कालिदास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(कालीदास se punarnirdeshit)
kalidas vishay soochi
kalidas
Poet-Kalidasa.jpg
poora nam mahakavi kalidas
janm 150 varsh eesa poorv se 450 eesavi ke madhy
janm bhoomi uttar pradesh
pati/patni vidyottama
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr snskrit kavi
mukhy rachanaen natak- abhigyan shakuntalamh, vikramorvashiyamh aur malavikagnimitramh; mahakavy- raghuvnshamh aur kumarasnbhavamh, khandakavy- meghadootamh aur ritusnhar
bhasha snskrit
puraskar-upadhi mahakavi
snbndhit lekh kalidas ke kavy men prakriti chitran, kalidas ke charitr-chitran, kalidas ki alnkar-yojana, kalidas ka chhand vidhan, kalidas ki ras snyojana, kalidas ka saundary aur prem, kalidas lokachar aur lokatattv
any janakari kalidas dikhane men bahut sundar the aur vikramadity ke darabar ke navaratnon men ek the, lekin kaha jata hai ki prarnbhik jivan men kalidas anapadh aur moorkh the.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

kalidas (angrezi: Kalidas) snskrit bhasha ke sabase mahanh kavi aur natakakar the. kalidas ne bharat ki pauranik kathaon aur darshan ko adhar banakar rachanaen ki. kalidas apani alnkar yukt sundar saral aur madhur bhasha ke liye vishesh roop se jane jate hain. unake ritu varnan advitiy hain aur unaki upamaen bemisal. sngit unake sahity ka pramukh ang hai aur ras ka srijan karane men unaki koee upama nahin. unhonne apane shrringar ras pradhan sahity men bhi sahityik saundary ke sath-sath adarshavadi parnpara aur naitik moolyon ka samuchit dhyan rakha hai. unaka nam amar hai aur unaka sthan valmiki aur vyas ki parampara men hai. kalidas shiv ke bhakt the. kalidas nam ka shabdik arth hai, 'kali ka sevak'. kalidas dikhane men bahut sundar the aur vikramadity ke darabar ke navaratnon men ek the. lekin kaha jata hai ki prarnbhik jivan men kalidas anapadh aur moorkh the. kalidas ki shadi vidyottama nam ki rajakumari se huee.

jivan parichay

mahakavi kalidas kab hue aur kitane hue is par vivad hota raha hai. vidvanon ke anek mat hain. 150 varsh eesa poorv se 450 eesvi tak kalidas hue honge aisa mana jata hai. naye anusndhan se gyat hua hai ki inaka kal gupt kal raha hoga. ramayan aur mahabharat jaise mahakavyon ki rachana ke pashchath snskrit sahity ke akash men anek kavi-nakshatron ne apani prabha prakat ki, par nakshatr - tara - grahasnkula hote hue bhi kalidas - chandr ke dvara hi bharatiy sahity ki parampara sachamuch jyotishmayi kahi ja sakati hai. madhury aur prasad ka param paripak, bhav ki gambhirata tatha rasanirjharini ka amand pravah, padon ki snigdhata aur vaidik kavy parampara ki mahaniyata ke sath-sath arsh kavy ki jivanadrishti aur gaurav-in sabaka lalit sannivesh kalidas ki kavita men hua hai.

sarvabhaumik kavi

kalidas vishvavandy kavi hain. unaki kavita ke svar deshakal ki paridhi ko langh kar sarvabhaum ban kar goonjate rahe hain. isake sath hi ve is desh ki dharati se gahare anurag ko poori snvedana ke sath vyakt karane vale kaviyon men bhi anany hain. kalidas ke samay tak bharatiy chintan paripakv aur vikasit ho chuka tha, shaddarshan tatha avaidik darshanon ke mat-matantar aur siddhant parinat roop men samane a chuke the. doosari or akhyan-upakhyan aur pauranik vanamay ka jan-jan men prachar tha. vaidik dharm aur darshan ki pun: sthapana ka bhi abhootapoorv samudyam unake samay men ya usake kuchh pahale ho chuka tha. jyotish, ganit, ayurved adi vibhinn vidyaon ka bhi achchha vikas kalidas ke kal tak ho chuka tha. kalidas ki kavi chetana ne chintan tatha gyan-vigyan ki is sari parampara, vikas ko atmasat kiya, apane samakalin samaj aur jivan ko bhi dekha-parakha aur in sabako unhonne apani kalajayi pratibha ke dvara aise roop men abhivyakt kiya, jo apane advitiy saundary aur hridayavarjakata ke karan yug-yug tak akarshak hi nahin bana raha, usamen arthon aur vyakhyaon ki bhi sambhavanaen kabhi chukane ko nahin atin.

snsar ke sarvashreshth sahityakar

kavikul guru mahakavi kalidas ki ganana bharat ke hi nahin varanh snsar ke sarvashreshth sahityakaron men ki jati hai. unhonne naty, mahakavy tatha gitikavy ke kshetr men apani adabhut rachanashakti ka pradarshan kar apani ek alag hi pahachan banaee. jis kriti ke karan kalidas ko sarvadhik prasiddhi mili, vah hai unaka natak 'abhigyan shakuntalam' jisaka vishv ki anek bhashaon men anuvad ho chuka hai. unake doosare natak 'vikramorvashiy' tatha 'malavikagnimitr' bhi utkrisht naty sahity ke udaharan hain. unake keval do mahakavy upalabdh hain - 'raghuvnsh' aur 'kumarasnbhav' par ve hi unaki kirti pataka phaharane ke lie paryapt hain.

kalidas dvara shoorasen janapad ka varnan

mahakavi kalidas chandragupt vikramadity ke samakalin mane jate hain. raghuvnsh men kalidas ne shoorasen janapad, mathura, vrindavan, govardhan tatha yamuna ka ullekh kiya hai. indumati ke svaynvar men vibhinn pradeshon se aye hue rajaon ke sath unhonne shoorasen rajy ke adhipati sushen ka bhi varnan kiya hai [1]. magadh, ansu, avnti, anoop, kaling aur ayodhya ke bade rajaon ke bich shoorasen - naresh ki ganana ki gee hai. kalidas ne jin visheshanon ka prayog sushen ke lie kiya hai unhen dekhane se gyat hota hai ki vah ek pratapi shasak tha, jisaki kirti svarg ke devata bhi gate the aur jisane apane shuddh acharan se mata-pita donon ke vnshon ko prakashit kar diya tha.[2] isake age sushen ko vidhivat ygy karane vala, shant prakriti ka shasak bataya gaya hai, jisake tez se shatru log ghabarate the. yahan mathura aur yamuna ki charcha karate hue kalidas ne likha hai ki jab raja sushen apani preyasiyon ke sath mathura men yamuna-vihar karate the tab yamuna-jal ka krishnavarn gngaki ujjval laharon-sa pratit hota tha [3]. yahan mathura ka ullekh karate samay snbhavat: kalidas ko samay ka dhyan nahin raha. indumati (jisaka vivah ayodhya-naresh aj ke sath hua) ke samay men mathura nagari nahin thi. vah to aj ki kee pidhi bad shatrughn ke dvara basaee gee. tikakar mallinath ke ukt shlok ki tika karate samay thik hi is snbndh men apatti ki hai [4]. kalidas ne anyatr shatrughn ke dvara yamuna-tat par bhavy mathura nagari ke nirman ka kathan kiya hai .[5] shatrughn ke putron shoorasen aur subahu ka kramash: mathura tatha vidisha ke adhikari hone ka bhi varnan raghuvnsh men milata hai.[6]

vrindavan aur govardhan ka varnan

kalidas dvara ullikhit shoorasen ke adhipati sushen ka nam kalpanik pratit hota hai. pauranik soochiyon ya shilalekhon adi men mathura ke kisi sushen raja ka nam nahin milata. kalidas ne unhen 'nip-vnsh' ka kaha hai [7]. parntu yah bat thik nahin jnchati. nip dakshin pnchal ke ek raja ka nam tha, jo mathura ke yadav-raja bhim satvat ke samakalin the. unake vnshaj nipavnshi kahalaye. kalidas ne vrindavan aur govardhan ka bhi varnan kiya hai. vrindavan ke varnan se gyat hota hai ki kalidas ke samay men is van ka saundary bahut prasiddh tha aur yahan anek prakar ke phool vale lata-vriksh vidyaman the.

  • kalidas ne vrindavan ki upama kuber ke chaitrarath nam udyan se di hai. [8]
  • govardhan ki shobha ka varnan karate hue mahakavi kahate hai-'he indumati, tum govardhan parvat ke un shilatalon par baitha karana jo varsha ke jal se dhoye jate hain tatha jinase shilajit jaisi sugndhi nikalati rahati hai. vahan tum govardhan ki ramanik kandaraon men, varsha ritu men mayooron ka nrity dekha karana.[9] kalidas ke uparyukt varnanon se tatkalin shoorasen janapad ki mahattvapoorn sthiti ka anuman lagaya ja sakata hai. aryavart ke prasiddh rajavnshon ke sath unhonne shoorasen ke adhipati ka ullekh kiya hai. 'sushen' nam kalpanik hote hue bhi kaha ja sakata hai ki shoorasen-vnsh ki gauravapoorn parnpara ee. panchavi shati tak akshunn thi. vrindavan, govardhan tatha yamuna snbndhi varnanon se braj ki tatkalin sushama bhi ka anuman lagaya ja sakata hai. kalidas ke natak `malavikagnimitr' se gyat hota hai ki sindhu nadi ke tat par agnimitr ke ladake vasumitr ki muthabhed yavanon se huee aur bhishan sngram ke bad yavanon ki parajay huee. yavanon ke is akraman ka neta sambhavat: minendar tha. is raja ka nam prachin bauddh sahity men 'milind' milata hai.

kalidas ka sahity

kalidas snskrit sahity aur bharatiy pratibha ke ujjval nakshatr hain. kalidas ke jivanavritt ke vishay men anek mat prachalit hain. kuchh log unhen bngali manate hain. kuchh ka kahana hai, ve kashmiri the. kuchh unhen uttar pradesh ka bhi batate hain. parntu bahusnkhyak vidvanon ki dharana hai ki ve malava ke nivasi aur ujjayini ke samrat vikramadity ke nav-ratnon men se ek the. vikramadity ka samay eesa se 57 varsh pahale mana jata hai. jo vikrami snvat ka arnbh bhi hai. is varsh vikramadity ne bharat par akraman karane vale shakon ko parajit kiya tha. kalidas ke snbndh men yah kinvadnti bhi prachalit hai ki ve pahale nipat moorkh the. kuchh dhoort pnditon ne shadyntr karake unaka vivah vidyottama nam ki param vidushi se kara diya. pata lagane par vidyottama ne kalidas ko ghar se nikal diya. is par dukhi kalidas ne bhagavati ki aradhana ki aur samast vidyaon ka gyan arjit kar liya. inhen bhi dekhen: kalidas ke kavy men prakriti chitran, kalidas ke charitr-chitran, kalidas ki alnkar-yojana, kalidas ka chhand vidhan, kalidas ki ras snyojana, kalidas ka saundary aur prem evn kalidas lokachar aur lokatattv

rachanaen

kalidas rachit grnthon ki talika bahut lnbi hai. par vidvanon ka mat hai ki is nam ke aur bhi kavi hue hain jinaki ye rachanaen ho sakati hain. vikramadity ke navaratn kalidas ki sat rachanaen prasiddh hai.

inamen se char kavy-grnth hain-
  1. raghuvnsh
  2. kumarasnbhav
  3. meghadoot
  4. ritusnhar.
tin natak hain-
  1. abhigyan shakuntalamh
  2. malavikagnimitr
  3. vikramorvashiy.

in rachanaon ke karan kalidas ki ganana vishv ke sarvashreshth kaviyon aur natakakaron men hoti hai. unaki rachanaon ka sahity ke sath-sath aitihasik mahattv bhi hai. snskrit sahity ke 6 kavy grnthon ki ganana sarvopari ki jati hai. inamen akele kalidas ke tin grnth - raghuvnsh, kumarasnbhav aur meghadoot hai. ye 'laghutrayi' ke nam se bhi jane jate hain. shesh tin men bharavi krit kiratarjuniy, magh krit shishupal vadh aur shriharsh krit naishadhiyacharit ki rachanaen ati hain. isake atirikt anek any kavyon ke sath bhi kalidas ka nam joda jata raha hai- jaise shrringaratilak, shyamaladandak adi. ye kavy ya to kalidas namadhari paravarti kaviyon ne likhe athava paravarti kaviyon ne apana kavy prasiddh karane ki ichchha se usake sath kalidas ka nam jod diya.

parvati ka saundary varnan

apane kumarasambhav mahakavy men parvati ke roop ka varnan karate hue mahakavi kalidas ne likha hai ki snsar men jitane bhi sundar upaman ho sakate hain unaka samuchchay ikattha karake, phir use yathasthan snyojit karake vidhata ne bade jatan se us parvati ko gadha tha, kyonki ve srishti ka sara saundary ek sthan par dekhana chahate the.[10]vastav men parvati ke sambandh men kavi ki yah ukti svayn usaki apani kavita par bhi utani hi khari utarati hai. 'ekasthasaundaryadidriksha' usaki kavita ka mool prerak sootr hai, jo sisriksha ko sphoort karata hai. is sisriksha ke dvara kavi ne apani advait chaitany roop pratima ko vibhinn ramaniy moortiyon men bant diya hai. jagath ki srishti ke sambandh men is sisriksha ko antarnihit mool tattv batakar mahakavi ne apani kavyasrishti ki bhi sanketik vyakhya ki hai.[11]

prasiddh rachanaen

kalidas ko sarvadhik prasiddhi natak 'abhigyan shakuntalam' se mili hai jisaka vishv ki anek bhashaon men anuvad ho chuka hai. unake doosare natak 'vikramorvashiy' tatha 'malavikagnimitr' bhi utkrisht naty sahity ke udaharan hain. unake keval do mahakavy upalabdh hain - 'raghuvnsh' aur 'kumarasnbhav' par ve hi unaki kirti pataka phaharane ke lie paryapt hain. kavyakala ki drishti se kalidas ka 'meghadoot' atulaniy hai. isaki sundar saras bhasha prem aur virah ki abhivyakti tatha prakriti se pathak mugdh aur bhavabhivor ho uthate hain. 'meghadoot' ka bhi vishv ki anek bhashaon men anuvad ho chuka hai. unaka 'ritu snhar' pratyek ritu ke prakriti chitran ke lie hi likha gaya hai. kalidas ke kal ke vishay men kafi matabhed hain. par ab vidvanon ki sahamati se unaka kal pratham shatabdi ee. poo. mana jata hai. is manyata ka adhar yah hai ki ujjayini ke raja vikramadity ke shasan kal men kalidas ka rachanakal sambaddh hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. raghuvnsh,sarg 6,45-51
  2. sa shoorasenadhipatin sushenamuddishy lokantaragitakirtimh.
  3. yasyavarodhastanachandananan prakshalanadvari-viharakale
  4. kalinditire mathura lavanasuravadhakale shatrughnen nirmmasyat iti vakshyati tatkathamadhuna mathurasambhav, iti chintyamh .
  5. "upakooln s kalindyaah puri paurushabhooshanah .
    nirmame nirmamosSrtheshu mathuran madhurakritiah ..
    ya saurajyaprakashabhirvabhau pauravibhootibhiah .
    svargabhishyandavamann kritvevopaniveshita .." (raghu. 15,28-29
  6. "shatrughatini shatrughn subahau ch bahushrute .
    mathuravidishe soonvornidadhe poorvajotsukah .."
    (raghu. 15,36
  7. raghuvnsh, 6,46
  8. "snbhavy bhartaramamun yuvann mridupravalottar pushpashayye .
    vrindavane chaitrarathadanoone nirvishyatan sundari yauvanashriah .."
    (raghu. 6,50
  9. 'adhyasy chambhah prishatokshitani shaileyagandhini shilatalani.
    kalapinan pravrishi pshy nrityn kantasu govardhanakandarasu .."
    (raghu., 6,51
  10. sarvopamadravyasamuchchayen yatha pradeshn viniveshiten. sa nirmita vishvasrija prayatnadekasthasaundaryadidrikshayev॥ - kumarasambhav, 1.49
  11. stripunsavatmabhagau te bhinnmoorte: sisrikshaya - kumarasambhav 2|7

snbndhit lekh

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