भारत आलेख  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat vishay soochi
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bharat ganarajy
Republic of India
India-Flag.jpg Emblem-of-India.png
bharat ka dhvaj bharat ka kulachihn
rashtravaky: "satyamev jayate" (snskrit) saty hi vijayi hota hai[1]
rashtragan: jan gan man
bharat ki sthiti
rajadhani nee dilli
28° 34′ N 77° 12′ E
sabase bade nagar dilli, mumbee, kolakata aur chennee
rajabhasha(en) hindi sngh ki rajabhasha hai,
angrezi "sahayak rajabhasha" hai.
any bhashaen bangla, gujarati, kannad, malayalam, marathi aur any
sarakar prakar ganarajy
ramanath kovind
venkaiya nayadoo
sumitra mahajan
narendr modi
dipak mishra
vidhayika
-upari sadan
-nichala sadan
bharatiy snsad
rajy sabha
lok sabha
svatntrata
tithi
ganarajy
snyukt rajashahi se
15 agast, 1947
26 janavari, 1950
kshetraphal
 - kul
 
 - jaliy (%)
 
32,87,263 kimi² (satavan)
12,22,559 mil² 
9.56
janasnkhya
 - 2011
 - 2001 janaganana
 - janasnkhya ghanatv
 
1,21,01,93,422[2] (dvitiy)
1,02,70,15,248
382[2]/kimi² (27 van)
954[3]/ mil² 
sakal ghareloo utpad (pipipi)
 - kul
 - prativyakti
2012 anuman
$4,824 arab[4] 
$3,944[4] 
sakal ghareloo utpad (sanketik)
 - kul
 - prativyakti
2012 anuman
$1,779 arab[4] 
$1,454[4] 
manav vikas snketank (echadiaee) 0.547 (134 vin) – madhyam
mudra bharatiy rupaya Rupee-symbol.gif (aienar (INR))
samay mandal
 - grishm ritu (delait seving taim)
aiesati (IST) (UTC+5:30)
anusaran nahin kiya jata (UTC+5:30)
intaranet tieladi .in
vahan chalate hain baen
doorabhash kod ++91
any mahatvapoorn janakari
simaon men sthit desh uttar pashchim men afaganistan aur pakistan, uttar men bhootan aur nepal; poorab men myanmar, bangladesh. shrilnka bharat se samudr ke snkirn nahar dvara alag kiya jata hai jo palk stret aur mannar ki khadi dvara nirmit hai.
samudr tat 7,516.6 kilomitar jisamen mukhy bhoomi, lakshadvip aur andaman aur nikobar dvipasamooh shamil hain.
jalavayu sardi (disambar-faravari); garmi (march-joon); dakshin pashchim manasoon ka mausam (joon-sitambar); manasoon pashch mausam (aktoobar-navambar)
bhoo-bhag mukhy bhoomi men char kshetr hain- gret maunten jon, gnga aur sindhu ka maidan, registan kshetr aur dakshini peninsula.
prakritik snsadhan koyala, lauh ayask, maiganij ayask, maika, baauksait, petroliyam, taitaniyam ayask, kromait, prakritik gais, maiganesait, choona patthar, arabal lend, dolomait, maoolin, jipsam, apadait, phosaphorait, stitail, phlorait adi.
prakritik apada manasooni badh, phlesh badh, bhookamp, sookha, zamin khisakana.
janasnkhya vriddhi dar ausat varshik ghatanki vriddhi dar varsh 2001-2011 ke dauran 1.64 pratishat hai.
ling anupat 1000:940 (2011)
dharm varsh 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar 1,028 miliyan desh ki kul janasnkhya men se 80.5 pratishat ke sath hinduon ki adhikanshata hai doosare sthan par 13.4 pratishat ki janasnkhya vale muslim isake bad eesaee, sikh, bauddh, jain aur any ate hain.
saksharata 74.04% (2011) purush- 82.14% mahilaen- 65.46%
sambhavit jivan dar 65.8 varsh (purush); 68.1 varsh (mahila)[5]
jatiy anupat sabhi panch mukhy prakar ki jatiyan- aaustreliyad, mongolaauyad, yooropaauyad, kokosin aur nigroid.
karyapalika shakha bharat ka rashtrapati desh ka pradhan hota hai, jabaki pradhanamntri sarakar ka pramukh hota hai aur mntriparishadh ki sahayata se shasan chalata hai jo mntrimndal mntralay ka gathan karate hain.
nyayapalika shakha bharat ka sarvochch nyayalay bharatiy kanoon vyavastha ka shirsh nikay hai isake bad any uchch nyayalay aur adhinasth nyayalay ate hain.
any janakari bharat ka rashtriy dhvaj ayatakar tirnga hai jisamen kesariya oopar hai, bich men safed, aur barabar bhag men niche gahara hara hai. safed patti ke kendr men gahara nila chakr hai jo saranath men ashok chakr ko darshata hai.
bahari kadiyan bharat ki adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎

bharat duniya ki sabase purani sabhh‍yataon men se ek hai, jo 4,000 se adhik varshon se chali a rahi hai aur jisane anek riti-rivazon aur paramh‍paraon ka sngam dekha hai. yah desh ki samriddh snsh‍kriti aur virasat ka parichayak hai. azadi ke bad 72 varshon men bharat ne samajik aur arthik pragati ki hai. bharat krishi men ath‍manirbhar desh hai aur audyogikaran men bhi vishv ke chune hue deshon men bhi isaki ginati ki jati hai. yah un deshon men se ek hai, jo chand par pahunch chuke hain aur paramanu shakti snpann hain. bharat ka kul kshetraphal 32,87,263 varg ki.mi. hai, jo himachh‍chhadit himalay ki bulandiyon se dakshin ke vishuvatiy varsha vanon tak vistrit hai. kshetraphal men vishh‍v ka satavan bada desh hone ke karan bharat eshiya mahadvip men alag dikhayi deta hai. isaki sarahaden himalay parvat aur samudron ne bandhi hai, jo ise ek vishishh‍t bhaugolik pahachan dete hain. uttar men brihath himalay ki parvat shrinkhala se ghira yah desh kark rekha se age snkara hota chala jata hai. poorv men bngal ki khadi, pashchim men arab sagar tatha dakshin men hind mahasagar isaki simaon ka nirdharan karate hain.

uth‍tari golardh men sthit bharat ki mukhh‍yabhoomi 8 digri 4 minat aur 37 digri 6 minat uth‍tari akshansh aur 68 digri 7 minat tatha 97 digri 25 minat poorvi deshanh‍tar ke bich sthit hai . uth‍tar se dakshin tak isaki adhikatam lnbaee 3,214 ki.mi. aur poorv se pashchim tak adhikatam chaudaee 2,933 ki.mi. hai. isaki zamini simaon ki lnbaee lagabhag 15,200 ki.mi. aur tatarekha ki kul lamh‍baee 7,516.6 ki.mi hai. yah uth‍tar men himalay parvat, poorv men bngal ki khadi, pashchim men arab sagar tatha dakshin men hind mahasagar se ghira hua hai.

ashok ke samrajy ki sima ka manachitr

bharat eshiya mahadvip ke dakshini bhag men sthit tin prayadvipon men madhyavarti aur sabase bada prayadvip hai. yah tribhujakar hai. himalay parvat shrinkhala ko is tribhuj ka adhar aur kanyakumari ko usaka shirshabindu kaha ja sakata hai. isake uttar men himalay tatha dakshin men hind mahasagar sthit hai. oonche-oonche parvaton ne ise uttar-pashchim men afaganistan aur pakistan tatha uttar-poorv men myanmar se alag kar diya hai. yah svatntr bhaugolik ikaee hai. prakritik drishti se ise tin kshetron men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai—himalay kshetr, uttar ka maidan jisase hokar sindhu, gnga aur brahmaputr nadiyan bahati hain, dakshin ka pathar, jise vindhy parvatamala uttar ke maidan se alag karati hai. bharat ki vishal janasnkhya sat sau pachas se adhik [6] boliyan bolati hai aur snsar ke sabhi mukhy dharmon ko manane vale yahan milate hain. angrezi men bharat ka nam 'indiya' sindhu ke farasi roopantaran ke adhar par yoonaniyon ke dvara prachalit 'hndas' nam se pada. sindhu ka farasi men hind, hand ya hindoo hua. hind ka yoonaniyon ne indas kiya jo bad men 'indiya' ho gaya. sindhu nadi ko angezi men aj bhi 'indas' hi kahate hain. mool roop se is desh ka nam pragaitihasik kal ke raja bharat[7] ke adhar par bharatavarsh hai kintu adhikarik nam 'bharat' hi hai. ab isaka kshetraphal snkuchit ho gaya hai aur is prayadvip ke do chhote-chhote kshetron pakistan tatha bangladesh ko isase prithakh karake shesh bhoo-bhag ko bharat kahate hain. 'hindusthan' nam sahi taur se keval gnga ke uttari maidan ke lie prayukt kiya ja sakata hai jahan hindi boli jati hai. ise bharat athava indiya ka paryay nahin mana ja sakata.

sindhu ghati

prachin bharatiy sahity ki ek mahattvapoorn visheshata yah hai ki usamen pratibimbit janajivan men bhaugolik chetana ka poorn roop se sannivesh hai. isaka ekamatr karan yahi ho sakata hai ki hamare poorvapurush apane vishal desh ke pratyek bhag se bhali prakar parichit the tatha unako bharat ke bahar ke snsar ka bhi vistrit gyan tha. valmiki ramayan, mahabharat, puranadi grnthon tatha kalidas adi mahakaviyon ki rachanaon men prapt bhaugolik samagri ki vipulata is bat ki sakshi hai. vastav men prachin bharatiy sabhyata aur snskriti ekata ke jin sudridh sootron men nibaddh thi. unamen se ek sootr bharatiyon ki vyapak bhaugolik bhavana bhi thi jisake dvara sare bharat ke vibhinn sthan - parvat, van, nadi-nad, sarovar, nagar aur gram unake sanskritik evn dharmik jivan ka abhinn ang hi ban ge the. valmiki, vyas aur kalidas ke lie himalay se kanyakumari aur sindhu se kamaroop tak bharat ka koee kona aparichit ya ajanabi nahin tha. pratyek bhoo-bhag ke nivasi, unaka rahan - sahan vahan ke jiv -jntu ya vanaspatiyan aur vishisht drishyavali - ye sabhi tathy in mahakaviyon aur manishiyon ke lie apane hi aur apane ghar ke saman hi priy evn parichit hain. valmiki ramayan ke kishkindhakand, mahabharat ke vanaparv aur kalidas ke meghadoot aur raghuvnsh ke chaturth evn trayodash sargon ke adhyayan se uparyukt dharana ki pushti hoti hai. itane prachin kal men jab bharat men yatayat ki suvidhaen apekshakrit bahut kam thin. bharatiyon ki svadesh vishayak bhaugolik ekata ki bhavana ko jagae rakhane men in rashtriy evn lokapriy kaviganon ne jo mahattvapoorn yog diya tha usaka mooly ankana bhi hamare lie aj sambhav nahin hai.

bharat ki adharabhoot ekata usaki vishisht snskriti tatha sabhyata par adharit hai. yah is bat se prakat hai ki hindoo dharm sare desh men phaila hua hai. snskrit ko sab devabhasha svikar karate hain. jin sat nadiyon ko pavitr mana jata hai unamen sindhu pnjab men bahati hai aur kaveri dakshin men, isi prakar jin sat puriyon ko pavitr mana jata hai unamen haridvar uttar pradesh men sthit hai aur kanchi sudoor dakshin men. bharat ke sabhi rajaon ki akanksha rahi hai ki unake rajy ka vistar asetu himalay ho. parantu itane bade desh ko jo vastav men ek upamahadvip hai aur kshetraphal men pashchimi roos ko chhodakar sare yoorop ke barabar hai, ek rajanitik ikaee banaye rakhana atyant kathin tha. vastav men unnisavin shatabdi ke madhy men british shasakon ki sthapana se poorv sara desh bahut thode kal ko chhodakar, kabhi ek samrajy ke antargat nahin raha. british kal men sare desh men ek saman shasan vyavastha karake tatha angrezon ko sare desh men prashasan aur shiksha ki saman bhasha banakar poore desh ko ek rajanitik ikaee bana diya gaya. parantu yah ekata ek shatabdi ke andar hi bhng ho gayi. 1947 ee. men jab bharat svadhin hua, use vibhajit karake sindhu, uttar pashchimi simaprant, pashchimi pnjab (yah bhag ab pakistan kahalata hai), poorvi tatha uttari bngal (yah bhag ab bangladesh kahalata hai) usase alag kar diya gaya.

itihas

nrityangana mohanajodado 2500 ee.poo.

bharat men manaviy karyakalap ke jo prachinatam chihn ab tak mile hain, ve 4,00,000 ee. poo. aur 2,00,000 ee. poo. ke bich doosare aur tisare him-yugon ke sndhikal ke hain aur ve is bat ke sakshy prastut karate hain ki us samay patthar ke upakaran kam men lae jate the. isake pashchath ek lambe arase tak vikas mand gati se hota raha, jisamen antim samay men jakar tivrata aee aur usaki parinati 2300 ee. poo. ke lagabhag sindhu ghati ki alishan sabhyata (athava navinatam namakaran ke anusar hadappa snskriti) ke roop men huee. hadappa ki poorvavarti snskritiyan hain: baloochistani pahadiyon ke ganvon ki kulli snskriti aur rajasthan tatha pnjab ki nadiyon ke kinare base kuchh gram-samudayon ki snskriti.[8]

jaivik gunasootron ke pramanon ke adhar par bharat men manav ka sabase pahala praman keral se mila hai jo sattar hazar sal purana hone ki snbhavana hai. jisaka adhar afriqa ke prachin manav se jaivik gunasootron (jins) ka milana hai. [9] yah kal vah hai jab afriqa se adi manav ne vishv ke anek hisson men basana prarambh kiya jo pachas se sattar hazar sal pahale ka mana jata hai. krishi snbndhi pratham sakshy rajasthan (sambhar) men paudhe bone ka hai jo eesa se sat hazar varsh purana hai. bharat ka itihas pragaitihasik kal se arambh hota hai. 3000 ee. poorv tatha 1500 ee. poorv ke bich sindhu ghati men ek unnat sabhyata vartaman thi, jisake avashesh mohan jodado (muan-jo-dado) aur hadappa men mile hain. vishvas kiya jata hai ki bharat men aryon ka pravesh bad men hua. vedon men hamen us kal ki sabhyata ki ek jhanki milati hai.

kabhi yah manyata thi, ki bharat ke pratham raja manu svnyabhoo the. manu ka janm sidhe brahma se hua tha aur vah ardh-narishvar the. unake narimay adhe sharir se do putron aur tin putriyon ka janm hua, jinase manuon ki vnsh-parampara chali. unamen se ek ka nam prithu tha, jinaka prithvi ke pratham naresh ke roop men abhishek hua. unhin ke nam par bhoomi ka nam prithvi pada. unhonne vanon ko saf karaya, kheti karaee aur pashupalan, vanijy tatha ek susthapit jivan se sambaddh any karyon ka sootrapat kiya. lekin dasaven manu sabase adhik prasiddh hue. unhin ke shasan kal men vah mahapralay huee, jisamen sab-kuchh doob gaya tha aur keval manu jivit bache the. vishnu ne manu ko is badh ke sambandh men pahale hi chetavani de di thi, isalie manu ne apane parivar aur saptrishiyon ko bacha le jane ke lie ek nav bana li thi. vishnu ne ek badi machhali ka roop dharan kiya, jisase vah nauka bandh di gee. machhali jal-pravah men tairati huee nauka ko ek parvatashikhar tak le gee. yahan par manu, unaka parivar aur saptrishi pralay ki samapti tak rahe, aur pani kam hone par surakshit roop se prithvi par laut ae. is mahapralay se bachane vale manu aur unake parivar se manushy jati ki utpatti huee. manu ke nau putr the, jinamen se sabase bada putr ardh-narishvar tha. isalie usake do nam the-il aur ila. is putr se rajaparivar ki do mukhy shakhaon ka janm hua, il se 'sooryavnsh' aur ila se 'chandravnsh' ka.[10]

prachin bharatiyon ne koee tithi kramanusar itihas nahin surakshit rakha hai. sabase prachin sunishchit tithi jo hamen gyat hai, 326 ee. poo. hai, jab maqadooniya ke raja sikandar ne bharat par akraman kiya. is tithi se pahale ki ghatanaon ka taratamy jod kar tatha sahity men surakshit aitihasik anushrutiyon ka upayog karake bharat ka itihas satavin shatabdi ee. poo. tak pahunch jata hai. is kal men bharat qabul ki ghati se lekar godavari tak shodash janapadon men vibhajit tha.

maury (tisari shatabdi ee.poo.), shung (pratham shatabdi ee.poo.), shak (pratham shatabdi), kushan (dvitiy shatabdi), gupt (chauthi shatabdi) aur rajapoot (nauvin shatabdi) jab uttari bharat men shasan kar rahe the tab dakshin men satavahan, chaluky, chol adi ka daur chal raha tha. usake bad men muslim akraman kari aye aur bharat men shasan karane lage. jinamen gulam vnsh, khilaji, tugalaq, lodi aur mugalon ka shasan raha. solah-satrahavin shati se 1947 eesavi tak purtagali, fransisi aur angrez yahan shasan karate rahe. 15 agast, 1947 ko bharat svatntr hua.

itihas tithi kram 1947 tak
kram tithi kram vivaran
1 7000 ee.poo. rajasthan (sambhar) men bone paudhe ke pratham sakshy.
2 6000 ee.poo. meharagadh (sindh-baloochistan sima), burzahom (kashmir) men bharat ke prachinatam avas, krishi tatha pashupalan ke avashesh.
3 5000–4000 ee.poo. bagor (bhilavada) tatha adamagadh (hoshngabad) ke nikat akhetakon dvara bhed-bakari palan ke pratham avashesh.
4 4000–3000 ee.poo. khetiharon-pashupalakon ki sthaniy sabhyataen.
5 2500 ee.poo. sindhu ghati men poorv-hadappa sabhyata ke nagaron ka vikas, asthi evn prastar upakaran tatha manakon ke abhooshan ke avashesh.
6 2500–1750 ee.poo. rediya-karban tithi-nirdharan ke adhar par hadappa sabhyata ka kal-vistar.
7 2250–2000 ee.poo. hadappa sabhyata ka poorn-vikasit daur, vighatan tatha sthaniy sabhyataon ka uday.
8 1500 ee.poo. bharat men aryon ka agaman, rigved ki rachana, vaidik kal (1500-1000) prarambh, gnga ke maidan men aryottar tamr sabhyata.
9 1000 ee.poo. aryon ka (gnga maidan) vistar, uttar vaidik kal prarambh, 'brahman granthon' ki rachana, varn vyavastha ka bijaropan, lauh dhatu ka prayog prarambh.
10 950 ee.poo. mahabharat ka yuddh.
11 800 ee.poo. maharshi vyas ke dvara mahabharat mahakavy ki rachana, aryon ka dakshin-poorv (bngal) ki or vistar, ramayan ka pratham vrittant.
12 600–550 ee.poo. upanishadon ki rachana, aryon ka vidarbh tatha godavari tak dakshin-vistar. solah mahajanapadon ki sthapana, ary sabhyata men karmakandiy anushthan pratishthit.
13 563–483 ee.poo. bauddh dharm ke snsthapak gautam buddh ka jivan kal, janm-lumbini, mrityu-kushinagar.
14 599–257 ee.poo. jain dharm ke punarpratishthapak vardhaman mahavir ka kal (janm-kundagram, vaishali), mrityu-pavapuri, kushinagar.
15 544–492 ee.poo. gautam buddh ke samakalik bimbisar (haryak vnsh) ka rajyakal, magadh rajy ki shreshthata.
16 517–509 ee.poo. hakhamani vnsh (eeran) ke samrat deriyas pratham ke sath pratham videshi akraman, aryon ki parajay, yoonani nau-senapati skailaiks dvara sindhu nadi par gaveshan abhiyan.
17 492–460 ee.poo. bimbisar ke putr ajatashatru ka rajyakal.
18 412–344 ee.poo. shishunag vnsh ka shasanakal, avanti ke pradyaut vnsh ka magadh samrajy men vilay.
19 400 ee.poo. sampoorn dakshin bharat men aryon ka prabhutv, sambhavatah shrilnka tak vistar. (dakshin bharat)
20 344 ee.poo. mahapadmanand dvara magadh men nndavnsh ki sthapana.
21 326 ee.poo. nnd vnshi raja ghanannd ki sainy shakti se prabhavit hokar sikandar ke sainikon ka vapas lautane ka irada, vapasi marg men bebilon men sikandar ki mrityu.
22 322 ee.poo. chndragupt maury dvara (kautily ki madad se) nnd shasak ghanannd ko parajit kar maury vnsh ki sthapana.
23 315 ee.poo. indika ke lekhak tatha selyukas (yoonani shasak) ke doot megasthaniz ka bharat men agaman.
24 298–273 ee.poo. chandragupt maury ke putr bindusar ka rajy kal.
25 273–232 ee.poo. ashok ka shasanakal, mauryavnsh ka svarnayug, ashok dvara kaling ki vijay (262-61).
26 185 ee.poo. antim maury shasak brihadrath ki hatya kar maury senapati pushyamitr shung dvara shung vnsh ki sthapana.
27 190–171 ee.poo. yavan shasak demetriyas ka rajyakal.
28 165 ee.poo. kaling shasak kharavel dvara 'tramiradesh snghatam' (pandy, chol) rajy par vijay.
29 155–130 ee.poo. sabase prasiddh yavan shasak 'minandar' (milind) ka rajyakal.
30 145 ee.poo. chol raja elara ki shrilnka ke shasak asel par vijay tatha lagabhag 50 varshon tak shasan.
31 128 ee.poo. yoochi akraman ke bhay se shak qabilon ka bharat men pnjab se pravesh.
32 71 ee.poo. shung vnsh ke antim samrat devabhooti ki hatya, vasudev ke dvara kanv vnsh ki sthapana.
33 60 ee.poo. andhr men simuk dvara satavahan vnsh ki sthapana.
34 58 ee.poo. ujjain ke shasak vikramadity dvara vikram snvat ka prarambh.
35 50 ee.poo. dakshin bharat (dakkan) men satavahan vnsh shuroo.
36 22 ee.poo. rom ke shasak agastas ke darabar men pandy rajadoot pahuncha, chol, pandyon ka rom men vyaparik sambandh.
37 14–13 ee. shak (hind-parthiyan) shasak gondofaras ka shasan, eesaee dharm prachar hetu roman snt sent tamas ka bharat men agaman.
38 15 ee. kushanon (yoochi ka tochariyan) ka bharat men pravesh.
39 64 ee. uttar-pashchimi bharat men shak vim kadafaisis ka rajy.
40 78 ee. kushan vnsh ke mahanatam shasak kanishk ka rajyarohan, usake dvara shak snvat ka prarambh.
41 78–101 ee. kanishk ka shasanakal, chauthi bauddh sngiti ka (kashmir men) ayojan.
42 100 ee. ashvaghosh dvara 'saundaranand' tatha 'buddhacharit' evn 'kumaralat' ke dvara 'kalpamnditika' ki rachana.
43 100–200 ee. sngam yug, karikal ka shasan (trichanapalli ke nikat kaveri nadi par sinchaee bandh ka nirman). (dakshin bharat)
44 109–132 ee. mahanatam satavahan shasak gautamiputr satakarni dvara rajy vistar.
45 150 ee. baghelakhand, varanasi tatha age chalakar mathura tak ke kshetr men bharashiv nagaon ki vibhinn shakhaon ka rajy.
46 200–250 ee. satavahanon ka patan, maharashtr men abhir, uttari kanara tatha maisoor zilon men kuntal aur katu, andhr men ikshvaku tatha vidarbh men vakatakon ki satta sthapit.
47 300–888 ee. kanchi men pallavon ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
48 225 ee. vindhyashakti dvara vakatak shasan ki sthapana, agale 272 varshon tak is vnsh ka shasan.
49 250 ee. nasik men abhiron dvara traikutakar vnsh ki sthapana, agale 250 varshon tak is vnsh ka shan.
50 320–335 ee. chandragupt pratham ne gupt vnsh ko sthapit kiya.
51 325 ee. krishna nadi ke dakshin men pallav vnshi rajy ki sthapana.
52 335–376 ee. samudragupt ka shasanakal.
53 330–375 ee. sampoorn uttar bharat men samudragupt ka shasan. poorv men asam, pashchim men kabul, uttar men nepal tatha dakshin men pallavon tak, keval ujjain svatntr (shak vnsh ke adhin).
54 350 ee. mayoorasharman dvara kadamb vnsh ki sthapana jo agale 200 varshon tak vidyaman raha.
55 375–413 ee. chandragupt dvitiy vikramadity dvara ujjain, malava tatha gujarat par vijay, rajadhani pataliputr se ayodhya aur tatpashchat kaushambi sthanantarit, chini yatri fahyan ka bharat agaman.
56 415–454 ee. kumaragupt pratham ka shasanakal, nalanda men bauddh vihar tatha vishvavidyalay ki sthapana, hunon ke akraman ka khatara.
57 455–467 ee. skandagupt ka shasanakal, hoonon ka bharat par pratham akraman tatha unaki parajay.
58 477–496 ee. buddhagupt guptavnsh ka antim samrat, guptavnsh ka vighatan prarambh.
59 490–766 ee. saurashtr ke ballabhi kshetr men maitrak (sambhavatah videshi mool) akramakon ka shasan. (pashchim bharat)
60 500–502 ee. hoonon ke pratham shasak toraman dvara bharat men rajy sthapana tatha madhyavarti bhag (malava men eran) tak usaka vistar.
61 500–757 ee. pashchim tatha madhy dakkan men vatapi ka pratham chaluky vnsh. (dakshin bharat)
62 502–528 ee. toraman ka uttaradhikari mihirakul bharat men gupt shasak bhanugupt dvara parajit, eran par guptavnsh ka punah adhikar, (510).
63 533 ee. mndasaur ke yashodharman ki mihirakul par vijay.
64 540 ee. paravarti gupt tatha gupt vnsh ki mukhy shakha ka ant.
65 550–861 ee. madhy rajapootana men madhy eshiya men aye hue gurjar khanabadosh dalon ka shasan sthapit. (pashchim bharat)
66 600–1200 ee. maukhari vnsh ke shasak yashovarman ki mrityu (752), uttar, madhy, pashchim tatha dakshin bharat men anek samnton ke dvara svatntrata ki ghoshana, anek chhote-bade rajyon ka uday, bngal men gaud, khng, varman, pal tatha sen vnsh, ujjain men gurjar-pratihar, kannauj men pratihar, udisa men bhaum, bhnj, som tatha poorvi gng vnsh, asam men bhaskar varma, gujarat men chaluky, dhara men paramar, narmada-tripuri tatha uttar pradesh men kalachuri, rajasthan men chahaman (chauhan), bundelakhand men chndel, kannauj men gahadaval, kashmir men karkot, utpal tatha lohar, afaganistan-pnjab men hindushahi vnsh.
67 606–647 ee. harsh (pushyabhuti ya kanyakubj vnsh) ka shasanakal. chini bauddh yatri hven tsang ka bharat agaman (630-44), banabhatt ne 'harshacharit' ki rachana ki.
68 630–970 ee. poorvi dakkan men vengi ke poorvi chalukyon ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
69 636–637 ee. khalifa umar ke samay men arabon ka bharat par pahala abhilikhit hamala. (dakshin bharat)
70 643 ee. chini yatri hvenasang ki chin vapasi. (dakshin bharat)
71 647 ee. tibbat se kannauj ate hue hven sang par kisi sthaniy samnt ke dvara hamala. harshavardhan ki mrityu. (dakshin bharat)
72 674 ee. vikramadity pratham, chaluky aur parameshvar varman pratham, pallav shasak bane. (dakshin bharat)
73 675–685 ee. tisare chin yatri itsing ka nalanda avas. (dakshin bharat)
74 700 ee. kannauj men yashovarman (maukhari vnsh) sinhasanaroodh, snskrit natyakar bhavabhooti tatha prakrit kavi vakpatiraj ko usake rajadarabar men snrakshan.
75 700–900 ee. dakshin bharat men alavaron (vaishnav) ka bhakti andolan, bhakti sngrah 'prabndhamh' ki rachana. (dakshin bharat)
76 712 ee. muhammad bin qasim ke netritv men bharat par pratham arab akraman, maitrak rajy ka patan. (pashchim bharat), muhammad bin qasim ka sindh par akraman, devalagadh vijay, nirun ki ladaee men hindoo raja dahir ki mrityu, qasim ki brahmanabad par vijay.
77 730 ee. kannauj men maukhari shasak yashovarman sinhasanarudh.
78 753–774 ee. khalifa mnsoor ke kal men brahmagupt ke 'brahm siddhant' tatha 'khandanakhady' ka alfajari dvara arabi men anuvad.
79 757–973 ee. manyakhet men rashtrakooton ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
80 740–1036 ee. uttar bharat men gurjar-pratiharon ka adhipaty, arabon ka pratirodh. (uttari bharat)
81 746–974 ee. chhap ya chhapautakatt, gurjar qabile dvara 746 ke asapas anhilapur (anandapur) ki sthapana, jo 15vin shati tak pashchim bharat ka pramukh nagar raha. (pashchim bharat)
82 786–808 ee. eerani shasak khalifa haroon-al-rashid ka shasanakal, baramask (ek mantri) dvara bharat ke anek vaidyon, jyotishiyon, rasayanashastriyon, vicharakon ko bagadad bulakar unase in vishayon ke anek granthon ka arabi men anuvad karavaya.
83 824–924 ee. vaishnav bhaktikal.
84 831–1310 ee. chandelon dvara bundelakhand men svatntr rajy ki sthapana, anek vishnu mandiron aur khajurahon ke mandiron ka bhi nirman. (pashchim bharat)
85 840–890 ee. sataluj se narmada nadi tak mihirabhoj ya bhoj ka shasan. (pashchim bharat)
86 950–1200 ee. indaur ke pas dhara men paramaron ka rajy, jinamen munj (974-994) tatha bhoj prasiddh raja hue, bhoj jyotish, kavyashastr, vastukala tatha snskriti ka vidvan tha. (pashchim bharat)
87 973–1189 ee. kalyani ka dvitiy chaluky vnsh. (dakshin bharat)
88 974–1240 ee. chalukyon ka anhilapur, saurashtr tatha aboo kshetr men prabhutv, chaluky shasak moolaraj ka shasan kal (974-995). (pashchim bharat)
89 985–1014 ee. chol shasak rajaraj ka shasanakal, bhoomi-sarvekshan ka prarambh (1000 ee.). (dakshin bharat)
90 986–87 ee. khurasani shasak alaptagin ke gulam subuktagin ka kabul-kndhar men hindushahi shasak jayapal par pratham akraman, jayapal parajit.
91 997–998 ee. subuktagin ki mrityu, mahamood gajanavi khurasan ki gaddi par baitha.
92 999 ee. bagadad ke khalifa dvara mahamood gajanavi ko svatutr shasak ke roop men manyata.
93 1000 ee. mahamood gajanavi ka bharat par (kabul men) pratham akraman, sthaniy janata par loot tatha jabaran dharm parivartan.
94 1002 ee. mahamood gajanavi ka tisara akraman, anandapal se yuddh tatha usaki parajay.
95 1010 ee. anandapal apamanajanak sharton par mahamood gajanavi ka samnt bana.
96 1011–1012 ee. mahamood ka thaneshvar par hamala, uttar-pashchim bharat men hindushahi vnsh ke chhote-bade sabhi rajy dhvast.
97 1013 ee. anandapal ki mrityu, putr trilochanapal uttaradhikari bana.
98 1014 ee. toshi ki ladaee men trilochanapal parast, jhelam tak ka kshetr mahamood gajanavi ke rajy men sammilit.
99 1014–1044 ee. chol raja rajendr ka shasanakal, shrilnka ki vijay (1018), bngal par akraman (1021). (dakshin bharat)
100 1017 ee. shnkarachary ke 'mayavad' ka khndan kar vishishtadvaitavad mat ki sthapana karane vale vaishnav achary ramanuj ka janm.
101 1018–1019 ee. mahamood gajanavi ka gnga nadi-yamuna doab kshetr par qabza.
102 1025–1026 ee. gajanavi ke dvara somanath mandir (gujarat) ki loot.
103 1026 ee. antim hindooshahi shasak bhimapal ki mrityu, kabul-kndhar ke hindushahi vnsh ka ant.
104 1027 ee. jaton ko kuchalane ke lie mahamood gajanavi ka bharat (gujarat-sindh) par 17van v antim akraman.
105 1030 ee. mahamood gajanavi ki mrityu; masood, gajani ka sultan, 'kitab-ul-hind' ke lekhak alaberooni ka bharat agaman.
106 1043 ee. sthaniy hindoo rajaon ka lahaur par punah adhikar kar svadhin rajy sthapit karane ka prayas viphal.
107 1044–52 ee. rajendr ke uttaradhikari rajadhiraj pratham ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
108 1052–64 ee. rajendr dvitiy ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
109 1064–70 ee. vir rajendr chol ka shasanakal. (dakshin bharat)
110 1070–1120 ee. kulottung pratham ka shasanakal, andhr ka chol rajy men viley (1076). (dakshin bharat)
111 1120–1267 ee. paravarti chol shasakon ka kal. (dakshin bharat)
112 1131 ee. karnatak men lingayat sampraday ke snsthapak snt basaveshvar ya basav ka janm. (dakshin bharat)
113 1137 ee. vishishtadvaitavad mat ke vicharak snt ramanujachary ka dehant.
114 1162 ee. dvaitavadi vaishnav snt nimbark svami ka janm.
115 1163 ee. muijuddin mohammad gauri gajani ka shasan bana.
116 1167 ee. snt basaseshvar ka nidhan.
117 1191 ee. taraeen ke pratham yuddh men rajapoot shasak prithviraj tritiy ke hathon muhammad gori parajit.
118 1192 ee. taraeen ka doosara yuddh, mohammad gauri ke hathon prithviraj tritiy ki har, gauri ka gulam kutubuddin aibak bharat ka soobedar niyukt, merath evn kaul (aligadh) par adhikar.
119 1192–1193 ee. dilli par kutubuddin aibak ka adhipaty.
120 1199 ee. dvaitavadi sampraday ke achary mahadev madhvachary ka janm.
121 1200 ee. mohammad gauri ki mrityu.
122 1206 ee. kutubuddin aibak dvara 'dilli saltanat' ki sthapana; dilli saltanat par shasan karane vale pratham vnsh- 'ilbari vnsh' ki sthapana; qutubaminar ka nirman arambh.
123 1210 ee. aibak ki mrityu, aramashah uttaradhikari bana.
124 1211–1236 ee. iltutamish ka shasanakal, ranathambhaur vijay (1226).
125 1221 ee. bharat par chngez khan ka hamala.
126 1228 ee. bagadad ke khalifa se iltutamish ko 'khillat' arthath 'islami shasak ke roop men manyata'.
127 1229 ee. pratham yooropiy yatri mante kairbano (itali) ka bharat agaman.
128 1236 ee. iltutamish ke uttaradhikari rukunuddin firozashah ki mrityu, rajiya sultan gaddi par baithi.
129 1239 ee. ikhtiyaruddin altooniya ka vidroh.
130 1240 ee. rajiya sultan ki hatya.
131 1241 ee. bharat par mngolon ka pratham akraman.
132 1246 ee. sultan nasiruddin gaddi par asin, 1265 men usaki mrityu.
133 1253 ee. amir khusaro ka janm.
134 1266 ee. gayasuddin balaban gaddi par baitha.
135 1279 ee. maharashtr men snt sammelan ka ayojan.
136 1279 ee. bngal men tugaril khan ka vidroh.
137 1286 ee. balaban ki mrityu.
138 1288–1293 ee. prasiddh venish yatri marko polo ki bharat yatra.
139 1290 ee. jalaluddin khilaji dilli ka sultan, khilaji vnsh ki sthapana.
140 1294 ee. alauddin khilaji ka devagiri abhiyan.
141 1295–1316 ee. alauddin khilaji dilli ka sultan, rajy-vistar abhiyan prarambh; gujarat (1299), ranathambhaur (1301), chittaud (1303), malava (1305), malik kafoor ke netritv men dakkan abhiyan, 1320-1325-alauddin ki mrityu
142 1320–1325 ee. gayasuddin tugalaq (gazi malik) dilli ka sultan bana, tugalaq vnsh ki sthapana, kakatiy tatha pandyon ke rajy ka dilli saltanat men vilay (1321-1323).
143 1325 ee. gayasuddin ki mrityu, muhammad bin tugalaq gaddi par asin, amir khusaro ki mrityu, phainsiskan padari adorik af pordenaaun ki bharat yatra.
144 1326–1327 ee. muhammad tugalaq dvara dilli se daulatabad rajadhani ka sthanantaran.
145 1330 ee. muhammad tugalaq dvara prayog ke taur par sone ke sthan par tanbe ke sikke jari kie ge.
146 1333 ee. afriki yatri ibnabatoota ki bharat yatra.
147 1336 ee. harihar evn bukka dvara vijayanagar rajy ki sthapana.
148 1342 ibnabatoota ka chin ko prasthan.
149 1347 ee. alauddin bahaman shah pratham ke dvara bahamani rajy ki sthapana.
150 1350 ee. vidyapati ka janm, snt namadev ka nidhan.
151 1351 ee. muhammad tugalaq ki mrityu, firoz shah tugalak uttaradhikari bana.
152 1351–1388 ee. sultan firoz shah tugalak ka rajyakal, bngal abhiyan (1353-54, 1359, 1369), kangada vijay (1360-61), thatta vijay (1371-72), firoj ki mrityu.
153 1388–1414 ee. paravarti tugalaq shasakon ka shasanakal.
154 1398 ee. taimoor lng ka bharat par akraman, dilli par adhikar, bharat men arajakata.
155 1399 ee. dilli saltanat ka vighatan prarambh, soobedaron dvara svatntr rajyon ki sthapana, dilli-doab men iqabal khan, gujarat men jafar khan, sindh-multan men khizr khan, mahoba-kalapi men mahamood khan, kannauj athava bihar men khvaja jahan, dhara (indaur) men dilavar khan, saman men galib khan, bayana men shakhs khan tatha gvaliyar men bhimadev dvara svatntr rajy sthapit.
156 1411–42 ee. ahamadashah dvara ahamadabad ki sthapana evn svatntrata ki ghoshana.
157 1412 ee. antim tugalaq shasak mahamood ki mrityu, tugalaq vnsh ka patan.
158 1414 ee. dilli par khizr khan ka adhikar.
159 1420–1421 ee. itali ke yatri nikolo konti ki bharat yatra.
160 1429 ee. bahamani rajy ki rajadhani gulabarga se bidar sthanantarit.
161 1430–69 ee. mevad men rana kumbha ka rajyakal.
162 1442 ee. abdurrajjak ki vijayanagar yatra.
163 1447 ee. bahalol lodi ka dilli par adhikar, lodi vnsh ki sthapana.
164 1450 ee. gorakhanath ki sakhiyon ki rachana.
165 1455 ee. prasiddh snt kabir ka janm.
166 1469 ee. sikkh dharm ke snsthapak gurunanak dev ka nanakana (pnjab) men janm.
167 1470 ee. roosi yatri nikitin ki bharat yatra.
168 1472 ee. sherashah soori ka janm.
169 1479 ee. ballabhachary ka janm.
170 1483 ee. jahirooddin babar ka pharagana men janm.
171 1485 ee. chaitany mahaprabhu ka janm.
172 1486 ee. purtagali navik saradar bartholomyo diaj denovej ne 'kep aauf gud hop' (shubh yatra antarip) ki khoj ki, isi marg se bad men vaskodigama ne bharat ki yatra ki.
173 1489 ee. sikandar lodi gaddi par asin, bijapur svadhin.
174 1490 ee. dilli saltanat se ahamadanagar svadhin.
175 1494 ee. bngal men husainashah gaddi par asin, babar pharagana ka amir bana.
176 1498 ee. purtagali navik vaskodigama bharat men, kalikat pahuncha.
177 1502 ee. purtagal ke raja jaaun dvitiy ko pop alekjendar shashtam ka 'bul' pradan kiya gaya, jisase purtagaliyon ko bharat ke sath vyapar karane ka ekadhikar tatha bharat men rajy sthapit karane ka aupacharik adhikar mila.
178 1503 ee. pharagana babar ke adhikar se mukt.
179 1504 ee. itali ke ludoviko di barthema ki pashchim tatha dakshin bharat ki yatra, kabul par adhikar kar babar ka multan ki or prasthan.
180 1507 ee. gujarat ke shasak mahamood begada ka div (gova) men purtagaliyon ke viruddh abhiyan.
181 1508 ee. dvitiy mugal samrat humayoon ka janm.
182 1509 ee. vijayanagar men krishnadevaray sinhasanaroodh, purtagali gavarnar fransisko-d-almeda bharat aya.
183 1509–1527 ee. mevad men rana sanga ka rajyakal.
184 1510 ee. gova par purtagaliyon ka adhikar, alabukark gavarnar bana.
185 1512–1518 ee. golakunda bahamani rajy se mukt.
186 1517 ee. sikandar lodi ki mrityu ke pashchath ibrahim lodi gaddi par baitha.
187 1519 ee. babar ka bharat agaman.
188 1520 ee. babar ka bhira, siyalakot par akraman.
189 1522 ee. babar ka kndhar par adhikar.
190 1523 ee. lahaur aur sarahind par babar ka akraman, lahaur par adhikar (1524).
191 1526 ee. (21 aprail) babar tatha ibrahim lodi ke madhy panipat ka pratham yuddh, ibrahim lodi ki parajay tatha mrityu, dilli par qabze ke sath hi mugal samrajy ki sthapana.
192 1527 ee. rana sngram sinh tatha babar ke madhy khandava ka yuddh (16 march), sngram sinh parajit.
193 1528 ee. rana sngram sinh ki mrityu, babar ne sahayog ke badale sherashah ko sasaram (bihar) ki paitrik jagir vapas ki.
194 1530 ee. babar ki mrityu (29 mee), vijayanagar ke raja krishnadev ray ki mrityu (26 disambar).
195 1531 ee. gujarat ke bahadurashah ka malava tatha ujjain par adhikar.
196 1532 ee. rayasen, chnderi evn mndasaur par bahadurashah ka adhikar tatha chittaud par pahala hamala.
197 1533 ee. bahadurashah ne chittaud ka ghera uthaya, ranathambhaur tatha ajamer par adhikar, vaishnav snt chaitany ka nidhan.
198 1534 ee. humayoon ka malava ko prasthan, sherashah ne soorajagadh ki ladaee men bngal ke shasak mahamood khan ko parast kiya.
199 1535 ee. purtagaliyon ki sahayata se bahadurashah ka chittaud par adhikar, humayoon se bahadurashah parajit, humayoon ki gujarat tatha malava par vijay.
200 1536 ee. humayoon ne askari ko gujarat ka shasak niyukt kiya, gujarat men mugalon ke viruddh vidroh.
201 1537 ee. gujarat ke shasak bahadurashah ki mrityu.
202 1538 ee. sherashah ke hathon bngal ka shasak mahamoodashah parast, humayoon ka bngal par akraman, sikkh guru nanak dev ka nidhan.
203 1539 ee. chausa ke yuddh men humayoon sherashah se parajit.
204 1540 ee. sherashah dilli ki gaddi par baitha.
205 1542 ee. maravad ke raja maladev ke amntran par humayoon jodhapur pahuncha, amarakot men (15 aktoobar) akabar ka janm.
206 1544 ee. humayoon faras ke tahamasp shah ki sharan men pahuncha.
207 1545 ee. shah tahamasp ki madad se kndhar-kabul par punah humayoon ka adhikar, sherashah ki mrityu, islamashah gaddi par baitha.
208 1553 ee. soor vnshi shasak islamashah ki mrityu.
209 1555 ee. lahaur par humayoon ka adhikar.
210 1556 ee. humayoon ki mrityu (24 janavari), bairam khan ke snrakshan men akabar mugal samrat bana, panipat ke doosare yuddh (5 navambar) men akabar ke dvara adilashah ka divan hemoo parajit, purtagal se pahala pres bharat pahuncha, jise jesuit padari gova lekar ae the.
211 1557 ee. khizr khan ke sath ladaee men adilashah mara gaya, sikandar soor ko harakar manakot ke qile par akabar ka adhikar.
212 1560 ee. akabar ke dvara bairam khan ka nishkasan.
213 1561 ee. akabar ki malava par vijay.
214 1562 ee. amer ki rajakumari (raja bharamal ki putri) se akabar ka vivah, yuddh-bnndiyon ko das banane ki pratha ka unmoolan.
215 1563 ee. akabar dvara tirthayatra-kar ki samapti.
216 1564 ee. akabar dvara jaziya kar ki ugahi band, rani durgavati ko parast kar gondavana mugal rajy men sammilit, rani dvara atmahatya.
217 1564–1567 ee. ujabekon ka vidroh.
218 1565 ee. vijayanagar ke shasak ramaray aur bahamani sultanon ke bich talikot ka yuddh, vijayanagar parajit.
219 1567 ee. radhavallabh sampraday ke pravartak shri harivnsh ka devaband (saharanapur) men janm.
220 1568 ee. akabar ki chittaud par vijay.
221 1569 ranathambhaur aur kalinjar par akabar ka adhikar, yuvaraj salim (jahangir) ka janm.
222 1571 ee. akabar dvara fatehapur sikari ka nirman tatha rajadhani banane ka nirnay.
223 1572 ee. rana udayasinh ki mrityu, jalaur ke raja aur mevad senapatiyon ke dvara rana pratap ko gaddi par baithaya gaya.
224 1573 ee. kabir ka nidhan, gujarat par akabar ka adhipaty.
225 1574–76 ee. akabar ki bihar-bngal par vijay.
226 1575 ee. thukaroee (udisa) ka yuddh, akabar dvara daood khan parajit fatehapur sikari men ibadatakhana ki sthapana.
227 1576 ee. haldighati ka yuddh, akabar dvara rana pratap parajit, akabar ka bngal par adhikar, daood khan ki mrityu.
228 1578 ee. bharatiy bhasha ki pahali pustak "dutrina krista' (tamil bhasha men) mudrit v prakashit, is pustak ke lie taip juabon gunjalbej nam ke speni luhar ne kkilon (keral) men dhale the. (dakshin bharat)
229 1579–1580 ee. akabar ne 'mahajaranama' (inphailibiliti dikri) jari kiya, bngal-bihar men vidroh, akabar ke darabar men gova se pratham jesuit mishan aya (1580).
230 1580–1611 ee. golakunda men sultan kuli kutubashah dvitiy ke ashray men 'rekhta' (hindustani ke adi roop) ke kaviyon ko protsahan.
231 1611–1656 adilashah bijapur ki gaddi par asin.
232 1582 ee. akabar ke dvara din-e-ilahi ki ghoshana.
233 1583 ee. pahale panch angrez vyapari (jaaun nyoobari, richard stepar, ralf, jems stori tatha viliyam lids) akabar ke nam maharani elijabeth ka patr lekar bharat pahunche, akabar se inaki mulaqat nahin ho paee, lekin lids ko akabar ke yahan jhaveri ki naukari mil gee, phinch ath sal tak bharat-barma ki yatra karane ke bad 26 aprail, 1591 ko landan pahuncha, phinch ke vivaran se hi angrez vyapariyon ki bharat se vyapar karane ki lalasa balavati huee.
234 1585 ee. kashmir par akabar ka adhipaty.
235 1589 ee. raja todaramal ki mrityu.
236 1590–1592 ee. akabar ki sindh par vijay.
237 1591 ee. faizi ko mugal rajadoot banakar dakkan ke rajyon men bheja gaya.
238 1592 ee. udisa par akabar ka adhikar.
239 1595 ee. akabar ki kndhar vijay, baloochistan mugal samrajy men sammilit.
240 1597 ee. rana pratap ki mrityu.
241 1600 ee. ahamadanagar ka patan, landan men maharani elijabeth dvara apane bhaee jarj, arl aauf kambaralaind tatha sar jaaun haaurt ki eest indiya kampani (d gavarnar end kampani aauf landan treding in tu d eest indij) ko bharat se vyapar karane ke lie adhikar patr pradan kiya gaya.
242 1601 ee. akabar ka asiragadh par adhikar.
243 1602 ee. abul fajal ki mrityu, dach yoonivarsal yoonaited eest indiya kampani ki sthapana, 13 varshon men hi halaind ke eshiya vyapar men asadharan vriddhi.
244 1601–1603 ee. akabar ke putr salim ka vidroh.
245 1605 ee. akabar ki mrityu (16 aktoobar), jahangir gaddi par baitha (24 aktoobar).
246 1606 ee. shahajada khusaro ka vidroh, jahangir ke adeshanusar panchaven sikkh guru arjun dev ko pranadand, eeraniyon dvara kndhar ka gherav, jahangir ki mevad par chadhaee.
247 1607 ee. mugalon ke dvara kndhar mukt.
248 1608 ee. ahamad nagar par malik ambar ka punah adhikar, inglaind ke raja jems pratham ka patr lekar viliyam hakins jahangir ke darabar men bharat aya tatha tin sal tak usake darabar men raha, 1612 men vapas inglaind lautakar bharat yatra ka vivaran likha, snt tukaram ka janm.
249 1609 ee. pulikat men dach phaiktari sthapit.
250 1611 ee. masulipatatam men angrez phaiktari sthapit, jahangir ka noorajahan se vivah.
251 1611-1625 ee. golakunda men sultan muhammad kutubashah ka shasanakal.
252 1612 ee. shahajada khurram (shahajahan) ka mumataz mahal se vivah, bngal ki rajadhani rajamahal se dhaka sthanantarit.
253 1614 ee. mevad ke rana amar sinh se jahangir ki sndhi.
254 1615 ee. mevad par jahangir ka adhikar, inglaind ke shasak jems pratham ke rajadoot ke roop men sar tamas ro jahangir ke darabar men aya.
255 1620 ee. kangada par mugalon ka adhikar.
256 1622 ee. kndhar par faras ka punah adhikar, shahajahan ka vidroh, gosvami tulasidas ka janm.
257 1625-1674 ee. golakunda ki gaddi par sultan abdulla kutbashah baitha.
258 1624 ee. ahamadanagar ke malik ambar ke hathon mugal sena parajit.
259 1626 ee. mahavat khan ka vidroh.
260 1627 ee. jahangir ki mrityu (29 aktoobar), junnar (poona) ke nikat shivaneri ke qile men shivaji ka janm (20 aprail).
261 1628 ee. shahajahan mugal samrat bana (6 faravari).
262 1631 ee. mumataz mahal ki mrityu (7 joon).
263 1632 ee. bijapur par mugal akraman, purtagaliyon ke viruddh sainy abhiyan, hugali men unaki basti nasht.
264 1633 ee. ahamadanagar ke nizamashahi vnsh ka ant, ahamadanagar mugal samrajy men sammilit, daulatabad ke qile par adhikar.
265 1634 ee. angrezon ko bngal men vyapar karane ka faraman mila, mahavat khan ki mrityu.
266 1636 ee. bijapur aur golakunda se mugalon ki sndhi, aurngazeb dakkan ka soobedar niyukt.
267 1638 ee. ali mardan dvara kndhar mugalon ko samarpit.
268 1638 ee. shahajahan dvara ne rajadhani shahar shahajahannabad ka nirman prarambh.
269 1639 ee. angrezon dvara madras men sent jaaurj fort ki adharashila rakhi gee. (dakshin bharat)
270 1646 ee. balkh par mugalon ka adhikar, toran par shivaji ka adhikar.
271 1649 ee. kndhar par par punah faras ka adhikar.
272 1650 ee. marathi snt tukaram ka nidhan.
273 1656 ee. shivaji ka javali par adhipaty.
274 1657 ee. bidar ka patan aur mugalon dvara bijapur ki gherabandi, shahajahan ke asvasth hone par 'uttaradhikari ka yuddh' prarambh, bijapur ke sath dvitiy sandhi.
275 1658 ee. dharamat ke yuddh (5 mee) tatha samoogadh ke yuddh (8 joon) men dara ki aurngazeb ke hathon parajay, shahajahan agara men bandi (5 joon), aurngazeb ka rajyabhishek (31 julaee).
276 1659 ee. dara ko mrityudand, shivaji ke hathon afazal khan ki mrityu.
277 1660 ee. mir jumala bngal ka soobedar niyukt, shivaji ke dvara dakshin karnatak kshetr men charon or hamale.
278 1661 ee. murad ki hatya, purtagaliyon dvara is shart par bambee angrezon ko hastantarit ki gayi ki ve dachon ko is kshetr men vyapar se bahar khadedane men inaka sath denge.
279 1662 ee. mir jumala ka asam abhiyan.
280 1663 ee. mir jumala ki mrityu, shaista khan bngal ka soobedar niyukt.
281 1664 ee. shivaji ka soorat par akraman, sthaniy purtagali upanivesh dvara shivaji ko varshik nazarana dena svikar, fransisi eest indiya kampani ki sthapana.
282 1665 ee. raja jayasinh ke hathon shivaji ki parajay, mugalon ke sath shivaji ki purandar sandhi.
283 1666 ee. shahajahan ki mrityu, mugal darabar men shivaji bandi (mee), nazarabandi se mukt.
284 1668 ee. aurngazeb dvara hinduon ke viruddh naye adesh, eest indiya kampani ka poorn adhikar.
285 1669 ee. mathura men jat saradar gokul sinh ka vidroh, bambee par angrez kampani ka poorn adhikar.
286 1670 ee. shivaji ka soorat par doosara akraman.
287 1671 ee. chhatrasal ke netritv men bundelon ka vidroh.
288 1672 ee. aphridi tatha satanami vidroh, dam lauhem ke netritv men fransisiyon ne shrilnka men trinkomali tatha chennee ke nikat sent tom par adhikar, kuchh samay ke pashchath dachon ne fransisiyon se donon sthanon ko chhin liya.
289 1673 ee. shivaji ka soorat par tisara akraman, hindi kavi dhanannd ka janm.
290 1674 ee. fransisi kaptan fransis martin ke dvara panndicheri ki sthapana, shivaji dvara rajyabhishek (rayagadh men) tatha 'chhatrapati' ki upadhi dharan, 'svaraj' ki sthapana.
291 1675 ee. sikkh guru tegabahadur sinh ko aurngazeb dvara mrityudand.
292 1677 ee. karnatak men shivaji ki vijay.
293 1679 ee. aurngazeb dvara jaziya kar punah aropit, maravad abhiyan.
294 1680 ee. shivaji ki mrityu, shnbhaji peshava bana, alnkaravadi hindi kavi keshavadas ka janm.
295 1681 ee. asam punah svatntr, aurngazeb ka dakshin men abhiyan.
296 1685 ee. angrez eest indiya kampani ka mukhy vyapar karyalay soorat se bambee sthanantarit.
297 1686 ee. aurngazeb ka bijapur par adhikar.
298 1687 ee. golakunda mugal samrajy men sammilit, angrez kampani dvara aurngazeb ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana.
299 1689 ee. aurngazeb dvara shnbhaji ko pranadand, rajaram sattaroodh, shahoo bandi bana.
300 1699 ee. malava par marathon ka pratham akraman.
301 1700 ee. shnbhaji ke chhote bhaee rajaram ki mrityu, tarabaee ke snrakshan men shivaji tritiy (rajaram ka putr) gaddi par baitha.
302 1702 ee. inglainnd men rani ain gaddi par baithin, godolphin ke hastakshep se purani aur nayi kampaniyon ko ekikaran kar nayi eest indiya kampani ka uday.
303 1703 ee. marathon ka barar par akraman.
304 1706 ee. marathon ka gujarat par akraman, badauda dhvast.
305 1707 ee. aurngazeb ki mrityu, bahadurashah pratham (rajakumar muhammad muajjam) mugal samrat bana, shahoo mukt, tarabaee tatha shahoo samarthakon ke madhy kheda ka yuddh, maratha rajy do bhagon men vibhakt, satara men shahoo ka rajy tatha kolhapur men tarabaee (ya shivaji tritiy) ka rajy, peshava balaji vishvanath, shahoo ke sath.
306 1708 ee. shahoo ka rajyabhishek chhatrapati ke roop men, balaji vishvanath ko 'senakarte' ki upadhi, sikkhon ke antim guru govind sinh ka nidhan (naded men).
307 1712 ee. bahadurashah pratham ki mrityu, jahandarashah uttaradhikari bana.
308 1713 ee. jahandarashah ki hatya, bndhuon ki madad se farrukhasiyar sinhasanaroodh.
309 1714 ee. balaji vishvanath ki 'peshava' ke pad par padonnati, husain ali dakshin ka soobedar, husain ali ki marathon se sandhi.
310 1715 ee. sikkh neta banda bahadur ko pranadand.
311 1717 ee. eest indiya kampani ko badashah farrukhasiyar ka svatntr vyapar (dyooti-fri) faraman, kalakatta ke nikat 37 gavon ko kharidane ka adhikar bhi mila.
312 1719 ee. farrukhasiyar ki hatya, muhammadashah raushan akhtar gaddi par asin (do alpakalik shasakon rafi-ud-daula tatha rafi-ud-darajat ki mrityu ke uparant), mugal samrat dvara sanad pradan kar chauth tatha sadareshamukhi vasoolane ka adhikar tatha dakkan ke 6 soobon ko svarajy pradan kiya gaya.
313 1720 ee. bajirav pratham peshava bane, saiyyad bandhuon ka ant, marathon ka uttari abhiyan prarambh.
314 1723 ee. shivaji ke guru samarth ramadas ki mrityu, peshava ka malava par akraman.
315 1724 ee. sadat khan avadh ka soobedar niyukt, dakshin men nizam svatntr.
316 1725 ee. shujauddin bngal ka soobedar.
317 1731 ee. gaautanabarg men samrat fredarik dvara 'svidish eest indiya' ka gathan.
318 1735 ee. mugal badashah dvara peshava bajirav pratham ko malava ke shasak ke roop men svikriti.
319 1738 ee. gosvami tulasidas (ramacharitamanas k rachayita) ka nidhan.
320 1739–40 ee. dilli par nadirashah ka akraman, kohinoor hira evn takht-e-taoos nadirashah ke qabze men, khurasan men nadirashah ki usake hi senapatiyon ke dvara hatya.
321 1740 ee. sarafaraj khan ki hatya kar alivardi khan bngal ka navab bana, balaji bajirav peshava bane, arakat par marathon ka akraman.
322 1742 ee. bngal par marathon ka akraman, doople panndicheri ka gavarnar niyukt.
323 1744 ee. yoorop men phrans tatha inglaind ke bich yuddh arambh, donon ke vibhinn upaniveshon men tanav tatha sngharsh.
324 1746–48 ee. pratham karnatak (angl-fransisi) yuddh.
325 1745 ee. roohelakhand ruhillon ke adhikar men.
326 1746 ee. la bordane ke netritv men fransisiyon ka chennee par adhikar.
327 1747 ee. ahamadashah abdali ka bharat par akraman.
328 1748 ee. haidarabad ke nizam asafajah ki mrityu, putr nasir jng tatha mujaffar jng men satta ke lie sngharsh, sngharsh ke karan nizam ka prabhav kshin tatha gaddi ke lie karnatak ke navab chnda sahab tatha navab anavaruddin ke bich sngharsh.
329 1748–51 ee. ahamadashah abdali ka afaganistan aur pnjab par adhikar, muhammadashah ki mrityu ke pashchath ahamadashah mugal badashah bana (1748).
330 1749 ee. yoorop men british aur fransisiyon ke bich 'eks-la-shapel' ki sandhi, bharat men angrezi aur fransisi kampaniyon men bhi yuddh viram, fransisiyon dvara chennee angrezon ko vapas, shahoo ki mrityu tatha ramaraj ka chhatrapati ke roop men rajyabhishek.
331 1750–1754 ee. dvitiy karnatak yuddh, doople ki sahayata se chnda sahab ki anavaruddin par vijay, haidarabad ki nizamat mujaffar jng ko dilane ke lie chnda sahab tatha duple ka nasir jng par sammilit hamala, nasir jng ko 600 sainikon ki sahayata, karnatak ki gaddi ke lie muhammad ali ko bhi angrezi madad.
332 1751 ee. arkat ke qile par rabart klaib ka adhikar, jisase fransisi trichanapalli se hate, mujaffar jng ki mrityu, salavat jng nizam bana, alivardi khan ki marathon se sandhi.
333 1754 ee. doople frans vapas, godehoo naya fransisi dayarektar janaral, godehoo tatha angrez gavarnar sandars ke bich sandhi, donon ka bharatiy riyasaton ke antarik mamalon men hastakshep n karane ka nirnay, fransisiyon dvara angrez samarthit muhammad ali karnatak ka navab svikrit, alamagir dvitiy mugal badashah bana.
334 1756 ee. alivardi khan ki mrityu, sirajuddaula bngal ki gaddi par asin tatha kalakatta par adhikar, tisara karnatak yuddh.
335 1757 ee. plasi ke yuddh (23 joon) men angrezon dvara sirajuddaula parajit, mir zafar navab banaya gaya (28 joon), angrezon ka kalakatta par punah adhikar, sirajuddaula ko mrityudand (2 julaee), angrezon ka rajanitik prabhutv sthapit.
336 1758 ee. fransisi gavarnar lali ka bharat agaman, angrezon ke viruddh abhiyan arambh, phort sent devid par qabza, pnjab par marathon ka adhikar.
337 1759 bngal men angrezon dvara dach parajit, bidar ka yuddh, gajiuddin dvara alamagir dvitiy ki hatya, shahalam dvitiy badashah bana (1759-1806).
338 1760 ee. vandivas ke yuddh men angrezon ke hathon fransisi parajit, robart klaib inglaind vapas, mir qasim bngal ka navab bana.
339 1761 ee. ahamadashah abdali tatha marathon ke bich panipat ka tisara yuddh (14 janavari), marathe parajit, fransisiyon dvara panndicheri angrezon ko samarpit, peshava bajirav ka nidhan, madhavarav sinhasanaroodh, haidar ali maisoor ka navab, avadh ka navab shujauddaula vazir bana.
340 1762 ee. madhavarav ke sinhasanaroodh hone ke uparant raghunatharav dvara nizam se madad ki mang.
341 1763 ee. angrezon dvara panndicheri fransisiyon ko vapas, bngal evn bihar par mir qasim ka adhikar samapt, mir qasim nishkasit, mir zafar punah nabab bana, raghunatharav ka satta par qabza, madhavarav bandi.
342 1764 ee. baksar ka yuddh, shahalam, shujauddaula tatha mir qasim ki snyukt senayen angrezon se parajit.
343 1765 ee. robart klaib dvara doosari bar punah bngal ka gavarnar banakar vapas aya, shujauddaula, shahalam tatha eest indiya kampani ke madhy ilahabad ki sandhi, shahalam ne bihar, bngal tatha udisa ki divani eest indiya kampani ko saunpi, mir zafar ki mrityu.
344 1766 ee. nizam ne uttari sarakar kshetr angrezon ko diya.
345 1767 ee. robart klaib inglaind vapas, verelast bngal ka gavarnar bana.
346 1767–69 ee. pratham maisoor yuddh, angrezon ne apamanajanak sharton par haidar ali se sandhi ki, haidar ali ka chennee abhiyan.
347 1769 ee. nizam aur marathon ke sath angrezon ki chennee sandhi.
348 1770 ee. bngal men bhishan durbhiksh, peris men divaliya ho jane ke karan fransisi eest indiya kampani bhng.
349 1771 ee. marathon ka haidar ali par akraman, dilli par marathon ka qabza, shahalam ko angrezon ke bandhan se mukti.
350 1772 ee. varen hestings bngal ka gavarnarh niyukt, marathon ka ruhelakhnd par akraman, bharatiy mamalon ke lie british snsad ki do snsadiy samitiyon ka gathan, peshava madhavarav ki mrityu, narayanarav peshava bana, par hi shighr mrityu, avadh ke navab aur ruhillon ka marathon ke viruddh samajhauta, kampani dvara dvaidh shasan ke samapti ki tatha khud divan ka kary apane hathon men lene ki ghoshana.
351 1772–1833 ee. raja ramamohan ray ka jivanakal.
352 1773 ee. british snsad dvara regyuleting ekt parit, kampani par snsad ka anshik niyntran, chennee tatha bambee presidensiyon par kalakatta presidensi ka anshik niyntran, raghunatharav peshava bana, angrezon aur avadh ke navab ke bich ruhelakhand par snyukt roop se chadhaee ka samajhauta.
353 1774 ee. varen hestings bngal ka gavarnar-janaral bana, kalakatta men pahale uchchatam nyayalay ki sthapana, narayanarav peshava bana.
354 1775 ee. eest indiya kampani aur avadh ke vazir asafuddaula ke bich (ek-doosare ke viruddh karravaee n karane ki) maitri sandhi, navab ne angrezon se sainy sahayata lene ke badale 2,60,000 rupaye pratimah dena svikar kiya, nand kumar par muqadama tatha mrityudand (6 mee), raghunatharav tatha angrezon ke bich soorat ki sandhi.
355 1775–1782 ee. pratham angl maratha yuddh.
356 1776 ee. angrezon (karnal aptan) tatha marathon (raghunatharav ke virodhiyon) ke bich purandar ki sandhi.
357 1777 ee. san 1857 ke vidrohi vir kunvar sinh ka janm.
358 1778 ee. yoorop men angrez-frans yuddh, bharat men fransisi upaniveshon par angrezon ka adhikar.
359 1779 ee. marathon tatha angrezon ke bich badaganv samajhauta marathon ne 1773 men khoe hue kshetr punah prapt kie, haidar ali, haidarabad ke nizam tatha marathon angrezon ka virodh karane ko ekajut.
360 1780 ee. kaiptan popham ke netritv men eest indiya kampani ka gvaliyar par adhikar, dvitiy maisoor yuddh prarambh, haidar ali dvara karnatak dhvast, maharaja ranajit sinh ka janm, jems hikki dvara 'bngal gajat' ka prakashan.
361 1781 ee. eest indiya kampani ne banaras ke raja chetasinh ko gaddi se hataya, portonova men haidar ali parajit, regyuleting ekt men snshodhan, varen hestings dvara 'kalakatta madarasa' ki sthapana, bngal men 'bord aauf revenyoo' ki sthapana.
362 1782 ee. angrez, maratha aur haidar ali ke bich 'salabaee ki sandhi' haidar ali ki mrityu, bngal ki khadi men angrezon tatha fransisiyon ke bich nausenik yuddh, angrezon ki madad se asafuddaula dvara avadh ki begamon se dhan ugahi.
363 1782–99 ee. tipoo sultan maisoor ka shasak bana.
364 1783 ee. phaks ka indiya bil british snsad men asvikrit.
365 1784 ee. tipoo sultan ke sath 'mngalaur ki sandhi', maisoor yuddh dvitiy ki samapti, bharatiy mamalon ke lie 'bord aauf kantrol' ki sthapana hetu pit ka indiya ekt british snsad men parit, 'esiyatik sosaiti af bngal' ki sthapana.
366 1785 ee. varen hestings ka tyagapatr, pnjab men sikhon ka adhipaty, dilli par mahadaji sindhiya ka adhikar.
367 1786–1793 ee. laaurd karnavalis bngal ka gavarnar-janaral, gavarnar-janaral ko apane parishad ke nirnay ko nirast karane ki vyavastha.
368 1787 ee. tipoo sultan ne peris aur kustunatuniya men doot bheja, maratha, nizam tatha tipoo ke bich sandhi, maratha labhanvit, viliyam vilabarafors dvara 'dasata-virodhi lig' ki sthapana.
369 1788 ee. gulam qadir ruhilla ka dilli par qabza, gulam qadir khan dvara shahalam dvitiy ko netrahin banaya gaya, bedar bakht dilli ki gaddi par asin.
370 1788–1795 ee. varen hestings par mahabhiyog.
371 1789–90 ee. tipoo sultan ka shravanakor par adhikar.
372 1789–1802 ee. marathon ka dilli par adhikar.
373 1790–92 ee. tritiy maisoor yuddh (tipoo sultan aur angrez, maratha ki snyukt sena ke bich).
374 1792 ee. shrirngapattanam ki sandhi ke sath tritiy maisoor yuddh samapt, pnjab men ranajit sinh sukarachakiya-misal ke mukhiya, jonathan dnkan dvara varanasi men rajakiy snskrit mahavidyalay (bad men snskrit vishvavidyalay) ki sthapana.
375 1793–1798 ee. bngal ke gavarnar-janaral sar jaaun shor ka karyakal.
376 1793 ee. bngal men bhoo-rajasv ka sthayi bndobast, british snsad dvara bharat men yuddh niyntran vidheyak parit. panndicheri par angrezon ka adhikar, kampani ke chartar ka navinikaran.
377 1794 ee. poona men mahadaji sindhiya (shinde) ka nidhan.
378 1795 ee. kharda ke yuddh men nizam ka marathon ke samaksh samarpan, indaur ki rani ahilyabaee holkar ka nidhan, jonathan dnkan bambee ka gavarnar niyukt.
379 1796 ee. peshava madhavarav narayan ki mrityu, bajirav dvitiy peshava niyukt, angrezon dvara shrilnka ko dachon se mukt karaya gaya.
380 1797 ee. ahamad shah abdali ke pote jaman shah ka pnjab par akraman. lahaur par adhikar. avadh men navab asafuddaula ki mrityu. vazir ali naye navab (avadh), shrirngapattanam men 60 fransisiyon dvara 'jaikobin klab' ki sthapana.
381 1798–1805 ee. laaurd velejali bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
382 1798 ee. ajid ali ko hatakar sadat ali avadh ka navab bana, nizam dvara ashram-sandhi par hastakshar, tipoo sultan ke viruddh angrez, peshava aur nizam men ekata, tipoo ne fransisi upanivesh marishas ko doot bheja, nepoliyan bonapart ka misr abhiyan.
383 1799 ee. nepoliyan bonapart ke kahira se likhe patr men tipoo sultan ko angrezon se mukti dilane ka ashvasan. chauthe maisoor yuddh men tipoo ki mrityu. maisoor vibhajan. maisoor rajavnshaj krishnaraj gaddi par asin. jaman shah dvara ranajit sinh lahaur ka soobedar niyukt. mailkam ke netritv men angrez dootamnndal eeran pahuncha. viliyam keri dvara seramapur men baiptist mishan sthapit.
384 1800 ee. peshava aur angrezon ke bich basin ki sandhi, angrezon dvara peshava punah poona ki gaddi par adhishthapit.
385 1803 ee. dvitiy angl maratha yuddh (1803-05) men marathon ki parajay. aligadh par angrezon ka adhikar. bhonsale ke sath eest indiya kampani ki 'devaganv ki sandhi' tatha sindhiya ke sath 'surji arjunaganv ki sandhi'.
386 1804 ee. jasavntarav holkar ke sath yuddh men karnal monsan parajit. badashah shahalam dvitiy british snrakshan ke adhin.
387 1805 ee. angrezon ka bharatapur ka ghera asaphal, laaurd velejali ko inglainnd vapas bulaya gaya, laaurd karnavalis ki mrityu, holkar ke sath sandhi.
388 1805–1807 ee. sar jaaurj barlo bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
389 1806 ee. akabar dvitiy shahalam dvitiy ka uttaradhikari bana, vellor sainik vidroh.
390 1807–1813 ee. laaurd minto pratham bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
391 1807–1808 ee. nepoliyan ki bharat par snyukt fransisi-roosi abhiyan yojana.
392 1808 ee. mailkam ke netritv men faras tatha elphinstan ke netritv men kabul ke lie angrez dootamandal bheja gaya.
393 1809 ee. angrezon aur ranajit sinh ke bich 'amritasar ki sandhi' (25 aprail). satalaj poorv ki pnjabi riyasat angrezon ke snrakshan men. ranajit sinh shasak svikrit.
394 1809–1811 ee. ranajit sinh ka kangada par qabza.
395 1813–1823 ee. laaurd hestings bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
396 1813 ee. eest indiya kampani ka chartar navinikrit, shiksha par salana ek lakh rupaye kharch karane ka pravadhan.
397 1814–1816 ee. nepal ke sath yuddh. gorakha tatha kampani ke bich 'sngauli ki sandhi' (1816) men.
398 1815 ee. ramamohan ray dvara 'atmiy sabha' ki sthapana. vataraloo ka yuddh.
399 1817 ee. kalakatta men 'hindoo kaaulej' ki sthapana (devid heyar tatha ramamohan ray dvara).
400 1817–1818 ee. seramapur eesaee mishanari snstha dvara bharatiy bhasha (bangla) men 'samachar darpan' nam ka pahala saptahik prakashit. peshava bajirav dvitiy ka samarpan.
401 1819–1827 ee. elaphinstan bambee ke gavarnar.
402 1819 ee. peshava pad ki samapti. british vrittibhogi ki haisiyat se peshava bajirav dvitiy ko bithoor nivas, rajapootana ke rajaon ke sath surakshatmak sandhi. tatya tope ka janm.
403 1820 ee. munaro madras ka gavarnar bana. (dakshin bharat)
404 1821 ee. poona men snskrit kaaulej ki sthapana.
405 1822 ee. bambee men 'netiv ejukeshan sosaiti' ki sthapana. 'bambee samachar' prakashit.
406 1823–1828 ee. laaurd emaharst bngal ka gavarnar-janaral niyukt.
407 1823 ee. pres ardinens ke viruddh rajaramamohan ray ka gyapan. (isake bad karyavahak gavarnar-janaral edams ne mudranalayon ke lie laisens anivary kiya tha).
408 1824 ee. bairakapur men sainik vidroh (adhik bhatte ki mang par).
409 1824–26 ee. pratham angl-barma yuddh. yandaboo ki sandhi. arakan tatha tenasarim british samrajy men shamil.
410 1824–1883 ee. svami dayanand sarasvati ka jivanakal, ary samaj ki sthapana (1875 men).
411 1825 ee. prasiddh svatntrata senani dadabhaee nauroji ka janm (4 sitambar).
412 1826 ee. bharatapur par angrezon ka adhikar.
413 1827 ee. pahala vashpachalit yuddhapot 'intarapraij' madras pahuncha. (dakshin bharat)
414 1828–1833 ee. laaurd viliyam baintik bngal ka gavarnar-janaral.
415 1828 ee. ramamohan ray dvara 'brahm samaj ki sthapana'. aikedamik esosieshan sthapit.
416 1829 ee. laaurd viliyam baintik dvara sati pratha gairaqanooni ghoshit.
417 1829–1837 ee. baintik dvara thagon ka daman.
418 1830 ee. raja ramamohan ray dvara inglainnd bhraman. dharmasabha dvara kalakatta men sati pratha par pratibandh lagane ke virodh men sabha. eeshvarachandr gupta dvara bngal masik 'snvad prabhakar' prakashit.
419 1831 ee. maisoor ka raja padachyut. shasan british sarakar ke hath men, ropad men laaurd viliyam baintik aur ranajit sinh ki bhent.
420 1832 ee. asam ke jaintiya kshetr par angrezon ka adhipaty.
421 1833 ee. eest indiya kampani ke chartar ka navinikaran, vaidhanik shakti ka kendriyakaran. bngal ka gavarnar-janaral pahali bar bharat ke gavarnar-janaral ke nam se jane laga, bharatiy vidhi ayog ki niyukti, briten men das-pratha par pratibndh lagaya gaya.
422 1833–1835 ee. laaurd viliyam baintik bharat ka gavarnar-janaral.
423 1834 ee. kurg par angrezon ka adhipaty. laaurd maikale suprim kaunsil men pahala vidhi sadasy niyukt. sarakar dvara chay baganon ki sthapana. agara prant ki sthapana.
424 1835–1836 ee. sar charls metakaauf karyakari gavarnar-janaral.
425 1835 ee. metakaauf dvara samachar patron par se pratibandh samapt. laaurd maikale ka shiksha niti par prastav. angrezi (farasi ke sthan par) pahali bar sarakari bhasha bani. kampani ne pahali bar apane sikke jari kie (bina mugal samrat ke nam ke). kalakatta medikal kaaulej ki sthapana. kalakatta ke hindoo kaaulej men dharmasabha ke tatvadhan men pashchimi dhng ki pahali sarvajanik sabha (30 janavari) jisamen ramakamal sen ne mang ki thi ki sabhi zamidaron tatha raiyyaton ke jivan ke moolabhoot samajik arthik prashnon par vichar-vimarsh kare.
426 1836–1842 ee. laaurd akalaind gavarnar-janaral.
427 1837 ee. akabar dvitiy ka uttaradhikari bahadurashah dvitiy 'jafar' gaddi par asin, maharani viktoriya gaddi par asin.
428 1838 ee. afaganistan ke bhoo. poo. shasak shahashuja, ranajit sinh tatha angrezon ke bich 'tripakshiy sandhi'. kabul-kndhar par angrezon ka adhikar. 'kalakatta sosaiti phaaur d ekyoojishan af janaral nalej' nam ki sahityik vaicharik snstha ki sthapana, keshavachandr sen ka janm (19 navambar).
429 1839 ee. maharaja ranajit sinh ki mrityu. kalakatta tatha dilli ke bich ji. ti. rod ka kary arambh. angrezon dvara shahashuja ko kabul ka amir (bad men yoonaited indiya esosiyashan) ki sthapana (9 faravari). landan men british indiya sosaiti ki sthapana.
430 1839–1842 ee. pratham angl-afagan yuddh.
431 1840 ee. afagan kabailiyon ka vidroh, dost muhammad padachyut, mainchestar men 'nardan sentral british indiya sosaiti' ki sthapana.
432 1841 ee. kalakatta men 'desh hiteshani sabha' ki sthapana (3 aktoobar).
433 1841–1844 ee. laaurd elanabaro gavarnar-janaral.
434 1842 ee. afaganistan men angrezi sena ka snhar. kabul par punah adhipaty. dost muhammad punah amir bana. elanabaro ki shimala ghoshana. afaganistan se angrezi sainik vapas.
435 1843 ee. sindh par angrezon ka adhipaty. dasapratha par pratibandh. 'bngal british indiya sosaiti' ki sthapana.
436 1844–1848 ee. laaurd harding gavarnar-janaral.
437 1844 ee. laaurd harding dvara sarakari naukariyon men angrezi shikshit bharatiyon ko niyukti dene ka nirnay. kangres neta dinasha edulaji vacha ka janm.
438 1845–46 ee. pratham angl-sikh yuddh men sikh parajit.
439 1846 angrezon tatha sikhon ke bich lahaur ki sandhi.
440 1847 ee. rudaki men pratham injiniyaring kaaulej ki sthapana.
441 1848–1856 ee. laaurd dalahauzi gavarnar-janaral.
442 1848 ee. satara british samrajy men sammilit. god lene ki pratha par pratibandh. bambee men 'stoodents litareri end saintiphik sosaiti' ki sthapana.
443 1848–1849 ee. doosare angl sikh yuddh men sikh parajit.
444 1849 ee. pnjab, jaitapura tatha snbhalapur ka british samrajy men vilay. kalakatta men bethun dvara pahali kanya pathashala ki sthapana. dalahauzi dvara mugal rajavnsh ki samapti par vichar.
445 1850 ee. sikkim ka ek bhag angrezon ke qabze men.
446 1851 ee. kalakatta men 'british indiyan esosiyashan' ki sthapana.
447 1852 ee. dvitiy angl-barma yuddh. rngoon (vartaman yangoon) tatha pegoo par adhipaty. bhootapoorv peshava bajirav dvitiy ki mrityu tatha usaki penshan samapt. poona men 'dakkan ejukeshan sosayati' ki sthapana. nizam dvara barar angrezon ka samarpit. kampani ke chartar ka navinikaran tatha pahali bar aee si es. (bharatiy prashasanik seva) pariksha prarambh. sasti dak seva prarambh.
448 1854 ee. bngal men nil vidroh.
449 1855 ee. snthal vidroh. patasan udyog ki shuruat. kalakatta men 'anjumane islami' (ya mohammadan esosieshan) ki sthapana (mee 6).
450 1856 ee. avadh british samrajy men sammilit. bharatiy vishvavidyalay adhiniyam. bngal vidhan parishadh dvara hindoo vidhava punarvivah adhiniyam parit. yoorop men krimiya yuddh samapt. bharatiy sainikon ko inaphild rayaphal aur charbiyukt karatoos prayog ke lie diye gaye. kalakatta men injiniyaring kaaulej ki sthapana.
451 1856–62 ee. laaurd kaining gavarnar-janaral.
452 1857 ee. kalakatta, bambee tatha madras vishvavidyalayon ki sthapana. 1857 ka vidroh, keshavachandr sen brahm samaj men shamil, mngal pande dvara lephtinent bag ki goli marakar hatya.
453 1858 ee. bharat ka shasan eest indiya kampani se british sarakar ke hathon men. maharani viktoriya ka ghoshana patr. laaurd kaining ko vayasaray ki ek atirikt upadhi (tatpashchath gavarnar janaral ke sath vayasaray ka bhi prayog prarambh). samaj sudharak di. ke. karve ka janm (18 aprail). jagadish chandr bos ka janm (30 navambar), lakhanoo par angrezon ka punah adhikar.
454 1859 ee. god-pratha ki samapti ki ghoshana radd. bngal men nil vidroh. kastoori rnga ayngar ka janm (15 disambar). jems vilsan (suprim kaunsil ka pratham vitt sadasy) dvara ayakar lagoo. kagaz ke not jari.
455 1861 ee. bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam tatha bharatiy haeekorts adhiniyam lagoo. arkiyolajikal sarve af indiya (e. es. aee.) ka gathan. dinabndhu mitr ka natak 'nil-darpan' prakashit. ravindranath thakur ka janm.
456 1862 ee. sadar nyayalay uchch nyayalayon ke sath ekikrit. bharatiy dnd snhita lagoo.
457 1862–63 ee. laaurd elgin pratham ka vayasaray kal.
458 1863 ee. kalakatta men abdul latif ki prerana se 'mohammadan esosieshan' ki sthapana. patana kaaulej ki sthapana.
459 1863–1902 ee. svami vivekanand.
460 1864–69 ee. sar jaaun larens vayasaray.
461 1864 ee. saiyyad ahamad dvara 'mohammadan saintiphik sosayati' ki sthapana. madras men brahmasamaj ki prerana se saman uddeshyon vali snstha sthapit. bnkimachandr chatarji dvara 'durgesh nandani' upanyas ki rachana. (dakshin bharat)
462 1865 ee. yoorop ke sath door snchar vyavastha ka udaghatan. udisa men durbhiksh.
463 1866 ee. keshavachandr sen dvara 'bharatiy brahm samaj' ki sthapana. gopal krishn gokhale ka janm. 'eest indiya esosieshan' ki sthapana tatha bad men 'landan indiya sosaiti' ka isamen viley.
464 1867 ee. brahmasamaj ki prerana se bambee men prarthana samaj ki sthapana. navagopal mitr dvara kalakatta men svadeshi vastuon ke prachar ke lie varshik mele ka udaghatan. ayakar punah lagoo kie jane ka virodh. 'poona sarvajanik sabha: sthapit.
465 1868 ee. ambala se dilli tak relave lain ka udaghatan. shishir kumar ghosh dvara 'amrit bazar patrika' prakashit. bharat ka pratham sndhya samachar patr 'madras-mel' prakashit.
467 1869–72 ee. laaurd meyo ka vayasaray kal.
468 1869 ee. dyook af edinabara ki bharat yatra. svej nahar ka udaghatan. mahatma gandhi ka janm. thakkar bapa ka janm.
469 1870 ee. meyo ka prantiy bndobast. lal sagar teligraf ki shuruat. deshabandhu chitarnjanadas ka janm (5 navambar). mahadev govind ranade prarthana sabha men shamil.
470 1872 ee. kooka vidroh. laaurd meyo ki hatya (port bleyar men). anand mohan bos dvara landan men 'indiyan sosayati' ki sthapana. janaganana prarambh.
471 1872–76 ee. laaurd narthabruk vayasaray.
472 1873 ee. lahaur men svadeshi vastuon ke prachar ke lie 'svadeshi sabha' sthapit.
473 1874 ee. bihar men durbhiksh.
474 1875 ee. svami dayanand sarasvati dvara 'ary samaj' ki sthapana. prins af vels edavard ki bharat yatra. saiyyad ahamad khan dvara 'mohammadan ainglo-oriental kaaulej' (aligadh) ki sthapana. ajamer men 'meyo kaaulej' ki sthapana. amerika men thiyosaauphikal sosayati ki sthapana. kalakatta men 'indiya lig' ki sthapana.
475 1876–80 ee. laaurd litan pratham ka vayasaray kal.
476 1876 ee. kketa par angrezi sena ka adhikar. kalakatta men 'indiyan esosieshan' ki sthapana. aee.si.es. (bharatiy prashasanik seva) pariksha men shamil hone ke lie ayu sima men katauti.
477 1877 ee. laaurd litan ka dilli darabar. maharani viktoriya bharat ki samragyi ghoshit. surendranath banarji dvara dilli men 'dilli darabar' ke avasar par pahali 'netiv pres aisosieshan' ki sthapana (ve svayn isake sachiv bane). aee.si.es. ki pariksha landan ke sath-sath bharat men bhi ayojit kie jane ki mang. saiyyad amir ali ne 'neshanal mohammadan esosieshan' ki sthapana ki.
478 1878 ee. litan ka varnakyoolar pres ekt lagoo, doosara afagan yuddh arambh. kalakatta men bharatiy patrakaron ki 'netiv pres kanphrens' ka pahala sammelan. 'sadharan brahm samaj' ki sthapana.
479 1879 ee. adayar (madras) men maidam blavatsaki (roosi) tatha karnal alkaaut (amerika) dvara 'thiyosofikal sosaiti' ki sthapana. chakravarti rajagopalachari ka janm (7 disambar). litan dvara inglainnd se ayatit sooti mal par ayat kar hataya gaya.
480 1880–84 ee. durbhiksh ayog ki sthapana. afaganistan ke prati british niti men parivartan. daau. pattabhi sitaramaiyya ka janm (24 disambar).
481 1881 ee. pahala phaiktri adhiniyam. maisoor rajy usake mool shasakon ko saunpa gaya. 'trabiyoon', 'kesari' tatha 'maratha' ka prakashan.
482 1882 ee. varnakyoolar pres ekt nirast. hntar ayog, bharatiy shiksha ayog, pnjab vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. soorat men 'prajahitavardhak sabha' ka gathan, purushottam das tndan ka janm.
483 1883 ee. ilbart bil gavarnar-janaral ki vidhan parishadh men prastut. bharatiy rashtriy sammelan ka ayojan.
484 1884–88 ee. laaurd dafarin vayasaray.
485 1884 ee. keshavachandr sen ki mrityu (8 janavari). daau. rajendr prasad ka janm (3 disambar). madras men 'mahajan sabha' sthapit. (dakshin bharat)
486 1885 ee. bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana tatha pahala adhiveshan bambee ke gokuladas tejapal snskrit skool men. bngal tenensi ekt parit, bngal sthaniy svashasan. adhiniyam parit, angl-barma yuddh. bambee presidensi esosieshan ki sthapana.
487 1886 ee. uttari barma ka british samrajy men vilay. afaganistan ki uttari sima ka nirdharan. ramakrishn paramahns ki mrityu. kangres ke doosare adhiveshan men pnjab ke pratinidhi lala muralidhar ka hindi men bhashan. kangres ke mnch se hindi men yah pahala bhashan tha.
488 1887 ee. maharani viktoriya ke shasanakal ki svarn jayanti. ilahabad vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. shivanarayan agnihotri dvara 'dev samaj' ki sthapana.
489 1888 ee. karnal thiyodor baink dvara 'yoonaited indiyan paitriyaautik esosieshan' ki sthapana.
490 1888–94 ee. laaurd lainsadaun vayasaray.
491 1889 ee. prins af vels ki bharat ki doosari yatra. jamanalal bajaj, khudiram bos tatha javaharalal neharoo ka janm.
492 1891 ee. dvitiy phaiktri adhiniyam. sahavas varsh adhiniyam (ej aauf kaaunasent ekt), manipur men vidroh, daau. bhimarav ambedakar ka janm (14 aprail).
493 1892 ee. bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam, chunav ki pranali nirdharat.
494 1893 ee. eni besent ka bharat agaman, svami vivekanand shikango sammelan ke lie amerika ravana.
495 1894 ee. natal (dakshin afrika) men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ki sthapana (kangres ke lahaur (1893) adhiveshan se prabhavit hokar).
496 1894–99 ee. laaurd elgin dvitiy ka vayasaray kal.
497 1896 ee. bambee men pleg.
498 1897 ee. bharatiy shiksha seva ka gathan. subhashachandr bos ka janm. lokamany tilak ko shivaji se sambodhit desh ke bhakti ke pady likhane ke arop men 18 mah ki kadi qaid.
499 1898 ee. 'prarthana samaj' (bambee) dvara ek dalit varg mishan prarambh.
500 1899–1905 ee. laaurd karzan vayasaray.
501 1900 ee. bhoomi svamitv-parishadh adhiniyam, durbhiksh ayog, kangres ke mnch se pahali mahila shrimati kadambini ganguli ka bhashan.
502 1901 ee. maharani viktoriya ki mrityu, edavard saptam sinhasanaroodh, uttar-pashchim sima prant ka gathan.
503 1904 ee. koaparetiv sosayati adhiniyam, puratattv vibhag ki sthapana, bharatiy vishvavidyalay adhiniyam, jatindradas ka janm.
504 1905 ee. bngal vibhajan, laaurd marle bharatiy mamalon ke sachiv niyukt.
505 1905–10 ee. laaurd minto dvitiy ka vayasaray kal.
506 1906 ee. kangres (kalakatta adhiveshan) mnch se dadabhaee nauroji dvara 'svaraj' shabd ka pahali bar prayog. dhaka men 'muslim lig' ki sthapana.
507 1907 ee. soorat adhiveshan men kangres vibhajit. eni besent thiyosophikal sosayati ki adhyaksh bani. tata ispat karakhane se ispat ka utpadan prarambh.
508 1908 ee. samachar patr adhiniyam. khudiram bos ko phansi. tilak par rajadroh ka mukadama.
509 1909 ee. maaurle minto sudhar. bharatiy parishadh adhiniyam parit. vayasaray ke karyakari parishadh men pratham bharatiy (ech. pi. sinha) ki niyukti. madan lal dhingara dvara landan men karzan vaili ki hatya. dakshin afrika jate hue jahaz par gandhi ji ne 30 hazar shabdon ki 'hindi svaraj' namak pustak likhi.
510 1910–16 ee. laaurd harding dvitiy ka vayasaray kal.
511 1910 ee. edavard tritiy ki mrityu, jarj pncham sinhasanaroodh.
512 1911 ee. dvitiy dilli darabar. samrat jarj pncham ki bharat yatra. bngal vibhajan radd. rajadhani kalakatta se dilli sthanantarit karane ki ghoshana. janaganana.
513 1912 ee. rajadhani kalakatta se dilli sthanantarit. dilli prant ka gathan. laaurd harding dilli men bam visphot men ghayal. javahar lal neharoo pahali bar kangres adhiveshan (bankipur) men upasthit. inslingtan kamishan ka gathan. abulakalam azad dvara 'al-hilal' akhabar prakashit.
514 1913 ee. ravindranath taigor ko nobel puraskar. firojashah mehata dvara 'd bambee kraaunikal' ki shuruat. sain fransisko men gadar parti ka gathan.
515 1914 ee. tilak mandale jel se riha. 'phaaurest risarch instityoot' ki sthapana. panama nahar ki shuruat. eni besent dvara 'nyoo indiya' prakashit.
516 1914–18 ee. pratham vishv yuddh. briten dvara turki ke viruddh hamala.
517 1915 ee. bharatiy suraksha adhiniyam. gandhi ji dakshin afrika se laute. ahamadabad men satyagrah ashram ki sthapana. gopal krishn gokhale ka nidhan. eni besent dvara 'homarool lig' ke gathan ki ghoshana (25 sitambar).
518 1916 ee. lokamany tilak dvara 'homarool lig' ki sthapana (26 aprail). kangres-muslim lig ke bich 'lakhanoo samajhauta'. poona men pratham mahila vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. banaras hindoo vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. dadabhaee nauroji ka nidhan.
519 1916–1921 ee. laaurd chemsaphord ka vayasaray kal.
520 1917 ee. mantegyoo bharat-mntri niyukt tatha inaki bharat yatra. kangres tatha muslim lig ki bambee men pahali snyukt baithak. 'mantegyoo ghoshana'. bharat men svayattashasi snsthaon ka kramik vikas tatha uttaradayi sarakar ki sthapana. gandhi ji dvara champaran satyagrah arambh. homarool andolan ke silasile men eni besent bndi. shiksha se sambandhit saidalar ayog ki niyukti. raulat ekt kameti ka gathan.
521 1918 ee. raulat ekt riport tatha mantegyoo-chemsaphord riport prakashit. senamen afasaron ke pad par niyukti ke lie bharatiy arh ghoshit. rasabihari bos ki adhyakshata men 'bngiy janasabha' ki sthapana. surendranath banarji ki adhyakshata men bambee men al indiya maaudaret kanphrens ayojit. gandhi ji ke dvara ahamadabad kapada majadooron ki mang ke samarthan men satyagrah ke roop men pahali bar bhookh hadatal ka prayog kiya gaya. surendranath banarji neshanal libaral lig ke adhyaksh nirvachit.
522 1919 ee. mantegyoo-chemsaphord sudhar parit. raulat ekt parit. jaliyanvala bag narasnhar. khilaphat kameti ki sthapana. ravindranath thakur dvara sar ki upadhi vapas. bambee men mil majadooron ka pahala sammelan. eni besent ki adhyakshata men dilli men pahala akhil bharatiy mahila sammelan ayojit. ilahabad men 'lidar samachar patr' ke karyalay men 'uttar pradesh libareshan esosieshan' ki sthapana. tritiy afagan yuddh. bharatiy sarakar adhiniyam 1919 parit.
523 1920 ee. khilafat tatha asahayog andolan arambh. gandhi ji dvara boar yuddh men mila 'kesar-e-hind' padak sarakar ko vapas. laaurd sinha bihar-udisa ke gavarnar. kangres ka netritv gandhiji ke hath men. 'akhil bharatiy tred yooniyan kangres' ki sthapana. aligadh muslim vishvavidyalay ki sthapana. tilak ki mrityu. hantar samiti ki riport prakashit.
524 1921–1926 ee. laaurd riding ka vayasaray kal.
525 1921 ee. prins af vels edavard ki bharat yatra. 'chembar af prinses' ki sthapana. vijayavada akhil bharatiy kangres kameti sammelan men tilak svaraj kosh ke lie ek karod rupaye ekatrit karane ka nirnay (1 aprail). dilli akhil bharatiy kangres kameti men gandhi ji ka savinay avgya andolan prastap parit (4 navambar). mopala vidroh (20 navambar). gurudvara sudhar andolan, bolapur ([[pashchim bngal]) men 'vishvabharati shanti niketan vishvavidyalay' ki sthapana. hadappa men utkhanan prarambh. bharat sarakar adhiniyam 1919 lagoo.
526 1922 ee. kalakatta men savinay avgya andolan arambh (15 joon). chauri-chaura kand (5 faravari). baradoli men kangres karyasamiti dvara savinay avgya andolan sthagit karane ka nirnay (12 faravari). kangres dvara samoohik savinay avgya andolan sthagit (31 disambar). motilal neharoo tatha chitarnjan das dvara 'svaraj parti' ki sthapana. mantegyoo ka istifa.
527 1923 ee. madan mohan malaviy dvara 'indiyan parti' ki sthapana. bambee men kapada majadooron ki 'girani kamagar yooniyan' sthapit. 'hindustan ripablikan esosiesan' ki sthapana. namak-kar qanoon parit. sena ki kuchh bataliyanon ki qaman ka bharatiyakaran. praphull chandr dvara ahamadabad men gujarat vidyapith ki adharashila, kamal pasha dvara turki ko dharmanirapeksh rajy ghoshit karane se khilafat andolan svatah samapt. svarajiyon ka parishadon men pravesh.
528 1924 ee. kanapur kaaunsipiresi kes. gandhi ji pahali bar evn antim bar kangres adhyaksh (belaganv).
529 1925 ee. akhil bharatiy dalit varg esosieshan ki sthapana. antaravidyalay bord gathit. akhil bharatiy kangres kameti ki karyavahiyon ke lie hindustani bhasha ki svikriti (26 disambar). sikh gurudvara parit. chitarnjan das ka nidhan. vitthalabhaee patel vidhanasabha men pratham bharatiy adhyaksh niyukt. shanti niketan men gandhi ji tatha ravindranath thakur men samajik samasyaon par batachit (30 mee). laaurd litan dvitiy sthanapann vayasaray.
530 1926–31 ee. laaurd iravin vayasaray.
531 1926 ee. tred yooniyan ekt parit. rupaye ka avamoolyan. dilli men 'al indiya prohibeshan lig' (akhil bharatiy nashabandi lig) ki sthapana (31 janavari). akhil bharatiy kangres kameti dvara svaraj parti ke sadasyon ko kendriy vidhanasabha se tyagapatr dene ka prastav parit (6 march). gandhi ji dvara guvahati adhiveshan men svadhinata prastav ka virodh (26 disambar).
532 1927 ee. saiman kamishan ki niyukti. bharatiy nausena adhiniyam. kangres ke madras adhiveshan men svatntrata ke lakshy ki ghoshana. poona men badauda ki maharani ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy sammelan' ayojit (5 joon). ilahabad men pndit madan mohan malaviy ki adhyakshata men ayojit sarvadaliy sammelan dvara saiman kamishan ka bahishkar karane ka nirnay (11 disambar). muslim lig ka vibhajan (29 disambar).
533 1928 ee. daau. ansari ki adhyakshata men sarvadaliy bahishkar sammelan banaras men ayojit. saiman kamishan ke bharat agaman par 3 faravari ko hadatal ka ahvan (15 janavari). saiman kamishan bharat men aya (3 faravari). neharoo riport, hindustan ripablikan ki vibhinn shakhaon ko sngathit kar 'hindustan soshalist ripablik' ki sthapana (8-9 disambar) (isaka nirnay sukhadev, shivavarma, phanindranath bos, bhagat sinh, vijay kumar sinha tatha kundanalal vidyarthi dvara firozashah kotala stediyam, dilli men ek gupt baithak men liya gaya. chandrashekhar azad baithak men nahin the, parantu unhen esosieshan ke sashastr vibhag ka pradhan niyukt kiya gaya.) saiman kamishan ka virodh karate samay pulis lathicharj men lala lajapat ray ghayal (17 navambar). kalakatta men javahar lal neharoo ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy samajavadi yuva kanges' ka pahala sammelan (27 disambar). kangres adhiveshan men gandhiji ki ghoshana—"yadi ap mere sath sahayog karen aur eemanadari tatha buddhimata se kam karen to sal bhar men svaraj mil jaega" (31 disambar). kangres adhiveshan men dominiyan stets ke paksh men prastav parit tatha subhashachandr bos ka poorn svadhinata prastav asvikrit. 'indipendens lig' ki sthapana. krishi ke lie shahi ayog ki niyukti.
534 1929 ee. ilahabad men abulakalam azad ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy muslim soshalist parti' ki sthapana (isase pahale rashtravadi musalaman neta saiyyad ahamad barelavi tatha yusoof muhar ali dvara 'kanges muslim parti ki sthapana) (27-28 julaee). kendriy asembali men bhagatasinh v batukeshvar datt dvara bam phenka gaya (8 aprail). krishi shodh parishadh ka gathan. merath shadayntr ke abhiyukton par mukadama arambh. lahaur shadayntr ke abhiyukt jatin das ki 64 dinon ki bhookh hadatal ke bad mrityu. 166 din ki bhookh hadatal ke bad rngoon jel men phoonji vijaja ki mrityu. laaurd iravin ki ghoshana. bharat ka snvaidhanik pragati ka lakshy aupacharik rajy ki sthapana (31 aktoobar). lahaur men kanges ke 44ven adhiveshan men javahar lal neharoo ki adhyakshata men svarajy ka prastav parit (29 disambar). 31 disambar ki madhyaratri ke samay pndit javaharalal neharoo ne ravi tat par tirnga phaharaya.
535 1930 ee. javahar lal neharoo dvara 26 janavari ko svadhinata divas ke roop men manane ka ahvan (7 janavari). hindustan ripablikan sosayati dvara 'bam ka darshan' namak parchi prakashit (2 faravari). akhil bharatiy kangres parti dvara savinay avgya andolan (namak) ka karyakram svikrit (19 faravari). dandi yatra arambh (12 march). namak qanoon toda gaya (6 aprail). 28 march ko 'anand bhavan' desh ko samarpit tatha 11 aprail ko 'svaraj bhavan' ke roop men namakaran. subhashachandr bos kalakatta nagar nigam ke meyar nirvachit (22 agast). si. vi. raman ko bhautiki ka nobel puraskar (14 navambar). pratham golamej sammelan landan men. kangres karyasamiti gairaqanooni ghoshit (25 agast).
536 1931–1936 ee. vayasaray laaurd vilingatan ka vayasaray kal.
537 1931 ee. kangres karyasamiti par se pratibndh hata (26 janavari). lakhanoo men motilal neharoo ka nidhan (5 faravari). ilahabad men pulis muthabhed men chandrashekhar azad ki mrityu (27 faravari). gandhi-iravin samajhauta (march). lahaur men ravi tat par bhagat sinh, rajaguru tatha sukhadev ko phansi (23 march). shok svaroop gandhi ji ko karachi adhiveshan men yuva krantikariyon dvara kale phool bhent (31 march). bambee kangres haus men sarojini nayadoo dvara rashtriy jhnda divas ka udaghatan (26 aprail). kangres karyasamiti ki or se gandhiji ko golamej sammelan men kangres ka pratinidhi niyukt kiya gaya (10 joon). gandhiji dvara prastavit charakha yukt jhnda rashtriy kangres ka dhvaj bana (1 agast). snyukt prant men lagan-roko andolan (11 disambar). raauyal lebar kamishan ki riport prakashit.
538 1932 ee. sarakar dvara prastavit snvaidhanik shasan sudharon par shvetapatr prakashit. merath shadayntr kes ke 27 abhiyukton ko saza (16 janavari). gandhi ji dvara vyaktigat satyagrah arambh (26 joon). eni besent ka dehant (20 sitambar). pahali bar 'pakistan' shabd ka prayog. gandhiji dvara saptahik 'harijan' ki shuruat. raimje maikdonald dvara 16 agast ko sampradayik nirnay ki ghoshana. 24 sitambar ko gandhiji aur ambedakar ke madhy poona samajhauta sampann.
539 1934 ee. savinay avgya andolan vapas. patana men achary narendradev ki adhyakshata men 'kangres samajavadi parti' ke gathan ki ghoshana (17 mee). kangres chunav ghoshana patr prakashit (14 joon). gandhi ji kuchh samay ke lie kangres se alag (17 sitambar). bambee men sampoornanand ki adhyakshata men 'akhil bharatiy kangres soshalist parti' ka aupacharik udaghatan (21 aktoobar). uttari bharat men bhari bhookamp. bihar men bhishan tabahi.
540 1935 ee. bharat sarakar adhiniyam 1935 parit (agast). bharat-briten vyapar samajhauta. gandhi ji ke sathi tatha satyagrah andolan men jel jane vale pratham vyakti mohan lal pandya ka nidhan (18 mee). gandhiji dvara mira ben ke lie vardha ke pas seva ganv ke ashram (sevashram) ki sthapana (22 aktoobar).
541 1936–44 ee. laaurd linalithago ka vayasaray kal.
542 1936 ee. samrat jaaurj pncham ka nidhan (21 janavari). jaaurj shashtam samrat bane. akhil bharatiy kangres kameti adhiveshan men kangres karravaee ki bhasha hindi banae jane sambandhi prastav asvikrit (23 agast).
543 1937 ee. snghiy nyayalay ki sthapana. prantiy svashasan ka udaghatan (aprail). 11 men se 7 pranton men kangres mntrimandal gathit. madhy prant men daau. en. ji. khare dvara desh ka pahala mntrimandal gathit (9 joon). kendriy vidhanasabhi men chintamani deshamukh dvara prastut pati ki sampatti men vidhavaon ko uttaradhikar dilane vala vidheyak parit (5 faravari). gandhi ji ke netritv men akhil bharatiy shiksha kanfrens dvara nee shiksha niti ka niyojan.
544 1938 ee. subhashachandr bos kangres ke adhyaksh nirvachit. bi. di. savarakar hindoo mahasabha ke adhyaksh nirvachit. sharatachandr chatarji tatha mohammad iqabal ki mrityu.
545 1939 ee. tripura adhiveshan men subhashachandr bos kangres ke adhyaksh pad par dubara nirvachit tatha bad men tyagapatr (28 aprail). bos dvara 'pharavard blak' ki sthapana (3 mee). dvitiy vishvayuddh arambh (3 sitambar). vishvayuddh men bharat ko bina ijazat shamil karane ke virodhasvaroop prantiy kangres mntrimandalon ka tyagapatr. jinna dvara kangres shasan se mukti ke lie 22 disambar ko 'mukti divas' ke roop men manane ka ahvan (8 aktoobar).
546 1940 ee. maulan abulakalam azad kangres adhyaksh. muslim lig ke lahaur adhiveshan men jinna dvara musalamanon ke lie prithak desh ki mang (22 march). kangres karyasamiti dvara gandhi ji ka vyaktigat satyagrah svikrit (13 aktoobar). vinoba bhave pahale vyaktigat satyagrahi.
547 1941 ee. japan dvara yuddh ki ghoshana. jinna dvara pakistan ki parikalpana par kangres ki svikriti ki mang (17 aprail). subhashachandr bos nazarabandi se bhagakar kalakatta se jarmani pahunche.
548 1942 ee. barma men angrezon ka atmasamarpan. akhil bharatiy kangres kameti ke bambee adhiveshan men 'angrezon, bharat chhodo' prastav parit tatha deshavyapi andolan shuroo (8 agast).
549 1943 ee. muslim lig ne apane karachi adhiveshan men 'divaid end kkit' (banton aur chhodo) slogan ko parit kiya.
550 1944–47 ee. laaurd vevel ka vayasaray kal.
551 1944 ee. asam par japani akraman. lahaur men pramukh akali neta sherasinh ki ghoshana ki desh vibhajan ya pakistan ki mang ko svikriti di gee to sikh bhi alag svatntr rashtr ki mang karenge (1 sitambar). si. rajagopalachari ke sujhavon par snvaidhanik adachan ke lie gandhiji-jinna varta (9 sitambar). azad hind fauj bharat ke nikat pahunchi.
552 1945 ee. briten men lebar parti ki sarakar. dvitiy vishvayuddh ki samapti. laaurd vevel ki ghoshana. azad hind fauj ka atmasamarpan tatha un par pahali bar mukadama.
553 1946 ee. kaibinet mishan bharat men. nausena vidroh (18 faravari). muslim lig ne 16 agast ko 'sidhi karravaee' divas manaya. antarim sarakar ka gathan (2 sitambar). javahar lal neharoo pradhanamntri niyukt. muslim lig antarim sarakar men shamil (26 aktoobar). snvidhan sabha ki pahali baithak (disambar). kaibinet mishan yojana ki ghoshana (16 joon).
554 1947–48 ee. laaurd mauntabetan ka vayasaray kal (24 march se).
555 1947 ee. british snsad men pradhanamntri kliment richard hedali dvara joon, 1948 tak angrezon ke bharat chhodane ke nirnay ki ghoshana (20 faravari). maunt betan dvara joon, 1948 ke sthan par 15 agast, 1947 ko satta hastantaran karane ka nirnay (3 joon). akhil bharatiy kangres samiti dvara vibhajan prastav parit (15 joon). british snsad men bharat-pakistan vibhajan parit tatha 15 agast, 1947 ko satta hastantaran sambandhi 'bharatiy svadhinata adhiniyam' 4 julaee, 1947 ko snsad men pesh kiya gaya. bharatiy svadhinata adhiniyam ko british samprabhu (samrat) ki svikriti (18 julaee). 14 agast ko pakistan bana tatha 15 agast ko bharat svadhin. javaharalal neharoo pradhanamntri tatha laaurd mauntabetan gavarnar-janaral bane.

bhautik visheshataen

ankade ek jhalak

kshetraphal 32,87,263 varg kimi.[11]
-bhoomadhy rekha se doori [12] 876 kimi
-poorv se pashchim lnbaee 2,933 kimi
-uttar se dakshin lnbaee 3,214 kimi
-pradeshik jalasima ki chaudaee samudr tat se 12 samudri mil tak.
-ekantik arthik kshetr snlagn kshetr se age 200 samudri mil tak.

sima 7 desh aur 2 mahasagar[13]
-samudri sima[14] 7516.5 kimi
-prakritik bhag (1) uttar ka parvatiy pradesh (2) uttar ka vishal maidan (3) dakshin ka prayadvipiy pathar (4) samudr tatiy maidan tatha (5) thar marusthal
-sthaliy sima[15] 15,200 kimi

rajy 29
-snghashasit kshetr[16] 7
-zilon ki snkhya 593
-upazilon ki snkhya 5,470
-sabase bada zila laddakh (jammoo-kashmir, kshetraphal 82,665 varg kimi.).
-sabase chhota zila thaubal (manipur, kshetraphal- 507 varg kimi.).
-dvipon ki kul snkhya 247 [17]
-tatarekha se lage rajy gujarat, maharashtr, gova, karnatak, keral, tamilanadu, andhr pradesh, udisa aur pashchim bngal.
-kendrashasit pradesh (tatarekha) daman v div, dadara evn nagar haveli, lakshadvip, pandicheri tatha andaman evn nikobar dvip samooh.
-kark rekha [18] gujarat, rajasthan, madhyapradesh, chhattisagadh, jharakhnd, pashchim bngal, tripura tatha mizoram.
-pramukh nagar mumbee, nee dilli, kolakata, chennee, bengalor, haidarabad, tiruanantapuram, sikandarabad, kanapur, ahamadabad, jayapur, jodhapur, amritasar, chanh‍digadh, shrinagar, jammoo, shimala, disapur, itanagar, kochin, agara adi.
-rajadhani nee dilli.
-parvatiy paryatan almoda, nainital, lainsadaun, gadhamukteshvar, masoori, kasauli, shimala, kulloo ghati, dalahauzi, shrinagar, gulabarg, sonamarg, amaranath, pahalagam, darjiling, kalinpong, ranchi, shilang, kunjur, ootakamnd (ooti), mahabaleshvar, pnchamadhi, maunt aboo.
-pratham shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 300
-dvitiy shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 345
-tritiy shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 947
-chaturth shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 1,167
-pncham shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 740
-shashtham shreni ke nagaron ki snkhya 197
-kul nagaron ki snkhya 5,161
-sarvadhik nagaron vala rajy uttar pradesh (704 nagar)
-sabase kam nagar vala rajy meghalay (7 nagar)
-sarvadhik nagariy janasnkhya vala rajy uttar pradesh (3,45,39,582), mizoram (45.10%)
-sabase kam nagariy janasnkhya vala rajy sikkim (59,870), himachal pradesh (8.69%)
-snghashasit kshetr sarvadhik janasnkhya[19] dilli 89.93%
-sngh shasit kshetr kam janasnkhya [20] dadara tatha nagar haveli (8.47%)
-snghashasit kshetr (sabase bada)[21] andaman evn nikobar dvipasamooh (8,293 varg kimi.)
-sabase chhota sngh shasit kshetr lakshadvip (32 varg kimi.)
-shaharon ki snkhya 5,161
-ganvon ki snkhya 6,38,588
-abad ganvon ki snkhya 5,93,732
-gair-abad ganvon ki snkhya 44,856
-samudrik matsyayan ka pramukh kshetr pashchimi tat (75% tatha poorvi tat (25%) [22]
-sabase bada rajy (kshetraphal) rajasthan (3,42,239 varg kimi.)
-sabase chhota rajy gova (3,702 varg kimi.)

bhoogol
-pramukh parvat himalay, karakoram, shivalik, aravali, pashchimi ghat, poorvi ghat, vindhyachal, satapuda, annamalaee, nilagiri, palani, nallamala, maikal, ilayachi.
-pramukh nadiyan sindhu, satalaj, brahmaputr, gnga, yamuna, godavari, damodar, narmada, tapti, krishna, kaveri, mahanadi, ghaghara, gomati, ramagnga, chambal adi.
-parvat shikhar gadavin astin ya maunt ke 2 (8,611 mi.), knchanajngha (8,598 mi.), nnga parvat (8,126 mi.), nndadevi (7,717 mi.), kamet (7,756 mi.), makaloo (8,078 mi.), annapoorna (8,078 mi.), manasaloo (8,156 mi.), badrinath, kedaranath, trishool, mana, gngotri, gurushikhar, mahendragiri, anaeemudi adi.
-jhil dal, vular, naini, satatal, nagin, sanbhar, didavana, chilka, husain sagar, vembanad adi.
-jalavayu manasooni
-vanakshetr 750 lakh hekteyar [23]
-pramukh mittiyan jalodh, kali, lal, pili, laiterait, marusthaliy, parvatiy, namakin evn pit tatha daladali.
-sinchaee [24] naharen (40.0%) kuen (37.8%), talab (14.5%) tatha any (7.7%).
-krishi ke prakar tar kheti [25], ardr kheti [26], jhoom krishi [27] tatha parvatiy krishi [28].
-khadyann fasalen chaval, gehoon, jvar, bajara, ragi, jau adi.
-naqadi fasalen ganna, chay, kafi, rabad, nariyal, phal evn sabjiyan, dalen, tambakoo, kapas tatha tilahani fasalen.
-khanij snsadhan lauh ayask, koyala, mainganij, abhrak, baauksait, choonapatthar, yooreniyam, sona, chandi, hira, khanij tel adi.

janasnkhya 1,028,610,328 (2001) [29]
-purush janasnkhya 53,21,56,772
-mahila janasnkhya 49,64,53,556
-anusoochit jati [30] 16,66,35,700 (kul janasnkhya ka 16.2%)
-anusoochit janajati [31] 8,43,26,240 (kul janasnkhya ka 8.2%)
-pramukh janajatiyan gaddi, gujjar, tharoo, bhotiya, mipuri, riyana, lepcha, mina, bhil, garasiya, koli, mahadevi, konkana, snthal, munda, uranv, baiga, koya, gond adi.
-vishv men sthan (janasnkhya) doosara
-vishv janasnkhya ka pratishat 16.87%
-janasnkhya ghanatv 324 vyakti prati varg kimi
-janasnkhya vriddhi dar (dashak) 21.54% (1991-2001)
-ausat vriddhi dar [32] 1.95%
-linganupat ♀/♂ 933 : 1000
-raj bhasha hindi [33]
-prati vyakti ay 27,786 ru0 (2007-08)

arthavyavastha
-niryat ki vastuen injiniyari upakaran, masale, tambakoo, chamade ka saman, chay, lauh ayask adi.
-ayat ki vastuen rasayan, mashinari, upakaran, urvarak, khanij tel adi.
-vyapar sahayogi snyukt rajy amerika, briten, naye rashtron ke rashtrakul (si.aee.es.) ke desh, japan, itali, jarmani, poorvi yooropiy desh.
-rashtriyakrit bainkon ki snkhya 20
-telashodhanashalaon ki snkhya 13
-kul udyamon ki snkhya 4,212 karod (krishi men snlagn udyamon ke atirikt)
-udyam (gramin kshetr) 2,581 karod (krishi men snlagn udyamon ke atirikt)
-udyam (shahari kshetr) 1,631 karod (38.7%).
-krishi kary ka pratishat [34] 15%
-gair-krishi kary ka pratishat [35] 85%
-udyam (10 ya adhik kamagar) 5.83 lakh [36]
-sarvadhik udyam (panch rajy) tamilanadu-4446999 (10.56%), maharashtr- 4374764 (10.39%), pashchim bngal- 4285688 (10.17%), andhr pradesh- 4023411 (9.55%), uttar pradesh- 4015926 (9.53%).
-sarvadhik udyam (kendr shasit) dilli-753795(1.79%), chndigadh- 65906 (0.16%), pandicheri-49915 (0.12%).
-pramukh udyog lauh-ispat, jalayan nirman, motar vahan, saikil, sootivastr, ooni vastr, reshami vastr, vayuyan, urvarak, davaen evn aushadhiyan, relave injan, rel ke dibbe, joot, kagaz, chini, siment, matsyayan, chamada udyog, shisha, bhari evn halke rasayanik udyog tatha rabad udyog.
-bade bandaragahon ki snkhya 12 bade evn 139 chhote bndaragah.
-pramukh bandaragah mumbee, nhava sheva, kalakatta, haldiya, gova, kochin, kandala, chennee, nyoo mngalor, tootikorin, vishakhapatanam, majhaganv, aleppi, bhatakal, bhavanagar, kalikat, kakinada, kudaloor, dhanushakodi, paradvip, gopalapur.
-pashchimi tat pramukh bndaragah kandala, munbee, marmugaon, nyoo mngalaur, kochin aur javaharalal neharoo
-poorvi tat ke pramukh bndaragah tootikorin, chennee, vishakhapattanam, paradip aur kolakata- haldiya.
-purana bndaragah (poorvi tat) chennee
-sabase gahara bndaragah vishakhapattanam
-karyashil vyaktiyon ki snkhya 31.5 karod, mukhy shramik- 28.5 karod, simant shramik- 3,0 karod
-taje jal ki machhaliyan saau-phish, laivaphish, phaidarabaink, enkavi, eel, bata, reva, tor, chitala, katala, mingal, milkaphish, karp, parlashat adi.

parivahan
-jal parivahan kolakata (kendriy antardeshiy jal parivahan nigam ka mukhyalay)
-sadak marg ki kul lambaee 33,19,664 kimi.
-rashtriy rajamargon ki snkhya snkhyanusar 109 jabaki kul 143 (lagabhag 19 nirmanadhin).
-rashtriy rajamargon ki kul lambaee 66,590 kimi.
-sabase lamba rashtriy rajamarg rajamarg snkhya 7 (lnbaee- 2369 kimi varanasi se kanyakumari)
-rashtriy rajamarg (svarn chaturbhuj) 5,846 kimi (yojana ke antargat shamil rashtriy rajamargon ki kul lambaee)
-rashtriy rajamarg (uttar-dakshin kaauridaaur) 7,300 kimi (yojana antargat shamil rashtriy rajamargon ki kul lambaee)
-relamarg 63,465 kimi.
-relave parimandalon ki snkhya 16
-sabase bada relave parimandal uttar relave (11,023 kimi., mukhyalay- nee dilli)
-relave steshanon ki snkhya lagabhag 7,133 (31 march, 2006 tak)
-rel yatriyon ki snkhya 50,927 lakh pratidin (2002-03)
-rel injanon ki snkhya</ref> 8,025 (march, 2006).
-rel savari dibbon ki snkhya 42,570 (2001)
-rel mal dibbon ki snkhya 2,22,147 (2001)
-yatri relagadiyon ki snkhya 44,090
-any savari rel gadiyan 5,990
-antarrashtriy havaee addon ki snkhya panch [37]
-mukt akashiy havaee adda gaya (bihar)
-prastavit antarrashtriy havaee adde bngalaur, haidarabad, ahamadabad, gova, amritasar, guvahati evn kochin.

any
-jiv-jantu (anumanit) 75,000 jinamen ubhayachar- 2,500, sarisrip- 450, pakshi- 2,000 tatha stanapayi- 850
-rashtriy udyan 70
-vany prani vihar 412
-prani udyan 35
-rashtriy pratik rashtradhvaj- tirnga
-rajachinh sinhashirsh (saranath)
-rashtr gan jan gan man [38]
-rashtriy git vande mataramh [39]
-rashtriy pashu bagh (painthar taigris).
-rashtriy pakshi mayoor (pavo kristeshas).
-svatantrata divas 15 agast
-ganatantr divas 26 janavari

mukhh‍y bhoobhag men char kshetr hain, namat: mahaparvat kshetr, gnga aur sindhu nadi ke maidani kshetr aur maroosh‍thali kshetr aur dakshini prayadvip.

himalay ki tin shrrinkhalaen hain, jo lagabhag samanantar phaili huee hain. isake bich bade - bade pathar aur ghatiyan hain, inamen kashmir aur kulh‍loo jaisi kuchh ghatiyan upajaoo, vish‍trit aur prakritik saundary se bharapoor hain. snsar ki sabase oonchi chotiyon men se kuchh inh‍hin parvat shrrinkhalaon men hain. adhik oonchaee ke karan ana -jana keval kuchh hi darron se ho pata hai, jinamen mukhh‍y hain -

  • chunbi ghati se hote hue mukhh‍y bharat-tibh‍bat vh‍yapar marg par jelap la aur nathoo-la darre
  • uttar-poorv darjiling
  • kalh‍pana (kinh‍naur) ke uttar - poorv men sataluj ghati men shipaki la darra

parvatiy divar lagabhag 2,400 ki.mi. ki doori tak phaili hai, jo 240 ki.mi. se 320 ki.mi. tak chaudi hai. poorv men bharat tatha myanmar aur bharat evn bangladesh ke bich men pahadi shrrinkhalaon ki oonchaee bahut kam hai. lagabhag poorv se pashchim tak phaili huee garo, khasi, jaintiya aur naga pahadiyan uttar se dakshin tak phaili mizo tatha rakhain pahadiyon ki shrrinkhala se ja milati hain.

marush‍thali kshetr ko do bhagon men banta ja sakata hai bada marush‍thal kachh‍chh ke ran ki sima se luni nadi ke uth‍tari or age tak phaila hua hai. rajasthan sindh ki poori sima isase hokar gujarati hai. chhota marush‍thal luni se jaisalamer aur jodhapur ke bich uth‍tari bhoobhag tak phaila hua bade aur chhote marush‍thal ke bich ka kshetr bilh‍kul hi bnjar hai jisamen choone ke path‍thar ki parvat mala dvara prithak kiya hua patharila bhoobhag hai.

parvat samooh aur pahadi shrrinkhalaen jinaki oonchaee 460 se 1,220 mitar hai, prayadvipiy pathar ko gnga aur sindhu ke maidani kshetron se alag karati hain. inamen pramukh hain aravali, vindhh‍y, satapuda, maikala aur ajanh‍ta. is prayadvip ki ek or poorv ghat doosari or pashchimi ghat hai jinaki oonchaee samanh‍yat: 915 se 1,220 mitar hai, kuchh sh‍thanon men 2,440 mitar se adhik oonchaee hai. pashchimi ghaton aur arab sagar ke bich ek snkirn tatavarti patti hai jabaki poorv ghat aur bngal ki khadi ke bich ka vish‍trit tatavarti kshetr hai. pathar ka dakshini bhag nilagiri pahadiyon dvara nirmit hai jahan poorvi aur pashchimi ghat milate hain. isake age ilayachi ki pahadiyan pashchimi ghat ke vish‍taran ke rup men mani ja sakati hain.

bhoogarbhiy snrachana

bhoo‍vaigyanik kshetr vh‍yapak rup se bhautik visheshataon ka palan karate hain aur inh‍hen tin kshetron ke samooh men rakha ja sakata hai:

  • himachal parvat shrrinkhala aur unake snbaddh parvat samooh
  • bharat-gnga maidan kshetr
  • prayadvipiy ot

uth‍tar men himachalay parvat kshetr aur poorv men nagalushaee parvat, parvat nirman gatividhi ke kshetr hai. is kshetr ka adhikansh bhag jo vartaman samay men vishh‍v ka sarvadhik sundar parvat drishh‍y prash‍tut karata hai, 60 karod varsh pahale samudri kshetr men tha. 7 karod varsh pahale shuroo hue parvat-nirman gatividhiyon ki shrrinkhala men talachhaten aur adhar chattanen kafi oonchaee tak pahunch gee. aj ham jo in par ubhar dekhate hain, unako uth‍panh‍n karane men apakshay aur aparadak ne kary kiya. bharat-gnga ke maidani kshetr ek jalodh bhoobhag hain jo dakshin ke prayadvip se uth‍tar men himachal ko alag karate hain.

prayadvip sapeksh sthirata aur kabhi-kabhar bhooknpiy pareshaniyon ka kshetr hai. 380 karod varsh pahale ke prarnbhik kal ki ath‍yadhik kayantarit chattanen is kshetr men payi jati hain, baqi kshetr gondavana ke tatavarti kshetr se ghira hai, dakshin men sidhidar rachana aur chhoti talachhaten lava ke pravah se nirmit hain.

nadiyan

rigvaidikakalin nadiyan
prachin nam adhunik nam
krubhu kurram
kubha kabul
vitasta jhelam
askini chinav
purushni ravi
shatudri satalaj
vipasha vyas
sadanira gndak
drishadvati ghagghar
gomati gomal
suvastu svat
sindhu sindh
sarasvati / drishadvarti ghaghghar / rakshi / chittag
sushoma sohan
maroodvridha maroovarman

bharat ki nadiyon ko char samoohon men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai jaise :-

  • himachal se nikalane vali nadiyan
  • dakshin se nikalane vali nadiyan
  • tatavarti nadiyan
  • antardeshiy nalon se droni kshetr ki nadiyan

himalay se nikalane vali nadiyan barf aur gh‍leshiyaron ke pighalane se bani hain at: inamen poore varsh ke dauran niranh‍tar pravah bana rahata hai. maaunasoon mah ke dauran himalay kshetr men bahut adhik vrishti hoti hai aur nadiyan barish par nirbhar hain at: isake ayatan men utar chadhav hota hai. inamen se kee ash‍thayi hoti hain. tatavarti nadiyan, visheshakar pashchimi tat par, lnbaee men chhoti hoti hain aur unaka simit jalagrahan kshetr hota hai. inamen se adhikansh ash‍thayi hoti hain. pashchimi rajasthan ke antardeshiy nala droni kshetr ki kuchhh‍ nadiyan hain. inamen se adhikansh ash‍thayi prakriti ki hain. himalay se nikalane vali nadi ki mukhh‍y pranali sindhu, gnga, brahmaputr aur meghana nadi ki pranali ki tarah hai. dakh‍kan kshetr men adhikansh nadi pranaliyan samanh‍yat poorv disha men bahati hain aur bngal ki khadi men mil jati hain. bharat men kee prakar ki tatavarti nadiyan hain jo apekshakrit chhoti hain. aisi nadiyon men kafi kam nadiyan-poorvi tat ke delh‍ta ke nikat samudr men milati hai, jabaki pashchim tat par aisi 600 nadiyan hai. rajasthan men aisi kuchh nadiyan hai jo samudr men nahin milati hain. ye khare jhilon men mil jati hai aur ret men samaph‍t ho jati hain jisaki samudr men koee nikasi nahin hoti hai.

bharat ki pramukh nadiyon ki soochi

kram nadi lambaee (ki.mi.) udgam sthan sahayak nadiyan pravah kshetr (sambandhit rajy)
1 sindhu nadi 2,880 (709) manasarovar jhil ke nikat (tibbat) sataluj, vyas, jhelam, chinab, ravi, shingar, gilagit, shyok jammoo aur kashmir, leh
2 jhelam nadi 720 sheshanag jhil, jammoo-kashmir kishan, gnga, punchh, lidar, kareval, sindh jammoo-kashmir, kashmir
3 chinab nadi 1,180 baralacha darre ke nikat chandrabhaga jammoo-kashmir
4 ravi nadi 725 rohatang darra, kangada saho, suil himachal pradesh, jammoo-kashmir, pnjab
5 sataluj nadi 1440 (1050) manasarovar ke nikat rakasatal vyas, spiti, baspa himachal pradesh, pnjab
6 vyas nadi 470 rohatang darra tirthan, parvati, hurala himachal pradesh
7 gnga nadi 2,510 (2071) gngotri ke nikat gomukh se yamuna, ramagnga, gomati, bagamati, gndak, kosi, son, alakannda, bhagirathi, pindar, mndakini uttaranchal, uttar pradesh, bihar, pashchim bngal
8 yamuna nadi 1375 yamunotri gleshiyar chambal, betava, ken, tons, giri, kali, sindh, asan uttaranchal, uttar pradesh, dilli
9 ramagnga nadi 690 nainital ke nikat ek himanadi se khon uttaranchal, uttar pradesh
10 ghaghara nadi 1,080 mapsatung (nepal) himanad sharada, karanali, kuvana, rapti, chaukiya uttar pradesh, bihar
11 gndak nadi 425 nepal tibbat sima par mustag ke nikat kali, gndak, trishool, gnga bihar
12 kosi nadi 730 nepal men saptakoshiki (gonsaeedham) indravati, tamur, arun, kosi sikkim, bihar
13 chambal nadi 960 moo ke nikat janapav pahadi se kali, sindh, sipta, parvati, banas madhy pradesh
14 betava nadi 480 bhopal ke pas ubedulla gnj ke pas madhy pradesh
15 son nadi 770 amarakntak ki pahadiyon se rihand, kunahad madhy pradesh, bihar
16 damodar nadi 600 chhota nagapur pathar se dakshin poorv konar, jamuniya, barakar jharakhand, pashchim bngal
17 brahmaputr nadi 2,880 manasarovar jhil ke nikat (tibbat men sangpo) ghanasiri, kapili, suvanasiti, manas, lohit, nova, padma, dihang arunachal pradesh, asam
18 mahanadi 890 sihava ke nikat rayapur siyonath, hasadev, ung, eeb, brahmani, vaitarani madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, udisa
19 vaitarani nadi 333 kyonjhar pathar udisa
20 svarn rekha 480 chhota nagapur pathar udisa, jharakhand, pashchim bngal
21 godavari nadi 1,450 nasik ki pahadiyon se pranahita, penagnga, vardha, venagnga, indravati, mnjira, purana maharashtr, karnatak, andhr pradesh
22 krishna nadi 1,290 mahabaleshvar ke nikat koyana, yarala, varna, pnchagnga, doodhagnga, ghataprabha, malaprabha, bhima, tungaprabha, moosi maharashtr, karnatak, andhr pradesh
23 kaveri nadi 760 kerakara ke nikat brahmagiri hemavati, lokapavana, shimala, bhavani, amaravati, svarnavati karnatak, tamilanadu
24 narmada nadi 1,312 amarakntak choti tava, sher, shakkar, doodhi, barna madhy pradesh, gujarat
25 tapti nadi 724 multaee se (betool) poorana, betool, gnjal, gomee madhy pradesh, gujarat
26 sabaramati 716 jayasamnd jhil (udayapur) vakal, hathamati rajasthan, gujarat
27 looni nadi nag pahad sukadi, janaee, bandi rajasthan, gujarat, miroodi, jojari
28 banas nadi khamanaur pahadiyon se sodra, mausi, khari karnatak, tamilanadu
29 mahi nadi mehad jhil se som, jokham, anas, soran madhy pradesh, gujarat
30 hugali nadi navadvip ke nikat jalangi
31 uttari pennar 570 nndi durg pahadi paadhani, chitravati, sagileroo
32 tungabhadra nadi pashchimi ghat men gomantak choti kumudavati, vardha, hagari, hind, tunga, bhadra
33 mayoosa nadi asonora ke nikat medeee
34 sabari nadi 418 sueekaram pahadi sileru
35 indravati nadi 531 kalahandi, udisa narngi, kotari
36 kshipra nadi kakari baradi pahadi, indaur chambal nadi
37 sharada nadi 602 milam himanad, himalay, kumayoon ghaghara nadi
38 tava nadi mahadev parvat, pnchamadhi narmada nadi
39 hasado nadi saraguja men kaimoor pahadiyan mahanadi
40 kali sindh nadi 416 bagalo, zila devas, vindhyachal parvat yamuna nadi
41 sindh nadi siroj, guna zila chambal nadi
42 ken nadi vindhyachal shreni yamuna nadi
43 parvati nadi vindhyachal, madhy pradesh chambal nadi
44 ghagghar nadi kalaka, himachal pradesh
45 banagnga nadi 494 bairath pahadiyan, jayapur yamuna nadi
46 som nadi bichha menda, udayapur jokham, gomati, sarani
47 ayad ya bedach nadi 190 gomunda pahadi, udayapur banas nadi
48 dakshin pinakin 400 chenna keshav pahadi, karnatak
49 dakshini tons 265 tamasa kund, kaimoor pahadi
50 daman gnga nadi pashchim ghat
51 girana nadi pashchim ghat, nasik

bharat ka snvidhan

bharatiy snvidhan ki mang

1885 men kangres ke gathan ke bad se bharatiyon men rajanitik chetana jagrit huee aur dhire-dhire bharatiyon ke man men yah dharana banane lagi ki bharat ke log svayn apane rajanitik bhavishy ka nirnay karen. is dharana ko sarvapratham abhivyakti 1895 men us "svarajy vidheyak" men mili, jise lokamany bal gngadhar tilak ke nirdeshan men taiyar kiya gaya tha. bad men 1922 men mahatma gandhi dvara yah udagar vyakt kiya gaya ki "bharatiy snvidhan bharatiyon ki ichchhanusar hoga". mahatma gandhi ke is udagar men yah ashay nihit nahin tha ki bharat ke snvidhan ka nirman bharatiyon ke dvara kiya aye. unaka keval yah mat tha ki bharatiyon ki ichchha ko dhyan men rakhate hue british snsad bharatiy snvidhan ko parit kare. mahatma gandhi ki is mang ne bharatiy netaon ko bharatiy snvidhan ki mang ke lie utprerit kiya. 1924 men motilal neharoo dvara british sarakar se yah mang ki gayi ki bharatiy snvidhan ke nirman ke lie snvidhan sabha ka gathan kiya jae. isake bad snvidhan sabha ke vichar ka aupacharik roop se pratipadan samyavadi neta em. en. ray dvara kiya gaya, jise 1934 men javahar lal neharoo ne moort roop pradan kiya. neharoo ji ne kaha ki yadi yah svikar kiya jata hai ki bharat ke bhagy ki ekamatr nirnayak bharatiy janata hai, to bharatiy janata ko apana snvidhan nirman karane ki poorn svatntrata honi chahie.

bharat ka snvidhan 26 janavari, 1950 ko lagoo hua. isaka nirman snvidhan sabha ne kiya tha, jisaki pahali baithak 9 disambar, 1946 ko huee thi. snvidhan sabha ne 26 navambar, 1949 ko snvidhan ko angikar kar liya tha. snvidhan sabha ki pahali baithak avibhajit bharat ke lie bulaee gee thi. 4 agast, 1947 ko snvidhan sabha ki baithak punah huee aur usake adhyaksh sachchidanand sinha the. sinha ke nidhan ke bad daau. rajendr prasad snvidhan sabha ke adhyaksh bane. faravari 1948 men snvidhan ka masauda prakashit hua. 26 navambar, 1949 ko snvidhan antim roop men svikrit hua aur 26 janavari 1950 ko lagoo hua.

bharat ka snvidhan briten ki snsadiy pranali ke namoone par hai, kintu ek vishay men yah usase bhinn hai, briten men snsad sarvochch hai. bharat men snsad nahin; balki snvidhan sarvochch hai. bharat men nyayalayon ko bharat ki snsad dvara pas kie ge qanoon ki snvaidhanikata par faisala karane ka adhikar prapt hai.

bharatiy snvidhan sabha

bharatiy snvidhan sabha ki karravaee 13 disambar, san 1946 ee. ko javahar lal neharoo dvara pesh kiye ge uddeshy prastav ke sath prarambh huee.

snvidhan sabha ke pramukh sadasy
kangresi sadasy gair kangresi sadasy mahila sadasy sadasyata asvikar karane vale vyakti
pn javahar lal neharoo daau. sarvapalli radhakrishnan sarojini nayadoo jayaprakash narayan
saradar vallabh bhaee patel daau. shyamaprasad mukharji shrimati hnsa mehata tejabahadur saproo
daau. rajendr prasad en. gopalasvami ayngar
maulana abulakalam azad pn. hridayanath kunjaroo
chakravarti rajagopalachari sar alladi krishnasvami ayyar
achary je.bi. kripalani tekachnd bakhshi
pn. govind ballabh pnt pro. ke. ti. shah
rajarshi purushottam das tandan daau. bhimarav ambedakar
balagovind kher daau. jayakar
ke. em. munshi
ti. ti. krishnamachari
snvidhan sabha ki pramukh samitiyan
samiti adhyaksh
niyam samiti daau. rajendr prasad
sngh shakti samiti pn javahar lal neharoo
sngh snvidhan samiti pn javahar lal neharoo
prantiy snvidhan samiti saradar vallabh bhaee patel
snchalan samiti daau. rajendr prasad
praroop samiti daau. bhimarav ambedakar
jhanda samiti je. bi. kripalani
rajy samiti pn javahar lal neharoo
paramarsh samiti saradar vallabh bhaee patel
sarvochch nyayalay samiti es. varadachariyar
mool adhikar upasamiti je. bi. kripalani
alpasnkhyak upasamiti ech. si. mukharji

rajyon ka gathan ek jhalak

kram rajy ka nam poorn rajy ke roop men rajy ke nam ka arth, udbhav, parichay
1 tamilanadu 14 janavari, 1969 tamilabhashi pradesh
2 keral 1 navambar, 1956 1-'kera' arthat 'nariyal ke vrikshon ki bhoomi' 2-keral shabd ki utpatti 'keralam' se bhi mani jati hai jo 'cheralam' ka apabhrnsh hai. yahan cher ka ashay 'pana ya jodana' hota hai. is tarah cheralam ka ashay ho gaya- 'vah bhoomi jo samudr se prapt hokar jodi gayi ho.'
3 andhr pradesh 1-1aktoobar, 1953 ko naye 'andhr pradesh' ka gathan hua., 2-vartaman andhr pradesh(telangana+haidarabad) jisaki rajadhani haidarabad thi, 1 navambar, 1956 ko astitv men aya. andhron ka desh
4 karnatak 1956 men maisoor ke nam se rajy ka gathan hua jise bad men 1 navambar, 1973 ko karnatak ke nam se namantarit kiya gaya. kuroonadu shabd se karnatak ki utpatti mani jati hai jisaka arth hota hai- 'bhavy, uchch bhoomi'.
5 udisa 19 agast, 1949 udiya logon ki bhoomi
6 maharashtr 1 mee, 1960 maha tatha rashtr se maharashtr bana hai. isaka ashay hai- 'gauravashali ya shreshth atit vala
7 gova 30 mee, 1987
8 chhattisagadh 1 navambar, 2000 chhattis gadhon ya qilon ka pradesh
9 madhy pradesh 1 navambar, 1956 desh ka madhy bhag
10 gujarat 1 mee, 1960 gurjaron ka pradesh
11 rajasthan 1 navambar 1956 rajasthan ka shabdik ashay 'rajaon ke sthan' se hai. ullekhaniy hai itihas ke anusar rajasthan rajapoot rajaon ka pradesh tha.
12 uttar pradesh 26 janavari, 1950 1- uttar men sthit pradesh, 2- uttari kshetron ka bauddhik netritv karane vala pradesh
13 bihar san 1936 men prithak rajy bana, 1956 ke punargathan vidheyak dvara bihar ko vartaman svaroop mila. bihar ki utpatti 'vihar' se mani gayi hai. yah nam yahan par avasthit asnkhy bauddh viharon ke karan pada mana jata hai.
14 jharakhand 15 navambar 2000 jhad aur khand ke milane se bane jharakhand ka ashay aise pradesh se hai jahan jhadiyon ki bahulata ho.
15 pashchim bngal rajy punargathan adhiniyam, 1956 ke dvara yah vartaman svaroop men astitv men aya. bngal ki utpatti 'bng' shabd se mani jati hai tatha pashchim shabd kshetragat avasthiti ki or snket karate hain.
16 uttarakhnd 1- 9 navambar 2000, 2- uttaranchal ko 1 janavari 2007 se uttarakhnd kiya gaya. uttaranchal ka ashay 'uttar ka anchal' ya kshetr hai.
17 hariyana 1 navambar 1966 hariyali yukt pradesh
18 pnjab 1 navambar, 1956 'pnch'(panch) aur ab(pani) namak do farasi shabdon se pnjab bana hai. pnjab ka arth hai 'panch nadiyon ka pradesh'
19 himachal pradesh 25 janavari, 1971 him(barph) tatha achal(pahad) se himachal bana hai. isaka ashay hua 'barf se dhaka pahad vala pradesh'.
20 jammoo aur kashmir 26 aktoobar, 1947 1- kashyap rishi ka pradesh, 2- kesar bhoomi
21 asam punargathan adhiniyam, 1956 1- advitiy, 2- ubad-khabad(saman nahin) bhoomi ka pradesh
22 manipur 21 janavari, 1972 maniyon ka nagar
23 meghalay 2 apral 1970 ko svayattashasi rajy ke roop men tatha 21 janavari, 1972 ko poorn rajy ke roop gathit. megh+alay= badalon ka ghar.
24 tripura 21 janavari, 1972 tripur shasak dvara basaya gaya kshetr.
25 mizoram faravari, 1987 mizoram ka ashay hai 'pahadavasiyon ki bhoomi'.
26 arunachal pradesh 20 faravari, 1987 sooryoday ka pradesh
27 nagalaind 1961 men ise rajy ka darja diya gaya lekin 1 disambar, 1963 ko ise vidhivat poorn rajy ghoshit kiya gaya. nagaon ki bhoomi.
28 sikkim 26 apral, 1975 'limboo bhasha' ke sikkim ka arth hota hai 'naya mahal'. pradesh ke advitiy prakritik saundary ke karan ise svarg bhi kaha jata hai.

dharm

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Ashoka.jpg
har dasha men doosare sampradayon ka adar karana hi chahie. aisa karane se manushy apane sampraday ki unnati aur doosare sampradayon ka upakar karata hai. isake viparit jo karata hai vah apane sampraday ki (jad) katata hai aur doosare sampradayon ka bhi apakar karata hai. kyonki jo apane sampraday ki bhakti men akar is vichar se ki mere sampraday ka gaurav badhe, apane sampraday ki prashnsa karata hai aur doosare sampraday ki ninda karata hai, vah aisa karake vastav men apane sampraday ko hi gahari hani pahunchata hai. isalie samavay (paraspar melajol se rahana) hi achchha hai arthath log ek-doosare ke dharm ko dhyan dekar sunen aur usaki seva karen. - samrat ashok mahan[40]

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bharatiy snskriti men vibhinnata usaka bhooshan hai. yahan hindoo dharm ke aganit roopon aur snpradayon ke atirikt, bauddh, jain, sikkh, islam, eesaee, yahoodi adi dharmon ki vividhata ka bhi ek sanskritik samayojan dekhane ko milata hai. hindoo dharm ke vividh sampraday evn mat sare desh men phaile hue hain, jaise vaidik dharm, shaiv, vaishnav, shakt adi pauranik dharm, radha-ballabh snpraday, shri snpraday, ary samaj, samaj adi. parantu in sabhi matavadon men sanatan dharm ki ekarasata khandit n hokar vividh roopon men gathit hoti hai. yahan ke nivasiyon men bhasha ki vividhata bhi is desh ki moolabhoot sanskritik ekata ke lie badhak n hokar sadhak pratit hoti hai.

vibhinn dharmavalambiyon ki snkhya (bharat)
dharm snkhya (lakh) kul janasnkhya ka pratishat
hindoo 8,275 80.5
muslim 1,381 13.4
eesaee 240 2.33
sikh 192 1.84
bauddh 79.5 0.8
jain 42.5 0.4
any 66.3 1.8
kul 10,286 100.0

adhyatmikata hamari snskriti ka pranatattv hai. inamen aihik athava bhautik sukhon ki tulana men atmik athava paralaukik sukh ke prati agrah dekha ja sakata hai. chaturashram-vyavastha (arthat brahmachary, grihasth tatha snnyas ashram) tatha purusharth-chatushtam (dharm, arth, kam tatha moksh) ka vidhan manushy ki adhyatmik sadhana ke hi pratik hain. isamen jivan ka mukhy dhyey dharm arthat moolyon ka anurakshan karate hue moksh mana gaya hai. bharatiy adhyatmikata men dharmandhata ko mahattv nahin diya gaya. is snskriti ki mool visheshata yah rahi hai ki vyakti apani paristhitiyon ke anuroop moolyon ki raksha karate hue koee bhi mat, vichar athava dharm apana sakata hai yahi karan hai ki yahan samay-samay par vibhinn dharmon ko uday tatha sampradayik vilay hota raha hai. dharmik sahishnuta isamen koot-koot kar bhari huee hai. vastut: hamari snskriti men grahan-shilata ki pravritti rahi hai. isamen pratikool paristhitiyon ko apane anukool banakar apane men samahit kar lene ki adbhut shakti hai. aitihasik kal se lekar madhy kal tak bharat men vibhinn dharmon evn jatiyon ka bharat par akraman evn shasan sthapit hua. parantu bharatiy snskriti ki grahanashil prakriti ke karan samayantar men ve sab isamen samahit ho gaye.

bharatiy snskriti ki mahattvapoorn virasat isamen antarnihit sahishnuta ki bhavana mani ja sakati hai. yadyapi prachin bharat men anek dharm evn snpraday the, parantu unamen dharmandhata tatha snkuchit manovritti ka abhav tha. atit is bat ka sakshi hai ki hamare desh men dharm ke nam par atyachar aur raktapat nahin hua hai. bharatiy manishiyon ne eeshvar ko ek, sarvavyapi, sarvakalyanakari, sarvashaktiman manate hue vibhinn dharmo, maton aur snpradayon ko us param eesh tak pahunchane ka bhinn-bhinn marg pratipadit kiya hai. (ek sadvipra: bahudha badanti). gita men shrikrishn bhi arjun ko yahi upadesh dete hain ki snsar men sabhi log anek prakar se mere hi marg ka anusaran karate hain. jainiyon ka syadvad, ashok ke shilalekh adi bhi yahi bat duharate hain. isi bhavana ko rashtrapita mahatma gandhi ne rashtriy ekata jagrit karane ke lie desh ke kone-kone men gunjarit kiya tha- ‘‘eeshvar alla tere nam. sabako sammati de bhagavan.’’ bharatiy vicharakon ki sarvanginata tatha sarvabhaumikata ki bhavana ko satat bal pradan kiya hai. isamen apani sukh, shanti evn unnati ke sath hi samast vishv ke kalyan ki kamana ki gee hai. hamare prabuddh manishiyon ne sampoorn vishv ko ek parivar manakar ‘vishv bandhutv’ evn ‘vasudhaiv kutumbhakamh’ ki bhavana ko ujagar kiya hai-

sarve bhavantu sukhin: sarvesantu niramaya:.
sarve bhadrani pashyantu ma kashchith dukhabhag bhavet॥

krishi

mahattvapoorn fasalon ke tin sabase bade utpadak rajy, 2007-08
fasal/fasal samooh rajy utpadan (miliyan tan) desh ke kul utpadan ka pratishat
khadyann
chaval pashchim bngal 14.72 15.22
andhr pradesh 13.32 13.78
uttar pradesh 11.78 12.18
gehoon uttar pradesh 25.68 32.68
pnjab 15.72 20.01
hariyana 10.24 13.03
makka andhr pradesh 3.62 19.09
karnatak 3.25 17.14
rajasthan 1.96 10.34
mote anaj rajasthan 7.12 17.47
maharashtr 7.09 17.4
karnatak 6.94 17.03
dalen maharashtr 3.02 20.46
madhy pradesh 2.45 16.6
andhr pradesh 1.7 11.52
khadyann uttar pradesh 42.09 18.24
pnjab 26.82 11.62
andhr pradesh 19.3 8.36
tilahan
moongaphali gujarat 3.3 35.95
andhr pradesh 2.6 28.32
tamilanadu 1.05 11.44
repasid v sarason rajasthan 2.36 40.48
uttar pradesh 1 17.15
hariyana 0.6 10.29
soyabin madhy pradesh 5.48 49.95
maharashtr 3.98 36.28
rajasthan 1.07 9.75
soorajamukhi karnatak 0.59 40.41
andhr pradesh 0.44 30.14
maharashtr 0.2 13.7
tilahan madhy pradesh 6.35 21.34
maharashtr 4.87 16.36
gujarat 4.73 15.89
nakadi fasalen
ganna uttar pradesh 124.67 35.81
maharashtr 88.44 25.4
tamilanadu 38.07 10.93
kapas[41] gujarat 8.28 31.99
maharashtr 7.02 27.13
andhr pradesh 3.49 13.49
joot v mesta[42] pashchim bngal 8.29 73.95
bihar 1.46 13.02
asam 0.68 6.07
aloo uttar pradesh 9.99 41.77
pashchim bngal 7.46 31.21
bihar 1.23 5.16
pyaz maharashtr 2.47 28.44
gujarat 2.13 24.52
karnatak 0.87 10.02

krishi bharat ki arthavyavastha ki ridh mani jati hai. vibhinn pnchavarshiy yojanaon dvara chalae ja rahe vibhinn karyakramon evn prayason se krishi ko rashtriy arthavyavastha men garimapoorn darja mila hai. krishi kshetron men lagabhag 64% shramikon ko rojagar mila hua hai. 1950-51 men kul ghareloo utpad men krishi ka hissa 59.2% tha jo ghatakar 1982-83 men 36.4% aur 1990-91 men 34.9% tatha 2001-2002 men 25% rah gaya. yah 2006-07 ki avadhi ke dauran ausat adhar par ghatakar 18.5% rah gaya. dasavin yojana (2002-2007) ke dauran samagr sakal ghareloo utpad ki ausat varshik vriddhi pad 7.6% thi jabaki is dauran krishi tatha sambaddh kshetr ki varshik vriddhi dar 2.3% rahi. 2001-02 se prarnbh huee nav sahastrabdi ke pratham 6 varshon men 3.0% ki varshik samany ausat vriddhi dar 2003-04 men 10% aur 2005-06 men 6% ki rahi.

dhan ki kheti

desh men rashtriy ay ka lagabhag 28% krishi se prapt hota hai. lagabhag 70% janasnkhya apani ajivika ke lie krishi par nirbhar hai. desh se hone vale niryaton ka bada hissa bhi krishi se hi ata hai. gair krishi-kshetron men badi matra men upabhokta vastuen evn bahutayat udyogon ko kachcha mal isi kshetr dvara bheja jata hai.

bharat men panchaven dashak ke shuruati varshon men anaj ki prati vyakti dainik upalabdhata 395 gram thi, jo 1990-91 men badhakar 468 gram, 1996-97 men 528.77 gram, 1999-2000 men 467 gram, 2000-01 men 455 gram, 2001-02 men 416 gram, 2002-03 men 494 gram aur 2003-04 men 436 gram tak pahunch gee. varsh 2005-06 men yah upalabdhata prati vyakti pratidin 412 gram ho gee. vishv men sabase adhik kshetron men dalahani kheti karane vala desh bhi bharat hi hai. isake bavajood prati vyakti dal ki dainik upalabdhata sntoshajanak nahin rahi hai. isamen samanyat: prati varsh giravat darz ki gee hai. varsh 1951 men dal ki prati vyakti dainik upalabdhata 60.7 gram thi vahi yah 1961 men 69.0 gram, 1971 men 51.2 gram, 1981 men 37.5 gram, 1991 men 41.6 gram aur 2001 men 30.0 gram ho gee. varsh 2005 men prati vyakti pratidin dal ki nival upalabdh matra 31.5 gram tatha 2005-06 ke dauran 33 gram pratidin prati vyakti ho gee. bharat men hi sarvapratham kapas ka snkar bij taiyar kiya gaya hai. vibhinn krishi kshetron men adhunikatam evn upayukt praudyogiki ka vikas karane men bhi bharatiy vaigyanikon ne saphalata arjit ki hai.

khanij snpada

svatntrata prapti ke pashchat bharat men khanijon ke utpadan men nirantar vriddhi huee hai. koyala, lauh ayask, baauksait adi ka utpadan nirntar badha hai. 1951 men sirf 83 karod rupaye ke khanijon ka khanan hua tha, parantu 1970-71 men inaki matra badhakar 490 karod rupaye ho gee. agale 20 varshon men khanijon ke utpadan men abhootapoorv vriddhi huee. 2001-02 men nikale gaye khanijon ka kul mooly 58,516.36 karod rupaye tak pahunch gaya jabaki 2005-06 ke dauran kul 75,121.61 karod rupaye mooly ke khanijon ka utpadan kiya gaya. yadi matra ki drishti se dekha jaye, to bharat men khanijon ki matra men lagabhag tiguni vriddhi huee hai, usaka 50% bhag sirf petroliyam aur prakritik gais ke karan tatha 40% koyala ke karan hua hai. any shabdon men 2005-06 men kul khanij mooly (75,121.61 karod ru) men se petroliyam aur prakritik gais se 26,851.31 karod rupaye tatha koyala aur lignait se 29,560.75 karod rupaye ke mooly shamil hain. shesh 11,575.35 karod rupaye mooly ke any dhatvik tatha adhatvik khanij the.

desh ke mahattvapoorn khanij
khanij anumanit bhandar prapti ke kshetr vishesh bindu
lauh khanij 13 arab tan udisa: sonaee, kyonjhar, mayoorabhnj · jharakhand: sinhabhoom, hazaribag palamoo · chhattisagadh: bastar, durg, rayapur, rayagadh · madhy pradesh: jabalapur, bilasapur, balaghat, chhindabada · andhr pradesh: kudappa, krishna, kuranool, guntoor, varngal, chittoor · karnatak: belari, chikamngaloor, chital durg · maharashtr: salem, tiruchirapalli · gova desh men vishv ka sarvadhik anumanit bhandar[43] jharakhand tatha udisa rajyon se desh ka lagabhag 75% loha prapt kiya jata hai.
mainganiz 16.7 karod tan jharakhand: sinhabhoom · karnatak: chitaladurg, tumakur, shimoga, kinmagaloor, uttari kanara, dharavad, belaganv · andhr pradesh: vishakhapattanam · gujarat pnchamahal· rajasthan: udayapur tatha bansavada · madhy pradesh: balaghat, chhindavada, sivani, jabalapur · udisa: kyonjhar, kalahandi, talachar, mayoorabhnj · maharashtr: nagapur, bhandara tatha ratnagiri mainganiz utpadan men bharat ka vishv men tisara sthan hai. udisa desh ka sarvadhik mainganiz utpadan karane vala rajy hai.
abhrak 1.09 lakh tan bihar: abhrak peti ka vistar gaya tatha munger zilon men · jharakhand: hazaribag men · rajasthan: abhrak peti ka vistar ajamer, shahapura, tinka, bhilavada, jayapur men · andhr pradesh: nellor bharat men vishv ka sarvadhik abhrak hai tatha yahan par se vishv utpadan ka lagabhag do tihaee abhrak prapt kiya jata hai.
baauksait 303.7 karod tan jharakhand: palamoo · gujarat: kheda · madhy pradesh: katani, balaghat, bilasapur, bastar tatha jabalapur · tamilanadu: salem · karnatak: chitaladurg tatha belaganv · maharashtr: kolhapur · jammoo kashmir: kotali baksait se elyuminiyam dhatu ki prapti hoti hai. bharat ka vishv men baksait utpadan men tisara sthan hai.
tanba 67.41 karod tan jharakhand: sinhabhoom, hazaribag · rajasthan: khetadi, jhunjhunoo, bhilavada, alavar, sirohi · karnatak: chitaladurg, hasan, rayachoor tatha chikamngaloor ·andhr pradesh: guntoor, khammam tatha agrigundal · gujarat: banansakatha · madhy pradesh: balaghat · desh men tanbe ki kuchh matra pnjab, uttar pradesh, sikkim tatha tamilanadu se bhi prapt hoti hai.
desh men tanba bahut hi kam matra men bhandarit hai. desh ka lagabhag tanba bihar ke sinhabhoom tatha hazaribag zilon evn rajasthan ki khetadi khanon se prapt kiya jata hai.
sona 176.9 lakh tan karnatak [44]
maigresait 24.50 karod tan karnatak: maisoor tatha hasan · uttarakhand: almoda, chamoli tatha pithoragadh · tamilanadu: salem
koyala 2,0624 kharab tan jharakhand tatha bngal: ranignj, jhariya, giridih, bokaro tatha karanapura · madhy pradesh: singarauli · chhattisagadh: rayagadh, sonahat, sohagapur tatha umariya · udisa: desagadh, talachar · maharashtr: chanda zila · asam: makoom tatha lakhimapur · andhr pradesh: singareni · bahut thodi matra men koyala arunachal pradesh, jammoo kashmir, meghalay tatha nagalaind se bhi prapt kiya jata hai.
lignait 260 karod tan tamilanadu: nebeli kshetr · rajasthan: palloo kshetr · jammoo kashmir: riyasi kshetr · gujarat tatha pandicheri: lignait ke kuchh bhandar milate hain. desh men lignait ka sarvadhik bhandar[45] keval tamilanadu rajy men hi hai.
khanij tel 620 karod tan isaki prapti ke pramukh kshetr asam ki brahmaputr ghati tatha gujarat rajy men sthit hain. inake atirikt tripura, manipur, pashchim bngal, himachal pradesh, kachchh kshetr, andhr pradesh adi men bhi khanij tel ka pata laga hai. pashchim bngal, udisa, andhr pradesh, maharashtr tatha gujarat ke apatatiy kshetr men bhi tel bhandar sthit hain.

oorja aur eendhan

bijali, koyala, tel aur gais
bharat ke sarvadhik oonche bandh
kram bandh nadi (nirmit bandh) bandh ki oonchaee bandh ki lambaee (mitar men) jalashay kshamata
1 tihari bandh bhagirathi 261 570 35,390
2 kishaoo bandh tons 253 260 24,000
3 idukki bandh periyar 196 366 19,960
4 bhakhada bandh sataluj 191 440 5,800
5 lakhavar bandh yamuna 191 440 5,800
6 shrishailam bandh krishna 143 512 87,220
7 cherootani bandh cherootani 138 650 19,960
8 saradar sarovar bandh narmada 137 1210 94,920
9 pong bandh vyas 133 1950 87,700
10 sailaind baili bandh kunti pooja 131 430 3,170
tel shodhanashalaen
shodhanashala sthapana varsh shodhan kshamata[46]
digboee (asam) 1901 5.0
mumbee (ech.pi.si.el.) 1954 55
mumbee (bi.pi.si.el.) 1955 60
vishakhapatanam 1957 45
guvahati (asam) 1962 8.5
barauni (bihar) 1964 33.0
koyali (gujarat) 1965 95
kochin 1966 45
chennee 1969 56
haldiya (pashchim bngal) 1975 27.5
bogaeeganv (asam) 1979 13.5
mathura (uttar pradesh) 1982 75
karanal (hariyana) 1987 30
jamanagar (gujarat) 1999 54
tap vidyut grih (koyala)
vidyut grih rajy
nevali tap vidyut grih tamilanadu
pataratoo tap vidyut grih hazaribag, jharakhand
koraba tap vidyut grih chhattisagadh
haraduagnj tap vidyut grih uttar pradesh
obara tap vidyut grih mirzapur, uttar pradesh
talachar tap vidyut grih udisa
satapuda tap vidyut grih madhy pradesh
pharakka supar tap vidyut grih pashchim bngal
ramagundam supar tap vidyut grih andhr pradesh
vindhyachal supar tap vidyut grih madhy pradesh
rihand tap vidyut grih uttar pradesh
singarauli tap vidyut grih uttar pradesh
vitaran-utpadan (koyala)
rajy snkhya [47] pratishat[48] utpadan[49] pratishat[48]
jharakhand 207 35% 754.13 24.35%
udisa 21 24% 448.03 14.46%
chhattisagadh 17%
pashchim bngal 106 13% 200.99 6.29%
andhr pradesh 68 06% 302.74 9.77%
maharashtr 62 03% 287.53 5.45%
uttar pradesh 04 168.63 5.45%
snpoorn bharat 606 3096.28
bhndar-utpadan (gais)
kshetr / rajy bhndar[50] pratishat[48]
mumbee haee 13,976 80%
gujarat 1,793 11%
asam 1,217 8%
tamilanadu 306 1.5%
tripura 10 8.6%


paramanu oorja

bharat ka paramanu oorja vibhag tin charanon men nabhikiy oorja karyakram chala raha hai-

  1. pahale charan men dabit gurujal riektaron (pi ech dablyoo ar) aur unase jude eendhan-chakr ke lie vidha ko sthapit kiya jana hai. aise riektaron men prakritik yooreniyam ko eendhan ke rup men gurujal ko maaudaretar evn koolent ke rup men prayog kiya jata hai.
  2. doosare charan men phast bridar riektar banane ka pravadhan hai, jinake sath punah prasnskaran snyntr aur plootoniyam-adharit eendhan snvicharan snyntr bhi honge. plootoniyam ko yooreniyam 238 ke vikhndan se prapt kiya jata hai.
  3. tisara charan thoriyam-yooreniyam-233 chakr par adharit hai. yooreniyam-233 ko thoriyam ke vikiran se hasil kiya jata hai.
pahala charan

nabhikiy oorja karyakram ke pratham charan ka upayog vyavasayik kshetron men ho raha hai. bharatiy nabhikiy oorja nigam limited (en.pi.si.aee.el.) paramanu oorja vibhag ki sarvajanik kshetr ki ikaee hai jis par nabhikiy riektaron ke dijain, nirman aur snchalan ka dayitv hai. kampani 17 riektars (do ubalate jal vale riektar aur 15 dabit gurujal riektar) ka snchalan karati hai jinaki kul kshamata 4120 megavaaut hai. enapisiaeeel 03 piechadablyoo riektars ka tatha do halke jal riektars ka nirman ka rahi hai jisase isaki kshamata varsh 2008 tak badh ka 6780 mega ilektrik vaaut ho jaegi.

dvitiy charan

pha‍sh‍t bridar karyakram takaniki pradarshan ke charan men hai. doosare charan ka anubhav praph‍t karane ke lie indira gandhi paramanu anusndhan kenh‍dr (aee. ji. si. e. ar.) taral sodiyam dvara thnde kie ja rahe phash‍t bridar riekh‍taron ke dijain aur vikas men laga hai. isane phash‍t bridar riekh‍tar praudyogiki vikasit karane men saphalata hasil kar li hai. isake 500 megavat kshamata ke prototaip phash‍t bridar riekh‍tar (pi.eph.bi.ar.) ka nirman kalapakh‍kam men shuroo kar diya gaya hai. in pariyojanaon ko lagoo karane ke lie nee knpani bharatiy nabhikiy vidyut nigam (biechebiarenaee) ‘bhavini’ dvara varsh 2010-11 tak dakshini grid ko 500 mega ilektrik vat vidyut ki apoorti ki ja sakegi.

tritiy charan

nabhikiy oorja karyakram ka tisara charan takaniki vikas ke charan men hai. bark men 300 megavat ke unh‍nat gurujal riekh‍tar (e.ech.dabh‍loo.ar.) ka vikas kary chal raha hai taki thoriyam ish‍temal men visheshgyta hasil ho sake aur suraksha ke pukhh‍ta tarikon ka pradarshan ho jae. thoriyam adharit pranaliyon jaise eechadabh‍lyooar ko vh‍yavasayik ish‍temal ke lie tabhi sh‍thapit kiya ja sakata hai jabaki phash‍t bridar riekh‍tar ke adhar par uchh‍ch kshamata ka nirman kar liya jae.

raksha

bharatiy sena

bharatiy vayu sena

bharat ki raksha niti ka pramukh uddeshy yah hai ki bharatiy upamahadvip men use badhava diya jae evn sthayitv pradan kiya jae tatha desh ki raksha senaon ko paryapt roop se susajjit kiya jae, taki ve kisi bhi akraman se desh ki raksha kar saken. varsh 1946 ke poorv bharatiy raksha ka poora niyntran angrezon ke hathon men tha. usi varsh kendr men antarim sarakar men pahali bar ek bharatiy desh ke raksha mntri baladev sinh bane. halanki kamandar-in-chiph ek angrez hi raha . 1947 men desh ka vibhajan hone par bharat ko 45 rejimenten milin, jinamen 2.5 lakh sainik the. shesh rejiment pakistan chali gayin. gorakha fauj ki 6 rejimentn (lagabhag 25,000 sainik) bhi bharat ko milin. shesh gorakha sainik british sena men sammilit ho gaye. british sena ki antim tukadi samarasait lait inphaintri ki pahali bataliyan ho gayi. british sena ki antim tukadi samarasait lait inphaintri ki pahali bataliyan bharatiy bhoomi se 28 faravari, 1948 ko svadesh ravana huee. kuchh angrez afasar paramarshak ke roop men kuchh samay tak bharat men rahe lekin svatntrata ke pahale kshan se hi bharatiy sena poornat: bharatiyon ke hathon men a gayi thi. svatntrata ke turnt pashchat bharat sarakar ne bharatiy sena ke dhanche men katipay parivartan kiye. thal sena, vayu sena evn nausena apane-apane mukhy senadhyakshon ke adhin ayi. bharatiy riyasaton ki sena ko bhi desh ki sainy vyavastha men shamil kar liya gaya. 26 janavari, 1950 ko desh ke ganatntr banane par bharatiy senaon ki snrachanaon men avashyak parivartan kiye gaye.

bharat ke prakshepastr
kram prakshepastr prakar marak kshamata ayudh vajan kshamata pratham parikshan lagat vikas sthiti
1 agni-1 satah se satah par marak(intaramidiet bailistik prakshepastr) 1200 se 1500 ki.mi. 1000 ki.gra. 22 mee, 1989 8 karod rupaye vikasit evn tainat
2 agni-2 satah se satah par marak(intaramidiet bailistik prakshepastr) 1500 se 2000 ki.mi. 1000 ki.gra. (paramparagat evn paramanvik) 11apral, 1999 8 karod rupaye vikasit evn pradarshit
3 agni-3 intaramidiet bailistik prakshepastr 3000 ki.mi. 1500 ki.gra. 9 julaee, 2006 (asaphal), 12 apral, 2007 (pratham saphal parikshan) nirmanadhin
4 prithvi satah se satah par marak alp doori ke taiktikal baital phild prakshepastr 150 se 250 ki.mi. 500 ki.gra. 25 faravari, 1989 3 karod rupaye vikasit evn tainat
5 trishool satah se vayu men marak lo level klin riekshan alp doori ke prakshepastr 500 mi. se 9 ki.mi. 15 ki.gra. 5 joon, 1989 45 lakh rupaye vikasit evn tainat
6 nag satah se satah par marak taink bhedi prakshepastr 4 ki.mi. 10 ki.gra. 29 navambar, 1991 25 lakh rupaye vikasit evn tainat
7 akash satah se vayu men marak bahulakshak prakshepastr 25 se 30 ki.mi. 55 ki.gra. 15 agast, 1990 1 karod rupaye vikasit evn tainat
8 astr vayu se vayu men marak prakshepastr 25 se 40 ki.mi. 300 ki.gra. 9 mee, 2003 nirmanadhin
9 brahmos potabhedi supar sonik krooz prakshepastr 290 ki.mi. 300 ki.gra. 12 joon, 2001 vikasit evn tainat
10 shaury satah se satah par marak bailistik prakshepastr 750 ki.mi. 1000 ki.gra. 12 navambar, 2008 vikasit evn tainat
bharatiy nausena

bharat ki raksha senaon ka sarvochch kamandar bharat ka rashtrapati hai, kintu desh raksha vyavastha ki jimmedari mntrimndal ki hai. raksha se snbndhit sabhi mahattvapoorn mamalon ka phaisala rajanitik karyon snbndhi mntrimndal samiti (kaibinet kameti aaun paaulitikal apheyars) karati hai, jisaka adhyaksh pradhanamntri hota hai. raksha mntri sevaon se snbndhit sabhi vishayon ke bare men snsad ke samaksh uttaradayi hai.

bharatiy thalasena ka dhvaj
bharatiy thal sena
bharatiy nausena ka pratik
bharatiy nausena
bharatiy vayusena ka pratik
bharatiy vayu sena
raksha mntralay ka pramukh raksha mntri hai aur sabase bada vittiy adhikari raksha mntralay ka vittiy salahakar hota hai. raksha mntralay men char vibhag hai- (1) raksha vibhag, (2) raksha utpadan vibhag, (3) raksha apoorti vibhag aur (4) raksha vigyan evn anusndhan vibhag. raksha mntralay desh ki raksha karane aur sashastr senaon - sthal sena, nau sena aur vayu sena ke saj-saman jutane aur unaka prashasan chalane ke lie uttaradayi hai. raksha mntralay bharat ki raksha sashastr senaon arthat thal sena, nau sena aur vayu sena ke gathan aur unake prashasan, sashastr senaon ke lie astr-shastr, gola-barood, pot, viman, vahan, upakaran aur saj-saman ki vyavastha karane, abhi tak ayat hone vali madon ko desh ke bhitar nirmit karane ki kshamata sthapit karane aur raksha ke kshetr men anusndhan evn vikas ko badhava dene ke lie sidhe uttaradayi hai. is mntralay ki kuchh any jimmedariyan hain- mntralay se snbaddh asainik sevaon par niyntran, kaintonament banana, unake kshetr ka nirdharan karana aur raksha seva karmachariyon ke lie anvas suvidhaon ka vinimayan karana. bharat ki sashastr senaon men tin mukhy sevayen hain- thal-sena, nausena aur vayu sena.
sima suraksha bal ka pratik
ye tinon sevayen ek senadhyaksh arthat kramash: sthal senadhyaksh, nau senadhyaksh aur vayu senadhyaksh ke adhin hain. ye tinon senadhyaksh janaral ya isake barabar pad vale hote hain. in tinon senadhyakshon ki ek senadhyaksh samiti hai. is samiti ki adhyakshata yahi tinon senadhyaksh apani varishthata ke adhar par karate hain. is samiti ki sahayata ke lie up-samitiyan hoti hain jo vishesh samasyaon jaise ayojan, prashikshan, snchar adi ka kam dekhati hain.

aj bharat ki thal sena vishv ki sabase badi sthal senaon men chauthe sthan par, vayu sena panchaven sthan par aur nau sena sataven sthan par mani jati hai. sena ke pramukh sahayak sngathan hain- (1) pradeshik sena (2) tat rakshak, (3) sahayak vayu sena aur (4) en. si. si. jisamen sthal sena, nau sena aur vayu sena tinon parshv hote hain.


antariksh karyakram

bharatiy antariksh kendr aur ikaiyan
kram sthan kendr aur ikaiyan
1 bngalaur isaro mukhyalay, antariksh ayog, antariksh vibhag, istraik mukhyalay, upagrah niyntran kendr, en.en.ar.em.es sachivalay, drav nodan pranali kendr
2 hasan insait pradhan niyntran suvidha
3 ahamadabad bhautik anusndhan upayog kendr, prayogashala vikas, shaikshik evn snchar ikaee
4 shriharikota shar kendr
5 mahendragiri drav nodan janch suvidhaen
6 nagapur kendriy pr.ra.sn. se kendr
7 mumbee isaro sampark karyalay
8 tiruanantapuram vikram sarabhaee antariksh kendr, drav nodan pranali kendr, si.el.el.vi. suvidhaen, isaro jadatviy pranali ikaee
9 haidarabad rashtriy sudoor snvedan ejensi
10 nee dilli antariksh vibhag shakha, isaro shakha karyalay, dilli bhoo-kendr
11 deharadoon bharatiy sudoor snvedan, uttari 5 sn.sn. se kendr
12 lakhanoo istraik bhoo-kendr
13 balasor mausam vigyani raauket kendr
14 kavaloor upagrah anuvartan tatha sarvekshan kendr
15 alavay amoniyam parakloret prayogik snyntr
16 udayapur saur vedhashala
17 jodhapur pashchimi pr.sn.sn. se kendr
18 khadagapur poorvi pr.sn.sn. se kendr

vikasashil arthavh‍yavash‍tha aur usase judi samash‍yaon se ghire hone ke bavazood bharat ne antariksh praudyogiki ko prabhavi dhng se vikasit kiya hai aur use apane tivr vikas ke lie ish‍temal bhi kiya hai tatha aj vishh‍v ke anh‍y deshon ko vibhinh‍n antariksh sevaen upalabh‍dh kara raha hai. 1960 ke dashak ke prarnbhik varshon men antariksh anusndhan ki shuruat bharat men mukhh‍yat: saunding raauketon ki madad se huee. bharatiy antariksh anusndhan sngathan (isaro) ki sh‍thapana 1969 men ki gee. bharat sarakar dvara 1972 men 'antariksh ayog' aur 'antariksh vibhag' ke gathan se antariksh shodh gatividhiyon ko atirikh‍t gati praph‍t huee. 'isaro' ko antariksh vibhag ke niyntran men rakha gaya. bharatiy antariksh karyakram ke itihas men 70 ka dashak prayogath‍mak yug tha jis dauran 'aryabhat', 'bhash‍kar', 'rohini' tatha 'eph‍pal' jaise prayogath‍mak upagrah karyakram chalae ge. in karyakramon ki saphalata ke bad 80 ka dashak snchalanath‍mak yug bana jabaki 'inset' tatha 'aeeares' jaise upagrah karyakram shuroo hue. aj inset tatha aeeares isaro ke pramukh karyakram hain. antariksh yan ke sh‍vadesh men hi prakshepan ke lie bharat ka majaboot prakshepan yan karyakram hai. yah ab itana paripakh‍v ho gaya hai ki prakshepan ki sevaen anh‍y deshon ko bhi upalabh‍dh karata hai. isaro ki vh‍yavasayik shakha entrikh‍s, bharatiy antariksh sevaon ka vipanan vishh‍v bhar men karati hai. bharatiy antariksh karyakram ki khas visheshata antariksh men jane vale anh‍y deshon, antararashtriy sngathanon aur vikasashil deshon ke sath prabhavi sahayog hai.

  • varsh 2005-06 men bharatiy antariksh karyakram ki sabase pramukh upalabh‍dhi 'pieselavisi 6' ka saphal prakshepan rahi hai.
  • 5 mee, 2005 ko 'polar upagrah prakshepan yan' (pieselavi-ephasi 6) ki nauvin udan ne shriharikota ke satish dhavan antariksh kendr (esadiesasi) se saphalatapoorvak do upagrahon - 1560 ki.gra. ke kartosh‍tar-1 tatha 42 ki.gra. ke hemaset ko poorv-nirdharit polar san sinh‍kronan arbit (eseso) men pahunchaya. lagatar satavin prakshepan saphalata ke bad pieselavi-si 6 ki saphalata ne pieselavi ki vishh‍vasaniyata ko age badhaya tatha 600 ki.mi. oonche polar eseso men 1600 ki.gra. bhar tak ke nitabhar ko rakhane ki kshamata ko darshaya hai.
  • 22 disnbar 2005 ko inset-4e ka saphal prakshepan, jo ki bharat dvara ab tak banae ge sabhi upagrahon men sabase bhari tatha shakh‍tishali hai, varsh 2005-06 ki anh‍y badi upalabh‍dhi thi.
  • inset-4e dararekh‍t-too-hom (ditiech) telivijan prasaran sevaen pradan karane men saksham hai.
  • isake atirikh‍t, nau gramin snsadhan kendron (viarasij) ke doosare samooh ki sh‍thapana karana antariksh vibhag ki varsh ke dauran mahath‍vapoorn maujooda pahal hai. viarasi ki dharana gramin samudayon ki badalati tatha mahath‍vapoorn avashh‍yakataon ko poora karane ke lie antariksh vh‍yavash‍thaon tatha anh‍y aeeti aujaron se nikalane vali vibhinh‍n prakar ki janakari pradan karane ke lie snchar sadhanon tatha bhoomi avalokan upagrahon ki kshamataon ko snghatit karati hai.

pashu pakshi jagat

pramukh rashtriy udyan ev abhayarany
kram rashtriy udyan ev abhayarany pradesh prapy van jiv
1 bandhavagadh rashtriy udyan, shahadol madhy pradesh bagh, tendua, chital, sanbhar, nilagay, jngali sooar
2 bandipur rashtriy udyan, maisoor karnatak hathi, chita, tendua, chital, sanbhar, hiran
3 vannaraghatta rashtriy udyan, baingaloor karnatak hathi, chital, bhaloo, hiran, pakshi
4 borivili rashtriy udyan, mumbee maharashtr tendua, sanbhar, jngali sooar, hiran, lngoor
5 karbet rashtriy udyan, nainital uttarakhnd hathi, chita, baghera, nilagay, bhaloo, chital, sanbhar, hiran, jngali sooar adi
6 dudhava rashtriy udyan, lakhimapur-khiri uttar pradesh chita, tendua, nilagay, chital, sanbhar, hiran, adi
7 iravikulam rajamalle rashtriy udyan, idukki keral hathi, gaur, chita, sanbhar, nilagay, tendua, lngoor, jngali sooar adi
8 gir rashtriy udyan gujarat eshiyaee sher, tendua, chital, sanbhar, chausinga, jngali sooar, chinkara adi
9 kanha kisali rashtriy udyan, mndala evn balaghat madhy pradesh bagh, tendua, chital, sanbhar, nilagay, jngali sooar, gaur, barahasinga adi
10 kajirnga rashtriy udyan, jorahat asam ek sing vala gainda, gaur, chita, jngali sooar, jngali bhainsa, baghera, adi
11 khngachndajenda rashtriy udyan, gngatok sikkim baghera, lal panda, jngali gadha, pahadi bhaloo, hiran, bhed adi
12 nagarahol rashtriy udyan, kurg karnatak hathi, chita, tendua, chital, sanbhar, bhaloo, titar, chakor adi
13 naveganv rashtriy udyan, bhndare maharashtr chita, tendua, bhaloo, jngali bhainsa, chital, sanbhar, adi
14 rohala rashtriy udyan, kulloo himachal pradesh pahadi tendua, bhoora bhaloo, kastoori hiran, pahadi murge, pahadi kabootar adi
15 shivapuri(madhav) rashtriy udyan, madhy pradesh chita,chital, tendua, baghera, lakadabaggha, bhaloo, sanbhar, chausinga, nilagay,adi
16 tadoba rashtriy udyan, chandrapur maharashtr chita, tendua, bhaloo, gaur, sanbhar, nilagay, chital, chinkara adi
17 dachigam rashtriy udyan, shrinagar jammoo aur kashmir tendua, kala bhaloo, lal bhaloo, hiran, hngul adi
18 dampa taigar rijarv, aeejol mizoram hathi, chita
19 garam pani abhayarany, diph asam hathi, jngali bhainsa, baghera, lngoor,
20 kevaladev ghana pakshi vihar, bharatapur rajasthan chital, sanbhar, kala hiran, jngali sooar, saiberiyan saras, murgabi, hariyal adi
21 gautam buddh abhayarany, gaya bihar chita, tendua, baghera, sanbhar, hiran, chital, adi
22 intanki abhayarany, kohima nagalaind hathi, gaur, jngali sooar, chita, tendua, hiran, pakshi evn sanp adi
23 kavala abhayarany, adilabad andhr pradesh chita, tendua, chital, sanbhar, jngali sooar, gaur, bhaloo adi
24 malapatti pakshi vihar, naillor andhr pradesh phakhta, murgabi, hariyal, battakh, jalakak adi
25 manas abhayarany, barapet asam hathi, chita, ek sing ka gainda, baghera, gaur, jngali sooar, bhaloo, sanbhar adi
26 mudumalaee abhayarany, nilagiri tamilanadu hathi, chita, tendua, chital, sanbhar, gaur, hiran, jngali kutte adi
27 namadapha abhayarany, tirap arunachal pradesh chita, tendua, baghera, hathi, gaur, jngali bhainsa, hiran, sanp adi
28 palamoo abhayarany, dalatenagnj jharakhand hathi, tendua, baghera, jngali sooar, chital, sanbhar, hiran, gaur, adi
29 ranathambhaur taigar projekt, savaee madhopur rajasthan bagh, chita, tendua, sher, lakadabaggha, sanbhar adi
30 sariska abhayarany, alavar rajasthan chita, tendua, lakadabaggha, chital, sanbhar, nilagay, chinkara, chausinga, jngali billi adi
31 similipal abhayarany, mayooragnj udisa hathi, chita, tendua, baghera, gaur, chital adi
32 sundaravan taigar rijarv, chaubis paragana pashchim bngal chita, hiran, jngali sooar, magar adi
bagh aur gaj abhayarany
abhayarany rajy
bagh abhayarany
bandipur rashtriy udyan karnatak
karbet rashtriy udyan uttar pradesh
kanha-kisali rashtriy udyan madhy pradesh
manas rashtriy udyan asam
melaghat rashtriy udyan maharashtr
palamoo (betala) rashtriy udyan bihar
ranathnbhaur rashtriy udyan rajasthan
simalipal rashtriy udyan udisa
sundaravan rashtriy udyan pashchim bngal
periyar rashtriy udyan keral
sariska rashtriy udyan rajasthan
baksa vany jiv abhayarany pashchim bngal
indravati rashtriy udyan chhattisagadh
nagarjun sagar shrisailam rashtriy udyan andhr pradesh
namadapha rashtriy udyan arunachal pradesh
dudhava rashtriy udyan uttar pradesh
kalakad-mundanathuree vany jiv abhayarany tamilanadu
valmiki vany jiv abhayarany bihar
pench rashtriy udyan madhy pradesh
gaj abhayarany
rajaji/korbet rashtriy udyan uttaranchal
annamalaee/parambikulam abhayarany tamilanadu/keral
nilambur tamilanadu/keral
nilagiri evn poorvi ghat tamilanadu, keral, karnatak, andhr pradesh
bairal-saiphng asam/meghalay
balaphakaram rashtriy udyan meghalay
diroo-devamali arunachal pradesh/asam
kajirnga-karbi asam/nagalaind
kameng-sonitapur arunachal pradesh/asam
dakshin-pashchim bngal-uttari bihar-udisa
snkatagrast jiv-jantu
kram samany nam vaigyanik nam desh ka kshetr jahan ve pae jate hain
stanapayi
1 sinhapuchchhi bndar makaka sailenas pashchimi ghati men sadabahar van
2 sunahara lngoor presabaitis goee asam, bhootan ke sath himalay ki taraee
3 dridhalobhi kharagosh keprolegas hisapidas himalay ki taraee, asam
4 bharatiy dalaphin pletenista indi gnga aur brahmaputr nadiyan
5 malabar bada dharidar mushk bilav vivera mengaspila keral ka tatavarti kshetr
6 eshiyaee sher painthara liyo gir rashtriy udyan
7 tendua painthara pardas sampoorn bharat men
8 bagh painthara taigris sampoorn bharat men
9 him tendua painthara ansiya laddakh se sikkim tak uchch himalay men
10 bharatiy hathi eliphas meksimas uttar pradesh se meghalay tak himalay ki taraee/bihar,
jharakhand, udisa aur dakshin ke char rajy
11 bharatiy jngali gadha ikkas haimiyonas kachchh ka ran
12 pigami suar sas salvaniyas manas bagh rizarv tatha usake asapas ka kshetr
13 daladali hiran saraks dayoobaseli uttar pradesh se asam tatha uttari aur poorvi bharat ke taraee
aur doab kshetr aur kanha rashtriy udyan se madhy pradesh men bastar tak
14 hngul saraks elephs kashmir ghati ka uttari bhag
15 manipuri bro entalard hiran saraks eldi kaibul lamajao rashtriy udyan, manipur
16 jngali eshiyaee jal bhainsa buvalas bubalis asam, arunachal pradesh, madhy pradesh, poorvi maharashtr pashchimi udisa ke taraee kshetr
pakshi
1 safed pnkhon vala jngali battakh kairina skutoolata asam ke poorvi zile aur arunachal pradesh ka kuchh bhag
2 chir phijent ketreyas balichi kashmir, himachal pradesh, gadhaval aur kumaoon
3 vestan tregopan tregopan melanosephales kashmir, himachal pradesh, gadhaval aur kumaoon
4 bharatiy sohan chidiya arde-otis naeegriseps rajasthan ke maru kshetr
5 jordan karsar karseriyas vitokvetas andhr pradesh
sarisrip
1 eschyooriyan ghadiyal krokodayalas pororasas bharat ka poorvi samudr tat aur andaman v nikobar dvip samooh
2 ghadiyal gebitholis gnjetiks gnga, mahanadi, brahmaputr dakshin-pashchim bngal
3 rivar terapin batagur baska
rashtriy pashu bagh

vany jivan prakriti ki amooly den hai. bhavishy men vany praniyon ki samapti ki ashnka ke karan bharat men sarvapratham 7 julaee, 1955 ko vany prani divas manaya gaya . yah bhi nirnay liya gaya ki pratyek varsh do aktoobar se poore saptah tak vany prani saptah manaya jaega. varsh 1956 se vany prani saptah manaya ja raha hai. bharat ke snrakshan karyakram ki avashyakataon ko poora karane ke lie ek mazaboot snsthagat dhanche ki rachana ki gayi hai . joolaaujikal sarve aauph indiya, botenikal sarve aph indiya jaisi pramukh snsthaon tatha bharatiy vany jivan snsthan, bharatiy vany anusndhan evn shiksha parishad, indira gandhi rashtriy van akadami tatha salim ali skool aauph arintholaauji jaise snsthan vany jivan snbndhi shiksha aur anusndhan kary men lage hain. bharat kee prakar ke jngalon jivon ka, anek ped paudhon aur pashu-pakshiyon ka ghar hai. shanadar hathi, mor ka nach, oont ki sair, sheron ki dahad sabhi ek anokhe anubhav hai. yahan ke pashu pakshiyon ko apane prakritik nivasasthan men dekhana anandayak hai. bharat men jngali jivon ko dekhane paryatak ate hain. yahan jngali jivon ki bahut badi snkhya hai. bharat men 70 se adhik rashtriy udyan aur 400 jngali jivon ke abhayarany hai aur pakshi abhayarany bhi hain.

gaureya

prakriti premiyon ke lie yah jngal svarg hai parantu ab yahan ke kuchh jiv jaise chite, sher, hathi, bngal ke sher aur saiberiyan saras ab khatare men hai. bharat ki lambaee aur chaudaee men phaila yah jngal kshetr, ranathambhor rashtriy udyan, rajasthan se hazari bagh jngali jiv abhayarany, bihar se, himalay ke jim korbet rashtriy udyan, andaman ke chhah rashtriy udyanon tak ek shanadar jngal ki sair kar sakate hain. hathi, chite, jngali bhainsa, yak, hiran, jngali gadhe ek sing vala genda, sahi, him chite adi jantu himalay men dikhane ko milate hain.

hathi

bharat men, vishv ke assi, pratishat ek sing vale gendon ka nivas hai. kazirnga khel abhayarany gendon ke lie upayukt nivas hai aur prakritik snsthaon ke lie aur jngali sair karane vale ke lie bhi achchhi jagah hai. bharat ke son chidiya aur blaik bak, karesh abhayarany men hote hain. madhav rashtriy udyan men, jo shivapuri rashtriy udyan kahalata tha, jivon ka ek nivas hai. korbot rashtriy udyan sabase prasiddh haih. uttar bharat men jngali janavaron ke paryatakon ke lie achchhi jagah hai. aise abhayarany aur rashtriy udyan, bharat men kafi snkhya men hain. bharat men sheron (bagh) ki snkhya bahut thi. bharat ka rashtriy pashu, sher, teji aur taqat ka chinh hai. bharat men barah bagh nivas hai. shahi bngal ke bagh, sabase shanadar jati ke pashuon men se hai. vishv ke sath pratishat sheron ki snkhya bharat men rahi hai. madhy pradesh, sheron ke nivas ki sabase prasiddh jagah hai. yahan bngal ke sher, chital, chite, gaur, sambhar aur kee jiv dekhane ko milate hain. bharat men jngali jivon ke sath-sath, pakshiyon ki bhi snkhya achchhi hai. kee sau jatiyon ke pakshi bharat men milate hain. ghana rashtriy udyan ya bharatapur pakshi abhayarany (rajasthan) men ghareloo pakshi aur zamin par jine vale pakshi bhi hain. dudhava jngali jiv abhyaran men bndar, giddh aur chil pakshi bhi hai. andaman ke nikobar men bhi kabootar paye jate hain.

bharat ka vany jivan

mor
  • snsar men paudhon ki 2,50,000 gyat prajatiyon men se 15,000 prajatiyan bharat men milati hain.
  • is prakar snsar men jiv-jantuon ki kul 15 lakh prajatiyon men se 75,000 prajatiyan bharat men paee jati hain.
  • bharat men pakshiyon ki 1,200 prajatiyan aur 900 up-prajatiyan paee jati hain.
  • bharat ke suvikhyat pakshiyon men bahurngi rashtriy pakshi mor ullekhaniy hai.
  • panch phut ki oonchaee vala bhavy saras tatha snsar ka doosara sabase bhari pakshi hukana (sohanachidiya) mahattvapoorn pakshi hain.
  • snsar men prasiddh kevaladev (bharatapur) ke rashtriy udyan men dhaee lakh pakshiyon ka ghar hai.

bharatiy bhasha parivar

bharat ki mukhy visheshata yah hai ki yahan vibhinnata men ekata hai. bharat men vibhinnata ka svaroop n keval bhaugolik hai, balki bhashayi tatha sanskritik bhi hai. ek riport ke anusar bharat men 1652 matribhashayen prachalan men hain, jabaki snvidhan dvara 22 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ki manyata pradan ki gayi hai. snvidhan ke anuchchhed 344 ke antargat pahale keval 15 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ki manyata di gayi thi, lekin 21ven snvidhan snshodhan ke dvara sindhi ko tatha 71van snvidhan snshodhan dvara nepali, konkani tatha manipuri ko bhi rajabhasha ka darja pradan kiya gaya. bad men 92van snvidhan snshodhan adhiniyam, 2003 ke dvara snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men char nee bhashaon bodo, dogari, maithili tatha snthali ko rajabhasha men shamil kar liya gaya. is prakar ab snvidhan men 22 bhashaon ko rajabhasha ka darja pradan kiya gaya hai. bharat men in 22 bhashaon ko bolane vale logon ki kul snkhya lagabhag 90% hai. in 22 bhashaon ke atirikt angrezi bhi sahayak rajabhasha hai aur yah mizoram, nagalaind tatha meghalay ki rajabhasha bhi hai. kul milakar bharat men 58 bhashaon men skoolon men padhayi ki jati hai. snvidhan ki athavin anusoochi men un bhashaon ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, jinhen rajabhasha ki sngya di gee hai.

bharat men 4 bhasha–parivar
bhasha-parivar bharat men bolane valon ka %
bharopiy 73%
dravid 25%
astrik 1.3%
chini–tibbati 0.7%
bharatiy aryabhasha ko tin kal
nam prayog kal udaharan
1.prachin bharatiy aryabhasha 1500 ee. poo.– 500 ee. poo. vaidik snskrit v laukik snskrit
2.madhyakalin bharatiy aryabhasha 500 ee. poo.– 1000 ee. pali, prakrit, apabhrnsh
3.adhunik bharatiy aryabhasha 1000 ee.– ab tak hindi aur hinditar bhashaen – bangla, udiya, marathi,
sindhi, asamiya, gujarati, pnjabi adi.
1.prachin bharatiy aryabhasha
nam prayog kal any nam
vaidik snskrit 1500 ee. poo.– 1000 ee. poo. chhandash (yask, panini)
laukik snskrit 1000 ee. poo.- 500 ee. poo. snskrit bhasha (panini)
2.madhyakalin bharatiy aryabhasha
nam prayog kal vishesh tippani
pratham prakrit kal– pali 500 ee. poo.– 1 li ee. bharat ki pratham desh bhasha, bhagavan buddh ke sare upadesh pali men hi hain.
dvitiy prakrit kal– prakrit 1 li ee.– 500 ee. bhagavan mahavir ke sare upadesh prakrit men hi hain.
tritiy prakrit kal– apabhrnsh avahatt 500 ee.– 1000 ee.

900 ee. – 1100 ee.

snkramanakalin/
snkrantikalin bhasha
3.adhunik bharatiy aryabhasha (hindi)
nam prayog kal
prachin hindi 1100 ee. poo.– 1400 ee. poo.
madhyakalin hindi 1400 ee. poo.- 1850 ee. poo.
adhunik hindi 1850– ab tak


bharatiy bhasha soochi

bhasha lipi kshetr prayogakarta janasnkhya
asamiya asamiya lipi moolat: brahmi lipi ka hi ek vikasit roop hai. asam rajy ki rajabhasha ek karod tis lakh
bangla bangla ("বাংলা") lipi moolat: brahmi lipi aur asamiya lipi ka vikasit roop hai. yah bangladesh aur bharat ke pashchim bngal, asam tatha tripura rajyon men boli jati hai. 20 karod se adhik
gujarati gujarati ("ગુજરાતી") nagari lipi ka naya pravahi svaroop navin gujarati ko ingit karata hai. gujarat rajy ki rajabhasha tin karod se adhik
hindi brahmi lipi, devanagari lipi, nagari aur farasi lipi, uttari bharat, maaurishas v any desh 33.727 karod
kannad kannad ("ಕನ್ನಡ") kannad lipi ka vikas ashok ki brahmi lipi ke dakshini prakaron se hua hai. karnatak rajy ki rajabhasha 470 lakh
kashmiri aitihasik roop se kashmiri bhasha ko char lipiyon men likha jata hai, sharada, devanagari, farasi-arabi aur roman. kashmir ki bhasha 3,174,684
konkani konkani anek lipiyon men likhi jati rahi hai; jaise - devanagari, kannd, malayalam aur roman. konkani gova, maharashtr ke dakshini bhag, karnatak ke uttari bhag, keral ke kuchh kshetron men boli jati hai. 1,522,684
malayalam malayalam ("മലയാളം") men shalaka lipi malayalam bhasha mukhyatah dakshin-pashchimi tatiy rajy keral men boli jati hai, yah keral aur kendrashasit pradesh lakshadvip ki rajabhasha hai; lekin simavarti karnatak aur tamilanadu ke dvibhashi samuday ke log bhi yah bhasha bolate hain. lagabhag tin karod sath lakh
manipuri is bhasha ki apani lipi hai, jise sthaniy log meiteee maek kahate hain. mukhyatah poorvottar bharat ke lie manipur rajy men boli jane vali bhasha hai. yah asam, mizoram, tripura, bangladesh aur myanmar men bhi boli jati hai. lagabhag 11 lakh 80 hazar
marathi "marathi" bhasha ko likhane ke lie devanagari aur isake pravahi svarup modi, donon lipiyon ka upayog hota hai. maharashtr ki rajabhasha hai. ise bolane ka manak svarup pune (bhootapoorv poona) shahar ki boli hai. yah bhasha gova, karnatak, gujarat men boli jati hai. kendrashasit pradeshon men yah daman aur div , aur dadara tatha nagar haveli men bhi boli jati hai. lagabhag 9 karod
nepali "nepali" yah bhasha nepal ke atirikt bharat ke sikkim, pashchim bngal, uttar-poorvi rajyon asam, manipur, arunachal pradesh, meghalay tatha uttarakhand ke anek logon ki matribhasha hai. 160 lakh
udiya udiya ("ଓରିୟା") udisa rajy ki rajabhasha 310 lakh
pnjabi pnjabi ("ਪੰਜਾਬੀ") pnjabi bhasha bharat tatha pakistan men boli jati hai. lagabhag dhaee karod
snskrit "snskrit"
sindhi sindhi bhasha mukhyat: do lipiyon men likhi jati hai, arabi-sindhi lipi bharat, pakistan lagabhag 22 lakh
tamil tamil ("தமிழ்") aitihasik roop se tamil lekhan pranali ka vikas brahmi lipi se vatte-lutatu (mude hue akshar) aur kole-luttu (lambakar akshar) ke sthaniy roopantaranon ke sath hua. tamilanadu ki rajabhasha vishvabhar men panch karod se adhik bolane valon men se lagabhag 90% bharat men.
urdoo urdoo ("اردو") ke lie farasi-arabi lipi prayukt hoti 28,600,428 bharat, pakistan
telugu telugu ("తెలుగు") andhr pradesh ki sarakari bhasha 750 lakh
bodo bodo bhasha ko bharat ke uttarapoorv, nepal aur bangladesh men rahane vale bodo log bolate hain.
dogari isaki apani lipi hai, jise dogara akhkhar ya dogare kahate hain. jammoo-kashmir rajy ki doosari mukhy bhasha lagabhag 15 lakh
maithili pahale ise mithilakshar tatha kaithi lipi men likha jata tha jo bangla aur asamiya lipiyon se milati thi par kalantar men devanagari lipika prayog hone laga . maithili bhasha uttari bihar aur nepal ke taraee ke eelaqon men boli jane vali bhasha hai. 1 se 1.2 karod log
snthali jharakhand, asam, bihar, udisa, tripura, aur pashchim bngal 10 se 30 pratishat

shiksha

1911 men bharatiy janaganana ke samay saksharata ko paribhashit karate hue kaha gaya hai ki "ek patr padh-likhakar usaka uttar de dene ki yogyata" saksharata hai.

prachin kal

Blockquote-open.gif ham yah spasht kar dena chahate hain ki bharat ne jitana rin grahan kiya hai, utana hi athava usase bhi adhik usane pradan kiya hai. bharat ke prati vishv ke rin ka saransh is prakar hai-

sampoorn dakshin-poorv eshiya ko apani adhikansh snskriti bharat se prapt huee. eesa poorv panchavin shatabdi ke prarambh men pashchimi bharat ke upaniveshi lnka men bas gaye, jinhonne ashok ke rajyakal men bauddh dharm svikar kar liya. is samay tak kuchh bharatiy vyapari sambhavataya malaya, sumatra tatha dakshin-poorv eshiya ke any bhagon men ane jane lage the. dhire dhire unhonne sthayi apanivesh sthapit kar lie. isamen sndeh nahin ki pray: unhonne sthaniy striyon se vivah kiye. vyapariyon ke pashchat vahan brahman tatha bauddh bhikshuk pahunche aur bharatiy prabhav ne shanai: shanai: vahan ki svadeshi snskriti ko jagrat kiya. yahan tak ki chauthi shatabdi men snskrit us kshetr ki rajabhasha ho gayi aur vahan aisi mahan sabhyataen vikasit hueen jo vishal samudratatiy samrajyon ka sngathan karane tatha java men barobadoor ka buddh stoop athava kambodiya men angakor ke shaiv mndir jaise ashcharyajanak smarak nirmit karane men samarth huee. dakshin-poorv eshiya men any sanskritik prabhav chin evn islami snsar dvara anubhav kie gaye parantu sabhyata ki prarambhik prerana bharat se hi prapt huee

bharatiy itihasakar jo apane desh ke atit par garv karate hain pray: is kshetr ko 'vrihattar bharat' ka nam dete hain tatha bharatiy upaniveshon ka varnan karate hain. apane samany arth men 'upanivesh' shabd yuktisngat nahin jan padata hai phir bhi yah kaha jata hai ki pauranik ary vijeta vijay ne talavar ke bal se lnka dvip par vijay prapt ki thi. isake atirikt bharat ki sima ke bahar kisi sthayi bharatiy vijay ka koee vastavik praman upalabdh nahin hai. bharatiy upanivesh shantipriy the aur un kshetron ke bharatiy nripati svadeshi senapati the. jinhonne bharat se hi sari shiksha grahan ki thi.- basham [51] Blockquote-close.gif

bharat men lambe samay se likhit bhasha ka astitv hai, kintu pratyaksh soochana ke abhav ke karan isaka sntoshajanak vikas nahin hua. hadappa aur mohanajodado ki lekhan chitralipi tin hazar varsh eesa poorv aur bad ki hai. yadyapi abhi tak is lipi ko padha nahin ja saka hai, tathapi isase yah spasht hai ki bharatiyon ke pas kee shatabdiyon pahale se hi ek likhit bhasha thi aur yahan ke log padh aur likh sakate the. hadappa aur ashok ke kal ke bich men pandrah sau varshon ka aisa samay raha hai, jisamen ki koee likhit praman nahin milata. lekin panini ne us samay bharatiyon ke dvara boli jane vali vibhinn bhashaon ka ullekh kiya hai. buddh ke samay men aur unase bhi pahale is desh men bhasha ke 60 se bhi adhik roopon ko jana jata tha tatha shakyamuni ne lekhan ki ek paddhati ki shiksha di thi. bharat ke ek rashtr ke roop men vikasit hone se pahale snskrit bhasha ekata ka mahattvapoorn karak thi. yadi yah man bhi liya jae ki us samay desh ki sampoorn abadi ki ek tihaee se zyada oonchi jatiyon ki abadi nahin thi to bhi yah mana ja sakata hai ki ashok ke samay men bharat men do karod se zyada log shikshit the (yah manate hue ki us samay ki janasnkhya men lagabhag 1/5 chhoti ayu vale bachche the tatha sabhi ladakiyan shiksha prapt nahin kar rahi thin). yah snkhya bahut adhik pratit nahin hoti, kyonki us bharat ki janasnkhya poori manavata ke ek-tihaee ke lagabhag thi. atah us samay ke shikshit logon ki snkhya isase adhik rahi hogi aur yah us samay ki sabase kam snkhya hi mani ja sakati hai. arambh men mahilaon ke lie bhi shiksha anivary thi, lekin samay ke sath unaki vivah ayu kam hoti gee aur is vajah se mahilaon ki shiksha men badha aee, use pratibandhit kar diya gaya.[52]

saltanat kal

alag-alag bhashaon aur lipiyon men likhe ge ashok ke prasiddh shasanadesh bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men shilalekh ke roop men the. ye shasanadesh janata ko sambodhit the, jisaka matalab hai ki janata unhen padh evn samajh sakati thi. uttar bharat ki muslim vijay bhi ek nishchit sima tak saksharata aur shiksha men kami ane ke lie uttaradayi hai. yadi ham yuddhon ke evn tanavon ke ghatak parinamon ka ullekh n karen to bhi bharat men islam ki vijay se ek sima tak janata ki shiksha men giravat aee, jo pahale mahilaon ke karan likh evn padh sakate the. vaidik yug men ek kanya ki vivah ki ayu 16 se 18 varsh thi; 12vin sadi men yah ayu 12-14 ho gee aur age chalakar to yah 7-9 ho gee, isaka parinam yah hua ki mahilaon ke lie to shiksha ke daravaze band hi kar diye ge.

aupanivesh kal

shiksha ki yooropiy shaili sthapit karane ke bad desh ke bajat ka keval 1.7% shiksha par kharch kiya gaya. yah upaniveshakalin bharat men shiksha ki sthiti ko batane ke lie paryapt hai ki us samay lokapriy shiksha ka star kya tha. "turki sarakar ke apavad ko chhodakar yoorop men ek bhi sarakar aisi nahin thi, jo lok-shiksha par itani kam rashi vyay karane vali ho."

kramavar vikas

bharat men shiksha ke prati rujhan prachin kal se hi dekhane ko milati hai. prachin kal men gurukulon, ashramon tatha bauddh mathon men shiksha grahan karane ki vyavastha hoti thi. tatkalin shiksha kendron men nalanda, takshashila evn vallabhi ki ganana ki jati hai. madhy kal men shiksha madarason men pradan ki jati thi. mugal kal men prathamik shiksha ‘maqatav’ men di jati thi aur uchch shiksha madarason men di jati thi. shiksha ke yahi do roop the, prathamik aur uchch arthat madhyamik shiksha nahin thi. mugal shasakon ne dilli, ajamer, lakhanoo evn agara men madarason ka nirman karavaya.

  • bharat men adhunik v pashchaty shiksha ki shuruat british eest indiya kampani ke shasan kal se huee. 1813 ee. ke chartar men sarvapratham bharatiy shiksha ke prachar-prasar ke lie ek lakh rupaye ki vyavastha ki gee.
  • lok shiksha ke lie sthapit samany samiti ke das sadasyon men do dal ban gaye the. ek angl ya pashchaty vidya ka samarthak tha to doosara prachy vidya ka. prachy vidya ke samarthakon ka netritv lok shiksha samiti ke sachiv ech.ti. prinsep ne kiya jabaki inaka samarthan samiti ke mntri ech.ech. vilsan ne kiya. ‘adhomukhi nisyndan siddhant’, jisaka arth tha- shiksha samaj ke uchch varg ko di jaye, ko sarvapratham sarakari niti ke roop men akalaind ne lagoo kiya. ‘vud dispaich’ ke pahale tak is siddhant ke tahat bharatiyon ko shikshit kiya gaya.
  • bord aauph kantrol ke pradhan charls vud ne 19 julaee, 1854 ko bharatiy shiksha par ek vyapak yojana prastut ki jise ‘vud ka dispaich’ kaha jata hai.
  • vud ke ghoshana-patr dvara shiksha ke kshetr men huee pragati ki samiksha hetu 1882 ee. men sarakar ne dablyoo. hntar ki adhyakshata men ek ayog ki niyukti ki is ayog men 8 sadasy bharatiy the. ayog ko prathamik evn madhyamik shiksha ki samiksha tak hi simit kar diya gaya tha.
  • 1917 ee. men kalakatta vishvavidyalay ki samasyaon ke adhyayan ke lie daau. em.ee. saidalar ke netritv men ek ayog gathit kiya gaya.
  • 1929 ee. men ‘bharatiy pariniti ayog ne sar philip hartog ke netritv men shiksha ke vikas par riport hetu ek sahayak samiti ka gathan kiya gaya. samiti ne prathamik shiksha ke mahattv ki bat ki. hartog samiti ki sipharish ke adhar par 1935 men ‘kendriy shiksha salahakar bord’ ka punargathan kiya gaya.
  • vardha yojana ko kee namon se jana jata hai yatha- buniyadi shiksha, besik shiksha adi. gandhiji dvara 1937 ee. men vardha namak sthan par is yojana ka sootrapat hua. isamen shiksha ke madhyam se hast utpadan karyon ko mahattv diya gaya. isamen balak apani matribhasha ke dvara 7 varsh tak adhyayan karata tha.
  • 1944 ee. men kendriy shiksha salahakar mandal ne ‘sarjent yojana’ (sarjent bharat sarakar men shiksha salahakar the) ke nam se ek rashtriy shiksha yojana prastut ki. isamen 6 se 11 varsh ke bachchon ke lie ni:shulk anivary shiksha diye jane ki vyavastha ki gee thi.
  • daau. sarvapalli radhakrishnan ki adhyakshata men san 1948-49 men uchch shiksha ke sujhav ke lie radhakrishnan ayog ka gathan kiya gaya.
  • 1953 ee. men radhakrishnan ayog ki sipharishon ko kriyanvit karane ke lie vishvavidyalay anudan ayog ki sthapana ki gayi.
  • mudaliyar ya madhyamik shiksha ayog ka gathan san 1952-53 men hua. isane madhyamik shiksha ke lie sujhav die.
  • daau. di.es. kothari ki adhyakshata men julaee 1964 ee. men kothari ayog ki niyukti ki gee. isane prathamik shiksha, madhyamik shiksha aur uchch arthat vishvavidyalay shiksha ke lie mahattvapoorn snstutiyan ya sujhav diye.
bharatiy itihas ke vibhinn yugon men saksharata[52]
kal kul janasnkhya (das lakh men) shikshit (das lakh men) kul pratishat shikshit purush % shikshit mahila %
prachin bharat
(300 ee.poo. se 300 eesavi)
120 20 17 27 7
madhyakalin bharat
(1200 eesavi)
100 9 9 15 3
upaniveshakakal bharat
(1900 tak)
300 18 6 11 0.6
adhunik bharat (1961) 439 105 24 34 13
adhunik bharat (1971) 548 161 29 40 18
adhunik bharat (1981) 634 238 36 47 25
upaniveshakalin janagananaon men das varsh se adhik ayu varg men shiksha ankade[52]
janaganana varsh kul janasnkhya purush mahilaen
1891 6.1 11.4 0.5
1901 6.2 11.5 0.7
1911 7.0 12.6 1.1
1921 8.3 14.2 1.9
1931 9.2 15.4 2.4


samachar-patron ka itihas

samachar patr prakashan sthal bhasha
pramukh hindi samachar patr
dainik jagaran kanapur, banaras, patana, lakhanoo, merath, gorakhapur hindi
janasatta kalakatta, dilli, munbee, chndigadh hindi
navabharat taims dilli, munbee hindi
hindustan banaras, patana, lakhanoo, dilli, mujaphpharapur hindi
pnjab kesari dilli, jalndhar hindi
pratap dilli hindi
vishvamitr kalakatta, dilli, munbee, patana, kanapur hindi
vir arjun dilli hindi
rashtriy sahara lakhanoo, dilli, gorakhapur hindi
amar ujala agara, bareli, merath hindi
amrit prabhat ilahabad, lakhanoo hindi
aj banaras, patana, gorakhapur hindi
rajasthan patrika jayapur, bngalaur hindi
nee duniya jayapur, indaur hindi
dainik bhaskar bhopal hindi
pramukh angrezi samachar patr
taims aauph indiya patana, ahamadabad, lakhanoo, dilli, munbee angrezi
hindustan taims dilli, patana angrezi
d hindoo chennee, koyambatoor, dilli, haidarabad angrezi
indiyan eksapres dilli, munbee, chennee, lakhanoo, maduraee, vijayabada, ahamadabad angrezi
d hitavad nagapur angrezi
phainenshiyal eksapres munbee angrezi
payaniyar dilli, kanapur, lakhanoo, angrezi
ikonaaumik taims munbee angrezi
stetsamain nee dilli, kalakatta angrezi
svatntr bharat lakhanoo angrezi
amrit bazar patrika kalakatta angrezi
asam tribyoon guvahati angrezi
tribyoon ambala, chndigadh angrezi
d teligraph kalakatta angrezi
paitriyat dilli angrezi
naaudarn indiya lakhanoo, ilahabad angrezi
dakkan kraaunikal bngalaur angrezi
heraauld kraaunikal bngalaur angrezi
pramukh any samachar patr
blitj munbee marathi
samana munbee marathi
hindustan staindard kalakatta bangla
nootan asamiya guvahati asamiya
akali patrika jalandhar pnjabi
dinamani maduraee, chitoo ratamil
matharoobhoomi kojikod malayalam
matribhoomi, samaj, prajatntr katak udiya
snvad bhuvaneshvar
tej dilli urdoo
dinavandi madurai, chennee, koyambatoor tamil
dinamalar chennee, madurai tamil
malayala manorama tiruvanntapuram malayalam

yooropiy logon ke bharat men pravesh ke sath hi samacharon evn samachar patron ke itihas ki shuruat hoti hai. bharat men priting pres lane ka shrey purtagaliyon ko diya jata hai. 1557 ee. men gova ke kuchh padari logon ne bharat ki pahali pustak chhapi. 1684 ee. men eest indiya kampani ne bhi bharat men priting pres (mudranalay) ki sthapana ki. bharat men pahala samachar patr kampani ke ek asntusht sevak volts ne 1766 ee. men nikalane ka prayas kiya, par vah asaphal raha. bharat men pratham samachar-patr nikalane ka shrey jems agastas hikki ko mila. usane 1780 ee. men bngal ke gajat (Bangal Guzette) ka prakashan kiya, kintu kampani sarakar ki alochana ke karan usaka pres jabt kar liya gaya. is dauran kuchh any angrezi akhabaron ka prakashan hua-bngal men kalakatta kairiyar, eshiyatik mirar, orinyatal star, madras men madras kairiyar, madras gajat, bambee men herald, banbe gajat adi. 1818 ee. men british vyapari jems silk barkigham ne 'kalakatta janaral' ka sampadan kiya. barkigham hi vah pahala prakashak tha, jisane pres ko janata ke pratibimb ke svaroop men prastut kiya. pres ka adhunik roop usi ki den hai.

hikki tatha barkigham ka patrakarita ke itihas men mahattvapoorn sthan hai. in donon ne tatasth patrakarita evn svatntr lekhan ka udaharan prastut kar patrakaron ko patrakarita ki or akarshit kiya. pahala bharatiy angrezi samachar-patr 1816 ee. men gngadhar bhattachary dvara bngal gajat nam se nikala gaya. yah saptahik samachar-patr tha. 1818 ee. men marshamain ke netritv men bngali bhasha men digdarshan masik patr prakashit hua. yah alpakalik siddh hua. isi samay marshamain ke sampadan men ek saptahik samachar-patr samachar darpan prakashit kiya gaya. 1821 ee. men bngali bhasha men saptahik samachar patr snvad kaumudi ka prakashan hua. is samachar-patr ka prabandh raja ramamohan ray ke hathon men tha. raja ramamohan ray ne samajik tatha dharmik vicharon ke virodhasvaroop samachar chandrika ka march, 1822 men prakashan kiya. isake atirikt ray ne aprail, 1822 men farasi bhasha men miratul akhabar evn angrezi bhasha men brahmanikal maingazin ka prakashan kiya.

samachar-patr par lagane vale pratibandh ke antargat 1799 ee. men velejali dvara patron ka patrekshan adhiniyam (The Censorship of the Press Act) aur jaaun edams dvara 1823 ee. men anugypti niyam lagoo kiye gaye. edams dvara samachar patron par lage pratibandh ke karan raja ramamohan ray ka miratul akhabar band ho gaya. 1830 ee. men raja ramamohan ray dvara, dvarakanath taigor evn prasann kumar taigor ke prayason se bngali bhasha men bngadoot ka prakashan arambh hua. bambee se 1831 ee. men gujarati bhasha men jame jamashed tatha 1851 ee. men rast gauftar evn akhabare saudagar ka prakashan hua.

laaurd viliyam baitink pratham gavarnar janaral tha, jisane pres ki svatntrata ke prati udaravadi drishtikan apanaya. karyavahak gavarnar janaral charls metakaph ne 1823 ee. ke pratibandh ko hatakar samachar-patron ko mukti dilayi. ise bharatiy samachar-patron ka muktidata bhi kaha jata hai. maikale ne bhi pres ki svatntrata ka samarthan kiya. 1857-58 ke vidroh ke bad bharat men samachar patron ko bhashaee adhar ke bajay prajatiy adhar par vibhajit kiya gaya. angrezi samachar-patron evn bharatiy samachar-patron ke drishtikon men antar hota tha. jahan angrezi samachar-patron ko bharatiy samachar-patron ki apeksha dher sari suvidhayen upalabdh thin, vahin bharatiy samachar-patron par pratibandh laga tha.

bharatiy kala

bharatiy kala apani prachinata tatha vivadhata ke lie vikhyat rahi hai. aj jis roop men 'kala' shabd atyant vyapak aur bahuarthi ho gaya hai, prachin kal men usaka ek chhota hissa bhi n tha. yadi aitihasik kal ko chhod aur pichhe pragaitihasik kal par drishti dali jae to vibhinn nadiyon ki ghatiyon men puratattvavidon ko khudaee men mile asnkhy pashan upakaran bharat ke adi manushyon ki kalatmak pravrittiyon ke sakshat praman hain. patthar ke tukade ko vibhinn takanikon se vibhinn prayojanon ke anuroop svaroop pradan kiya jata tha. hastakulhade, khurachani, chhidrak, takshiniyan tatha bedhak adi pashan-upakaran sirf upayogita ki drishti se hi mahattvapoorn nahin the, balki unaka kalatmak paksh bhi gyatavy hai. jaise-jaise manushy sabhy hota gaya usaki jivan shaili ke sath-sath usaka kala paksh bhi mazaboot hota gaya. jahan par ek or mridabhannd, bhavan tatha any upayogi samanon ke nirman men vriddhi huee vahin par doosari or abhooshan, moorti kala, muhar nirman, gufa chitrakari adi ka bhi vikas hota gaya. bharat ke uttar-pashchimi bhag men vikasit saindhav sabhyata (hadappa sabhyata) bharat ke itihas ke prarambhik kal men hi kala ki paripakvata ka sakshath praman hai. khudaee men lagabhag 1,000 kendron se prapt is sabhyata ke avasheshon men anek aise tathy samane aye hain, jinako dekhakar barabar hi man yah manane ka badhy ho jata hai ki hamare poorvaj sachamuch uchch koti ke kalakar the.

vishv virasat soochi (yoonesko) men shamil bharatiy dharohar
kram dharohar ghoshana varsh
1 agara ka lalaqila 1983
2 ajanta ki guphaen 1983
3 elora guphaen 1983
4 tajamahal 1983
5 mahabalipuram ke smarak 1984
6 konark ka soory mndir 1984
7 kajirnga rashtriy udyan 1985
8 kevaladev neshanal park 1985
9 manas senkchuri 1985
10 gova ke charch 1986
11 fatehapur sikari 1986
12 hampi avashesh 1986
13 khajuraho mndir 1986
14 eliphenta ki guphaen 1987
15 chol mndir 1987-2004
16 pattadakal ke smarak 1987
17 sundaravan neshanal park 1987
18 nnda devi aur phoolon ki ghati 1988-2005
19 sanchi ka stoop 1989
20 humayoon ka maqabara 1993
21 qutub minar 1993
22 maunten relave 1999-2005
23 bodhagaya ka mahabodhi mndir 2002
24 bhimabetaka ki guphaen 2003
25 champaner-pavaragadh park 2004
26 chhatrapati shivaji tarminas 2004
27 dilli ka lal qila 2007
28 rigved ki pandulipiyan 2007

aitihasik kal men bharatiy kala men aur bhi paripakvata aee. maury kal, kushan kal aur phir gupt kal men bharatiy kala nirantar pragati karati gee. ashok ke vibhinn shilalekh, stambhalekh aur stambh kalatmak drishti se atyant mahattvapoorn hain. saranath sthit ashok sh‍tamh‍bh aur usake char sinh v dharm chakr yukt shirsh bharatiy kala ka utkrisht namoona hai. kushan kal men vikasit gandhar aur mathura kalaon ki shreshthata jagajahir hai. gupt kal sirf rajanitik aur arthik drishti se hi sampann nahin tha, kalatmak drishti se bhi vah atyant sampann tha. tabhi to itihasakaron ne use prachin bharatiy itihas ka 'svarn yug' kaha hai. poorv madhyayug men nirmit vishalakay mandir, qile tatha moortiyan tatha uttar madhyayug ke islamik tatha bharatiy kala ke sngam se yukt anek bhavan, chitr tatha any kalatmak vastuen bharatiy kala ki amooly dharohar hain. adhunik yug men bharatiy kala par pashchaty kala ka prabhav pada. usaki vishay vastu, prastutikaran ke tariqe tatha bhavabhivyakti men vividhata evn jatilata aee. adhunik kala apane kalatmak paksh ke sath-sath upayogita paksh ko bhi sath lekar chal rahi hai. yadyapi bharat ke dirghakalik itihas men kee aise kal bhi aye, jabaki kala ka hras hone laga, athava vah apane marg se bhatakati pratit huee, parantu samany taur par yah dekha gaya ki bharatiy janamanas kala ko apane jivan ka ek ansh manakar chala hai. vah kala ka vikas aur nirman nahin karata, balki kala ko jita hai. usaki jivan shaili aur jivan ka har kary kala se paripoorn hai. yadi ek samany bharatiy ki jivanacharya ka adhyayan kiya jay to, spasht hota hai ki usake jivan ka har ek pahaloo kala se paripoorn hai. jivan ke dainik kriya-kalapon ke bich usake pooja-path, utsav, parv-tyohar, shadi-vivah ya any ghatanaon se vividh kalaon ka ghanisht sambandh hai. isilie bharat ki charcha tab tak apoorn mani jaegi, jab tak ki usake kala paksh ko shamil n kiya jay. prachin bharatiy granthon men 64 kalaon ka ullekh milata hai, jinaka gyan pratyek susnskrit nagarik ke lie anivary samajha jata tha. isilie bhartrihari ne to yahan tak kah dala 'sahity, sngit, kala vihinah sakshath pashuah puchchhavishanahinah.' arthath sahity, sngit aur kala se vihin vyakti pashu ke saman hai.

'kala' shabd ki utpatti kalh dhatu men achh tatha tapoo pratyay lagane se huee hai (kalh+achh+tapoo), jisake kee arth hain—shobha, alnkaran, kisi vastu ka chhota ansh ya chandrama ka solahavan ansh adi. vartaman men kala ko angrezi ke 'art' shabd ka upayog samajha jata hai, jise panch vidhaon—sngitakala, moortikala, chitrakala, vastukala aur kavyakala men vargikrit kiya jata hai. in panchon ko sammilit roop se lalit kalaen kaha jata hai. vasvat men kala manava mastishk evn atma ki uchchatam evn prakharatam kalpana v bhavon ki abhivyakti hi hai, isilie kalayukt koee bhi vastu barabas hi snsar ka dhyan apani or akrisht kar leti hai. sath hi vah unhen prasannachitt evn ahaladit bhi kar deti hai. vastav men yah kalaen vyakti ki atma ko jhnjhodane ki kshamata rakhati hain. yah ukti ki bharatiy sngit men vah jadoo tha ki dipak rag ke gayan se dipak prajjavalit ho jata tha tatha pashu-pakshi apani sudh-budh kho baithate the, kitana saty hai, yah kahana to kathin hai, lekin itana to saty hai ki bharatiy sngit ya kala ka har paksh itana sashakt hai ki snvedanavihin vyakti men bhi vah snvedana ke tivr udveg ko utpann kar sakata hai.

bharatiy sngit

vady vadak
pramukh vady yntr evn kalakar
sitar pndit ravishnkar, nikhil bainarji, vilayat khan, bnde hasan, shahid paravej, umashnkar mishr, buddhadity mukharji adi.
tabala alla rakkha khan, gudee maharaj, (pn. samata prasad) zakir husain, latif khan, kishan maharaj, fayyar khan, sukhavindar sinh adi.
bansuri pannalal ghosh, hari prasad chaurasiya, vi. kunjamani, en. nila, rajendr prasanna, rajendr kulakarni adi.
sarod amajad ali khan‎, ali akabar khan, alauddin khan, vishvajit ray chaudhari, zarin daroovala, buddhadev das gupta, mukesh sharma adi.
vayalin daau. en. rajan, vishnu govind jog, el. subrahmanyamh, sngita rajan, kunakkadi vaidyanathan, ti. en. krishnanh adi.
vina es. balachndran, kalyan krishn bhagavatar, badarooddin dagar, vi. doresvami ayngar adi.
shahanaee bismilla khan, dayashnkar jagannath, ali ahamad husain khan adi.
sntoor shivakumar sharma, bhajan sopari adi.
pakhavaj gopal das, ustad rahaman khan, chhatrapati sinh, thakur lakshman sinh adi.
rudravina asad ali khan, ustad sadik ali khan adi.
mridng paladhar raghu, thakur bhikam sinh, daau. jagadish sinh adi.

sngit manaviy lay evn talabaddh abhivyakti hai. bharatiy sngit apani madhurata, layabaddhata tatha vividhata ke lie jana jata hai. vartaman bharatiy sngit ka jo roop drishtigat hota hai, vah adhunik yug ki prastuti nahin hai, balki yah bharatiy itihas ke prasambh ke sath hi juda hua hai. baidik kal men hi bharatiy sngit ke bij pad chuke the. samaved un vaidik richaon ka sngrah matr hai, jo gey hain. prachin kal se hi eeshvar aradhana hetu bhajanon ke prayog ki parampara rahi hai. yahan tak ki ygyadi ke avasar par bhi samoohagan hote the.

bharatiy sngit ki utpatti

bharatiy sngit ki utpatti vedon se mani jati hai. vadon ka mool mntr hai - 'oon' (oamh) . (oamh) shabd men tin akshar a, u tatha mh sammilit hain, jo kramashah brahma arthath srishtikarta, vishnu arthath jagath palak aur mahesh arthath snharak ki shaktiyon ke dyotak hain. in tinon aksharon ko rigved, samaved tatha yajurved se liya gaya hai. sngit ke sat svar shadaj (sa), rishabh (r), gandhar (ga) adi vastav men oon (oamh) ya onkar ke hi antavirbhag hain. sath hi svar tatha shabd ki utpatti bhi oon ke garbh se hi huee hai. mukh se uchcharit shabd hi sngit men nad ka roop dharan kar leta hai. is prakar 'oon' ko hi sngit ka jagat mana jata hai. isilie kaha jata hai ki jo sadhak 'oon' ki sadhana karane men samarth hota hai, vahi sngit ko yatharth roop men grahan kar sakata hai. yadi darshanik drishti se isaka goodharth nikala jay, to isaka tatparth yahi hai ki oon arthath sampoorn srishti ka ek ansh hamari atma men nihit hai aur sngit usi atma ki avaz hai, antah sngit ki utpatti hridayagat bhavon men hi mani jati hai.

bharatiy sngit ke roop

prachin kal men bharatiy sngit ke do roop prachalit hue-1. margi tatha 2. deshi. kalatar men margi sngit lupt hota gaya. sath hi deshi sngity do roopon men vikasit hua- (i) shastriy sngit tatha (ii) lok sngit. shastriy sngit shastron par adharit tatha vidvanon v kalakaron ke adhyayan v sadhana ka pratiphal tha. yah atynt niyamabaddh tatha shreshth sngit tha. doosari or lok sngit kal aur sthan ke anuroop prakriti ke svachchhand vatavaran men svabhavik roop se palata hua vikasit hota raha, atah yah adhik vividhatapoorn tatha halka-phulka v chittakarshak hai.

bharatiy sngit ke vividh ang

sngit se sambndhit kuchh moolabhoot tathyon ko janakar hi sngit ki barikiyon ko samajha ja sakata hai. dhvani, svar, lay, tal adi isake antargat ate hain.

nrity kala

bharat men nrity ki anek shailiyan hain. bharatanatyam , odisi , kuchipudi , kathakali ,manipuri , kathak adi parnparagat nrity shailiyan hain to bhngada , gidda , naga , bihoo adi lokaprachalit nrity hai. ye nrity shailiyan poore desh men vikhyat hai. gujarat ka garaba hariyana men bhi mncho ki shobha ko badhata hai aur pnjab ka bhngada dakshin bharat men bhi bade shauq se dekha jata hai ! bharat ke sngit ko vikasit karane men amir khusaro, tanasen, baijoo bavara jaise sngitakaron ka vishesh yogadan raha hai. aj bharat ke sngit-kshitij par bismilla khan‎, zakir husain , ravi shnkar saman roop se sammanit hain.

vividh nrity kala

nataraj birajoo maharaj bihoo nrity, asam odisi nrity, udisa kathakali nrity, keral ghumar nrity, rajasthan manipuri nrity, manipur bhangada nrity, pnjab garaba nrity, gujarat kuchi pudi nrity, andhr pradesh rasalila charakula nrity

bharatiy moortikala

any kalaon ke saman hi bharatiy moortikala bhi atyant prachin hai. yadyapi pashan kal men bhi manav apane pashan upakaranon ko kushalatapoorvak kat-chhantakar vishesh akar deta tha aur patthar ke tukade se phalak nikalate hetu 'dabav' takanik ya patakakar todane ki takanik ka istemal karane laga tha, parantu bharat men moortikala apane vastavik roop men hadappa sabhyata ke dauran hi astitv men aee. is sabhyata ki khudaee men anek moortiyan prapt huee hain jo lagabhag 4000 varsh poorv hi bharat men moorti nirman takanik ke vikas ka dyotak hain. bharatiy moorti kala ki pramukh shailiyan is prakar hain-

  1. sindhu ghati sabhyata ki moorti kala
  2. maury moortikala
  3. mauryottar moortikala
  4. gandhar kala ki moortiyan
  5. mathura kala ki moortiyan
  6. guptakal ki moortikala
  7. bakatak ki moortikala
  8. madhyakal ki bharatiy moortikala
  9. chol moortikala
  10. adhunik moortikal

snskriti

tyohar aur mele

tyohar aur mele bharatiy snskriti ke abhinn ang hain. yah bhi kah sakate hain ki bharatiy snskriti apane hriday ke madhury ko tyohar aur melon men vyakt karati hai, to adhik sarthak hoga. bharatiy snskriti prem, sauhardr, karuna, maitri, daya aur udarata jaise manaviy gunon se paripoorn hai. yah ullas, utsah aur vikas ko ek sath samete hue hai. anand aur madhury to jaise isake pran hain. yahan har kary anand ke sath shuroo hota hai aur madhury ke sath sampann hota hai. bharat jaise vishal dharmapran desh men astha aur vishvas ke sath mil kar yahi anand aur ullas tyohar aur melon men phoot padata hai. tyohar aur mele hamari dharmik asthaon, samajik paramparaon aur arthik avashyakataon ki triveni hai, jinamen samoocha janamanas bhavavibhor hokar gote lagata hai. yahi karan hai ki jitane tyohar aur mele bharat men manaye jate hain, vishv ke kisi any desh men nahin. is drishti se yadi bharat ko tyohar aur melon ka desh kaha jae to atishyokti nahin hogi. himachal se lekar sudoor dakshin tak aur asam se lekar maharashtr tak vrat, parvon, tyoharon aur melon ki avichchhinn parampara vidyaman hai, jo poore varsh anavarat chalati rahati hai. inhen bhi dekhen: vrat aur utsav

bharatiy bhojan

bhojan ke vividh roop
kashmiri gobhi pnjabi rajama chaval braj ka khana rajasthani khana gujarati khana marathi khana konkani (gova) ka khana keral ka khana chennee ka khana haidarabadi birayani shakahari-birayani poorvottar ka khana
parnparik kshetriy bhojan
kram kshetriy bhojan bhojan
1 kashmir yakhani, kashmiri pulav, gushtava, kashmiri gobhi
2 pnjab sarason ka sag, makke ki roti, rajama- chaval, tndoori murga, dal makhani, chhole bhatoore
3 braj poori- sabji, parantha (sada, bharavan), roti (ata, bajara, missi), dal (udad), chat, kachaudi (dal, aloo), dahi bade, mithaee, khir, halava (gajar, moong dal, laauki, sooji), pua, rabadi
4 rajasthan- gujarat dal bati, choorama, papad ki sabzi, gatte ki kadhi
5 gujarat dhokala, khandavi, lapsi, baphala, thepala, poha
6 marathi vada pav, shrikhnd, bhelapoori, pooran poli
7 konkani (goani) dhanasak, vindaloo
8 keral appam, aviyal, phish moli, upama, uttapam
9 chennee idali, sanbhar, dosa, maisoor pak
10 haidarabad haidarabadi birayani, dal gosht
11 avadh dam pukht, birayani, kakori kabab, shami kabab, malaee gilauri, dal (arahar)
12 poorvottar momo, thupaka, phish tenga
13 poorvi bharat bhappa ilish, machh jhol, roshogulla, sndesh (mithaee)

bharatiy bhojan svad aur sugndh ka madhur sngam hai. pooran poori ho ya dal bati, tndoori roti ho ya shahi pulav, pnjabi bhojan ho ya maravadi bhojan, zikr chahe jis kisi ka bhi ho raha ho, keval nam sunane se hi bhookh jag uthati hai. bharat men pakavanon ki vividhata bhi bahut adhik hai. rajasthan men dal-bati, kolakata men chaval-machhali, pnjab men roti-sag, dakshin men idali-dosa. itani vividhata ke bich ekata ka praman yah hai ki aj dakshin bharat ke log dal-roti usi shauq se khate hain, jitane shauq se uttar bharatiy idali-dosa khate hain. sachamuch bharat ek rngabirnga guladasta hai.

bharatiy snskriti men bhojan pakane ko pak kala kaha gaya hai arthath bhojan banana ek kala hai. bharatiy bhojan to vibhinn prakar ki pak kalaon ka sngam hi hai. isamen pnjabi bhojan, maravadi bhojan, dakshin bharatiy bhojan, shakahari bhojan (niramish), mansahari (samish) bhojan adi sabhi sammilit hain. bharatiy bhojan ki sabase badi visheshata to yah hai ki apako kee prakar ke bhojan n bhi milen to bhi apako am ka achar ya niboo ka achar ya phir tamatar ki chatani se bhi bharapoor svad prapt hota hai.

bharatiy bhojan ke prakar

  1. shakahari bhojan (niramish)- shakahari bhojan vah bhojan hai jisamen mans, machhali, aur ande ka prayog nahin hota hai.
  2. mansahari bhojan (samish)- mansahari bhojan vah bhojan hai jisamen mans, machhali, aur ande ka prayog hota hai.

paryatan

tajamahal indiya get lal qila kamal mndir getave aauf indiya aksharadham mndir charaminar viktoriya memoriyal kutub minar jama masjid dilli sanchi svarn mndir

bharatavasi apani dirghakalin, anavarat evn satarngi upalabdhiyon se yukt itihas par garv kar sakate hain. prachin kal se hi bharat ek atyant hi vividhata sampann desh raha hai aur yah visheshata aj bhi samay ki ghadi par ankit hai. yahan prarambh se anek adhyavasayon ka anusaran hota raha hai, prithakh-prithakh manyataen hain, logon ke rivaz aur drishtikonon ke vibhinn rngon se saza yah desh atit ko bhoot, vartaman evn bhavishy ki ankhon se dekhane ke lie ahvan kar raha hai. kintu bahurngi sabhyata evn snskriti vale desh ke sabhi ayamon ko samajhane ka prayas itana asan nahin hai.

aitihasik sthal

buddh stoop, sanchi sherashah soori ka maqabara gvaliyar ka qila bada imamabada fatehapur sikari, agara basilik charch, gova khajuraho, madhy pradesh jaisalamer ka qila, jaisalamer ambar qila jahangir mahal, orachha jahahz mahal, mandoo

hamen yah nahin bhoolana chahie ki bharat men itane adhik vichar evn drishtikon keval isilie phal-phool paen hain ki yahan vaicharik vividhata aur vad-snvad ko prayah sarv- sahamati prapt rahi hai. bharat ki vividhata hamen sthalon ke anushilan men bhi dikhaee deti hai. aitihasik sthalon ke adhyayan tatha vivechan men bharatiy snskriti ka svaroop svayn prakashit hota hai. isase itihas ke bikhare sootron ki prabhavi roop se talash snbhav hai. yah bhi ullekhaniy hai ki nagar evn nagar-jivan ke vikas ka viviran sabhyata ke vikas ka pradhan sootr hai. rajanitik aur arthik pragati tatha shilp, kala evn vidya ka bahumukhi vikas ke sath hi sampann hua hai.

prachin dharmik sthal

prachin kal se hi bhavy devalayon aur dharm sthalon se bharapoor bharat sthapaty kala ke lie vishv prasiddh hai.

soory mndir konark viroopaksh mndir hampi brihadeshvar mndir tnjaur hampi karnatak rameshvar jyotirling kailashanath mandir ajnta guphaen govind dev mandir vrindavan mahabodhi mndir, bodhagaya

dharmik sthal

anek dharm aur parnparaon se saza bharat apane bhitar hazaron dharmik sthal basae hue hai. jo poore bharat men deshi aur videshi paryatakon aur shraddhaluon ka mukhy akarshan hain.

krishn janmabhoomi dakshineshh‍var mndir vidyashnkar mndir, shrngeri pith somanath jyotirling tirupati venkateshavar mandir minakshi mndir, maduree kedaranath mndir badrinath  mndir amaranath gupha dvarikadhish mndir vishvanath mandir, varanasi



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. satyamev jayate nanritn satyen pntha vitato devayanah.
    yenakramantyrishayo hyaptakama yatr satsatyasy paramn nidhanamh॥

    mundakopanishadh tritiy mundak shlok 6
  2. 2.0 2.1 India : Census 2011
  3. Population Density per Square Mile of Countries
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (angrezi) (e.es.pi) International Monetory Fund. abhigaman tithi: 15 mee, 2012.
  5. sitambar 2006-2011 ki sthiti ke anusar
  6. prachin bharat ki snskriti aur sabhyata lekhak- damodar dharmannd kosnbi
  7. itihas karon ke anusar yah prachin bharaton ka qabila bharat hai jo uttar-pashchim men tha bharat vnshi bhi inhen hi mana jata hai
  8. pustak 'bharat ka itihas' romila thapar) prishth snkhya-19
  9. dekhen: shodh grnth vels, spensar (2002) a jenetik odisi (angrezi). prinsatan yoonivarsiti pras, nyoo jarsi, sn.ra.amarika. ISBN 0-691-11532-X.
  10. pustak 'bharat ka itihas' romila thapar) prishth snkhya-23
  11. (vishv ka 2.2% vishv men 7van sthan)
  12. ekadam dakshini bhag ki bhoomadhy rekha se doori
  13. uttar men himalay parvatamala se lage hue chin, nepal tatha bhootan, poorv men parvatiy shrrinkhala se alag hua myanmar tatha poorv men hi bangladesh, pashchim men pakistan evn afaganistan tatha dakshin men hind mahasagar, bngal ki khadi evn arab sagar.
  14. dvipon sahit samudri sima ki kul lnbaee
  15. sthaliy sima ki lnbaee
  16. snghashasit kshetron ki snkhya
  17. bngal ki khadi men dvipon ki snkhya- 204, arab sagar men dvipon ki snkhya- 43.
  18. ve rajy jinase hokar kark rekha gujarati hai
  19. sarvadhik nagariy janasnkhya vala sngh shasit kshetr
  20. sabase kam nagariy janasnkhya vala sngh shasit kshetr
  21. kshetraphal ki drishti se sabase bada snghashasit kshetr
  22. pramukh sagariy machhaliyan- bataraphish, svet bet, saradain, pran, maikarel, jyoophish, ribanaphish, kaitaphish, sarnga, dara, tyoona, mulets, siyaraphish, shark, pamaphret, shrimp adi. vishv matsyayan ka- 2.7%.
  23. kul kshetraphal ka 22.7%
  24. sinchaee ke sadhan
  25. 200 semi. varshik varsha vale kshetron men bina sinchaee ke
  26. 100 se 200 semi. varsha valeai jalodh env kali mitti ke kshetron men
  27. uttar-poorvi bharat, pashchimi ghat adi kshetron men
  28. vishesh roop se himalay ke dhalon par
  29. manipur ke senapati zile ke tin upazilon ko chhodakar
  30. anusoochit jatiyon ki snkhya
  31. anusoochit janajatiyon ki snkhya
  32. ausat varshik ghatiy vriddhi dar
  33. anuchchhed 344 (1), 351, athavin anusoochi ke anusar 22 bhashaain hai jinake nam is prakar hai:- asamiya , bangla , gujarati , hindi , kannad , kashmiri , konkani , malayalam , manipuri , marathi , nepali , udiya , pnjabi , snskrit , sindhi , tamil , urdoo , telugu , bodo , dogari , maithili , snthali
  34. krishi se snbndhit kary men snlagn udyamon ka pratishat
  35. gair-krishi snbndhi karyon men snlagn udyamon ka pratishat
  36. kul udyamon ka 1.4%
  37. javahar lal neharoo antarrashtriy havaee adda (santakruj, mumbee), subhash chandr bos havaee adda (damadam- kolakata), indira gandhi antarrashtriy havaee adda (palam, dilli), minambakam havaee adda (chennee) tatha tiruvanantapuram.
  38. rachayita-gurudev ravindr nath taigor
  39. rachayita- bnkimachandr chatarji
  40. giranar ka barahavan shilalekh "ashok ke dharm lekh" se prishth sn- 31
  41. pratyek 170 kigra vajan vali miliyan ganthe
  42. pratyek 180 kigra vajan vali miliyan ganthe
  43. sampoorn vishv ka lagabhag 25% vidyaman hai.
  44. (kollar svarn kshetr tatha anantapur zile se bahut kam matra men sona nikala jata hai)
  45. lagabhag 383 karod tan
  46. (lakh tan)
  47. khadanon ki snkhya
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 desh ke kul bhndar ka pratishat
  49. 2000-01 (lakh tan)
  50. (kyoobik mitar)
  51. adbhut bharat- lekhak- e.el. basham
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 bharat ka janasnkhya moolak adhyayan, lekhak- viktar petrov
oopar jayen


snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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