahasy batane ke lie badhy kiya gaya. kalantar men yah varg matr bndhua mazadoor banakar raha gaya. 20vin shatabdi ki shuruat men hue svadeshi andolanon ke phalasvaroop in udyogon ko thoda bahut snrakshan prapt hua. kutir udyog evn hastashilp udyogon ke hras ke karan bharatiy janasnkhya ki nirbharata krishi par badhane lagi. krishi ki nirbharata ko 'rajani pamadatt' ne ankadon dvara prastut kiya hai.

adhunik udyogon ka vikas

ek or bharatiy hast udyogon ka vinash ho raha tha, vahin doosari or kuchh naye udyogon ka janm bhi ho raha tha. bharat men adhunik udyogon ka prarambh 1850 ee. men hua. in naye prakar ke udyagon ka vikas do roopon - bagan udyog evn karakhana udyog men hua. angrezon ne yahan sabase pahale nil, chay, kahava adi men vishesh ruchi li. 1875 ee. ke bad karakhana udyog ka vikas hua, jisamen kapas, chamada, loha, chini, siment, kagaz, lakadi, kanch adi udyog shamil the. bharat men pratham sooti vastr udyog 'bambe spining end viving kampani' ke nam se parasi udyogapati 'kavasaji dabar' ne 1854 ee. men sthapit kiya. bharat men pahala chini karakhana 1909 ee. men pahala joot karakhana 1855 ee. men bngal men khola gaya. pahali bar adhunik ispat taiyar karane ka prayas 1830 ee. men madras ke dakshin men sthit arkat men 'joshiya marshal hith' dvara kiya gaya. lauh udyog kshetr men agala prayas 1907 ee. men jamashed ji tata ne kiya. inake prayatnon dvara 'tata ayaran end stil kampani' ki sthapana ki gee. is prakar kram se in udyogon ka dhire-dhire vikas hota raha.

karakhana adhiniyam

karakhana adhiniyam
varsh vyakti
1881 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam laaurd ripan
1891 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam laaurd lainsadaun
1911 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam laaurd harding dvitiy
1922 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam laaurd riding
1934 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam laaurd vilingadan
1946 ee. ka snshodhit karakhana adhiniyam laaurd vevel

british bharat men samay-samay par kee karakhana adhiniyam parit kiy ge. unaka vivaran is prakar se hai-

1881 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam

laaurd ripan ke samay men laye gaye is karakhana adhiniyam men alpayu shramikon ko snrakshan evn unake svasthy suraksha ki vyavastha ki gee. yah adhiniyam un karakhanon par hi lagoo ho sakata tha, jahan par shramikon ki snkhya kam se kam 100 hoti thi. adhiniyam men 7 varsh se kam bachchon ko kam karane se pratibndhit kiya gaya tatha 7 se 12 varsh ke bachchon ke kam ki avadhi 9 ghanten tay ki gee thi. isake atirikt pratidin ek ghante ka aram tatha mahine men 4 din ki chhutti ki vyavastha ki gee.

1891 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam

laaurd lainsadaun ke samay men laye gaye is karakhana adhiniyam men vayask shramikon ke labh ki vyavastha ki gee thi. yah adhiniyam un sabhi sthanon par lagoo hua, jahan par kam se kam 50 shramik ek sath kam karate the. is adhiniyam men 9 varsh se kam ayu ke bachchon ko karakhanon men kary karane se poornatah pratibndhit kar diya gaya aur 9 se 19 varsh ke bachchon ke kary ki avadhi ko 7 ghante pratidin nishchit kar diya gaya. mahilaon ko ratri ke samay 8 baje se subah 5 baje tak kam karane se pratibndhit kar diya gaya. inake kam karane ki avadhi ko 11 ghante pratidin tay kiya gaya. saptah men ek din avakash ki ghoshana ki gee.

1911 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam

1891 ke karakhana adhiniyam ko hi snshodhit kar 1911 ee. men ek any karakhana adhiniyam prastut kiya gaya, jisamen purushon ke kary karane ki avadhi ko 12 ghante pratidin nishchit kiya gaya. alpayu bachchon ko karakhanon men 7 baje sandhya se 5 baje subah ke bich kary karane par pratibandh laga diya gaya. yah adhiniyam laaurd harding ke samay laya gaya tha.

1922 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam

laaurd riding ke samay men laya gaya yah karakhana adhiniyam un sthanon par lagoo hota tha, jahan par 20 se adhik shramik kam karate the, athava bijali ka prayog kiya jata tha. is adhiniyam men karakhane men kary karane ki bachchon ki ayu ko badhakar 12 se 15 varsh ke bich nishchit kiya gaya aur inake kary karane ki avadhi ko kam kar 6 ghante pratidin kar diya gaya. is adhiniyam ko 1923,1926 aur 1931 ee. men anshik roop se snshodhit kiya gaya tha.

1934 ee. ka karakhana adhiniyam

laaurd vilingatan ke samay men laye gaye is karakhana adhiniyam men mausami karakhane evn sadaiv karyarat karakhanon men antar sthapit kiya gaya. vayask shramikon ke kam ke ghanton ko 11 ghanta pratidin tay kiya gaya. niyamit roop se kary karane vale udyogon ya karakhanon men vayask shramikon ke dainik kary ki avadhi ko 10 ghante nishchit kiya gaya aur sath hi shramikon ke aram evn unaki chikitsa ki bhi vyavastha ki gee.

1946 ee. ka karakhana snshodhan adhiniyam

laaurd vevel ke samay men 1934 ee. ke karakhana adhiniyam ko snshodhit kar prastut kiya gaya. is snshodhit adhiniyam men shramikon ke kary karane ki avadhi ko 11 se kam karake 9 ghante kiya gaya. 200 se adhik shramikon ke kary karane vale karakhanon men kaintinon ki vyavastha par bal diya gaya.

uparyukt sabhi karakhana adhiniyam aise samay men laye gaye, jab bharat gulam tha. isalie shramikon ki suvidhaon par vishesh dhyan nahin diya gaya. svatntr bharat ka pahala vistrit karakhana adhiniyam 1948 ee. men laya gaya, jisamen shramikon ki badatar sthiti ko behatar karane ko sachche man se prayas kiya gaya.

british kal men bharatiy arthavyavastha se judi kuchh prathayen

  1. dadani pratha - is pratha ke antargat british vyapari bharatiy utpadakon, karigaron evn shilpiyon ko 'agrim snvida' (peshagi) ke roop men de dete the.
  2. kamiyaunti pratha - bihar evn udisa men prachalit is pratha ke antargat krishi das ke roop men kheti karane vale kamiyan jati ke log apane malikon dvara prapt rin par di jane vali byaj ki rashi ke badale jivan bhar unaki seva karate the.
  3. tinakathiya pratha - is pratha ke antargat 'champaran' (bihar) ke kisanon ko apane angrez bagan malikon ke anubandh par apani zamin ke qarib 3/20 bhag par nil ki kheti karana anivary hota tha.
  4. dubala hali pratha - bharat ke pashchimi kshetr, mukhyatah soorat men prachalit is pratha ke antargat 'dubala hali bhoo-das' apane malikon ko hi apani sampatti ka aur svayn ka snrakshak manate the.


inhen bhi dekhen: bharat ka itihas, adhunik bharat ka itihas evn gavarnar-janaral


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